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rate and meet again, disperse and form vast marshes, losing all trace of their channels in the labyrinth of waters they have themselves created ; and thus at length, after innumerable windings, fall into the Polar seas. The great lakes which bound this first region are not walled in, like most of those in the Old World, between hills and rocks. Their banks are flat, and rise but a few feet above the level of their waters; each of them thus forming a vast bowl filled to the brim. The slightest change in the structure of the globe would cause their waters to rush either towards the Pole or to the Tropical Sea. The second region is more varied on its surface, and better suited for the habitation of man. Two long chains of mountains divide it . from one extreme to the other; the Alleghany ridge takes the form of the shores of the Atlantic Ocean; the other is parallel with the Pacific. - The space which lies between these two chains of mountains contains 1,341,649 square miles.*, Its surface is therefore about six times as great as that of France. This vast territory, however, forms a single valley, one side of which descends gradually from the rounded summits of the Alleghanies, while the other rises in an uninterrupted course towards the tops of the Rocky Mountains. At the bottom of the valley flows an immense river, into which the various streams issuing from the mountains fall from all parts. In memory of their native land, the French formerly called this river the St. Louis. The Indians, in their pompous language, have named it the Father of Waters, or the Mississippi. - The Mississippi takes its source above the limit of the two great regions of which I have spoken, not far from the highest point of the table land where they unite. Near the same spot rises another river, f which empties itself into the Polar seas. The course of the Mississippi is at first devious : it winds several times towards the north, from whence it rose; and at length, after having been delayed in lakes and marshes, it flows slowly onward to the south. Sometimes quietly gliding along the argillaceous bed which nature has assigned to it; sometimes swollen by storms, the Mississippi waters 2,500 miles in its course.i. At the distance of 1,364 miles from its mouth this river attains an average depth of fifteen feet; and it is navigated by vessels of 300 tons burden for a course of nearly 500

* “Darby's View of the United States.” f Mackenzie's River. # Warden’s ‘Description of the United States.”

miles. Fifty-seven large navigable rivers contribute to swell the waters of the Mississippi; among others the Missouri, which traverses a space of 2,500 miles, the Arkansas of 1,300 miles, the Red River 1,000 miles; four whose course is from 800 to 1,000 miles in length, viz. the Illinois, the St. Peter's, the St. Francis, and the Moingona; besides a countless multitude of rivulets which unite from all parts their tributary streams. The valley which is watered by the Mississippi seems formed to be the bed of this mighty river, which like a god of antiquity dispenses both good and evil in its course. On the shores of the stream nature displays an inexhaustible fertility; in proportion as you recede from its banks, the powers of vegetation languish, the soil becomes poor, and the plants that survive have a sickly growth. Nowhere have the great convulsions of the globe left more evident traces than in the val. ley of the Mississippi: the whole aspect of the country shows the pow. erful effects of water, both by its fertility and by its barrenness. The waters of the primaeval ocean accumulated enormous beds of vegetable mould in the valley, which they levelled as they retired. Upon the right shore of the river are seen immense plains, as smooth as if the husbandman had passed over them with his roller. As you approach the mountains, the soil becomes more and more unequal and sterile; the ground is, as it were, pierced in a thousand places by primitive rocks, which appear like the bones of a skeleton whose flesh is partly consumed. The surface of the earth is covered with a granitic sand and huge irregular masses of stone, among which a few plants force their growth, and give the appearance of a green field covered with the ruins of a vast edifice. . These stones and this sand discover, on exami. nation, a perfect analogy with those which compose the arid and broken summits of the Rocky Mountains. The flood of waters which washed the soil to the bottom of the valley, afterwards carried away portions of the rocks themselves; and these, dashed and bruised against the neighboring cliffs, were left scattered like wrecks at their feet.✽ The Valley of the Mississippi is, upon the whole, the most magnificent dwelling-place prepared by God for man's abode; and yet it may be said that at present it is but a mighty desert. On the eastern side of the Alleghanies, between the base of these mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, lies a long ridge of rocks and sand, which the sea appears to have left behind as it retired. The mean

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breadth of this territory does not exceed one hundred miles; but it is about nine hundred miles in length. This part of the American continent has a soil which offers every obstacle to the husbandman, and its vegetation is scanty and unvaried. Upon this inhospitable coast the first united efforts of human industry were made. This tongue of arid land was the cradle of those English colonies which were destined one day to become the United States of America. The centre of power still remains there ; while in the backward States the true elements of the great people, to whom the future control of the continent belongs, are secretly springing up. When the Europeans first landed on the shores of the Antilles, and afterwards on the coast of South America, they thought themselves transported into those fabulous regions of which poets had sung. The sea sparkled with phosphoric light, and the extraordinary transparency of its waters discovered to the view of the navigator all that had hitherto been hidden in the deep abyss.✽ Here and there appeared little islands perfumed with odoriferous plants, and resembling baskets of flowers, floating on the tranquil surface of the ocean. Every object which met the sight, in this enchanting region, seemed prepared to satisfy the wants, or contribute to the pleasures of man. Almost all the trees were loaded with nourishing fruits, and those which were useless as food, delighted the eye by the brilliancy and variety of their colors. In groves of fragrant lemon-trees, wild figs, flowering myrtles, acacias, and oleanders, which were hung with festoons of va. rious climbing-plants, covered with flowers, a multitude of birds unknown in Europe displayed their bright plumage, glittering with pur. ple and azure, and mingled their warbling in the harmony of a world teeming with life and motion.† Underneath this brilliant exterior death was concealed. The air of these climates had so enervating an influence that man, completely absorbed by the present enjoyment, was rendered regardless of the future. North America appeared under a very different aspect: there, every thing was grave, serious, and solemn; it seemed created to be the do

