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out for hire or rent. No license for the sale of November 27-Prosecutions instituted in some intoxicating liquors in quantities less than one of the courts of North Carolina for acts of war gallon, or to be drank on the premises, shall be committed during the existence of hostilities, in granted to any person other than an inn-keeper. violation of the true intent of the amnesty act
June 19-General Sickles asked to be relieved of that State of Dec. 22, 1866, were prohibited. from command of the district, and asked a court Also, ordered, that all parol “contracts, between that he might vindicate himself from the accusa | any persons whatever, whereof one or more of tion of the Attorney General.
them shall be a person of color," shall be of the August 1—