* Malte Brun tells us (vol. v. p. 726,) that the water of the Caribbean sea is so transparent, that corals and fish are discernible at a depth of sixty fathoms. The ship seemed to float in the air, the navigator became giddy as his eye penetrated through the crystal flood, and beheld submarine gardens, or beds of shells, or gilded fishes gliding among tufts and thickets of sea-weed.

† See Appendix, B.

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main of intelligence, as the South was that of sensual delight. A tur.
bulent and foggy ocean washed its shores. It was girded round by a
belt of granitic rocks, or by wide plains of sand. The foliage of its
woods was dark and gloomy; for they were composed of firs, larches,
evergreen oaks, wild olive-trees, and laurels. -
Beyond this outer belt lay the thick shades of the central forests,
where the largest trees which are produced in the two hemispheres
grow side by side. The plane, the catalpa, the sugar-maple, and the
Virginian poplar, mingled their branches with those of the oak, the
beech, and the lime.
In these, as in the forests of the Old World, destruction was perpe-
tually going on. The ruins of vegetation were heaped upon each
other; but there was no laboring hand to remove them, and their de-
cay was not rapid enough to make room for the continual work of
reproduction. Climbing-plants, grasses, and other herbs forced their
way through the mass of dying trees; they crept along their bending
trunks, found nourishment in their dusty cavities, and a passage be-
neath the lifeless bark. Thus decay gave its assistance to life, and
their respective productions were mingled together. The depths of
these forests were gloomy and obscure, and a thousand rivulets, undi-
rected in their course by human industry, preserved in them a con-
stant moisture. It was rare to meet with flowers, wild fruits, or birds,
beneath their shades. The fall of a tree overthrown by age, the rush-
ing torrent of a cataract, the lowing of the buffalo, and the howling
of the wind, were the only sounds which broke the silence of nature.
To the east of the great river the woods almost disappeared; in
their stead were seen prairies of immense extent. Whether Nature in
her infinite variety had denied the germs of trees to these fertile plains,
or whether they had once been covered with forests, subsequently de-
stroyed by the hand of man, is a question which neither tradition nor
scientific research has been able to resolve.
These immense deserts were not, however, devoid of human inhabit.
ants. Soine wandering tribes had been for ages scattered among the
forest shades or the green pastures of the prairie. From the mouth
of the St. Lawrence to the Delta of the Mississippi, and from the At-
lantic to the Pacific Ocean, these savages possessed certain points of
resemblance which bore witness of their common origin : but at the
same time they differed from all other known races of men :✽ they

* With the progress of discovery, some resemblance has been found to exist between the physical conformation, the language, and the habits of the Indians of North America, and those of the Tongous, Mantchous, Moguls, Tartars, and other wandering tribes of Asia. The land occupied by these tribes is not very distant from Behring's Strait; which allows of the supposition, that at a remote period they gave inhabitants to the desert continent of America. But this is a point which has not yet been clearly elucidated by science. See Meite Brun, vol. v.; the works of Humboldt; Fischer, “Conjecture sur l'Origine des Américains'; Adair, ‘History of the American Indians.’

were neither white like the Europeans, nor yellow like most of the Asiatics, nor black like the negroes. Their skin was reddish brown, their hair long and shining, their lips thin, and their cheek-bones very prominent. The languages spoken by the North American tribes were various as far as regarded their words, but they were subject to the same grammatical rules. Those rules differed in several points from such as had been observed to govern the origin of language. The idiom of the Americans seemed to be the product of new combinations, and bespoke an effort of the understanding, of which the Indians of our days would be incapable.✽ The social state of these tribes differed also in many respects from all that was seen in the Old World. They seemed to have multiplied freely in the midst of their deserts, without coming in contact with other races more civilized than their own. Accordingly, they exhibited none of those indistinct, incoherent notions of right and wrong, none of that deep corruption of manners that is usually joined with ignorance and rudeness among nations which, after advancing to civilization, have relapsed into a state of barbarism. The Indian was indebted to no one but himself; his virtues, his vices, and his prejudices were his own work; he had grown up in the wild independence of his nature. If, in polished countries, the lowest of the people are rude and unci. vil, it is not merely because they are poor and ignorant, but that, being so, they are in daily contact with rich and enlightened men. The sight of their own hard lot and of their weakness, which are daily contrasted with the happiness and power of some of their fellowcreatures, excites in their hearts at the same time the sentiments of anger and of fear: the consciousness of their inferiority and of their dependence irritates while it humiliates them. This state of mind dis. plays itself in their manners and language; they are at once insolent and servile. The truth of this is easily proved by observation; the people are more rude in aristocratic countries than elsewhere; in opulent cities than in rural districts. In those places where the rich and powerful are assembled together, the weak and the indigent feel

* See Appendix, C.

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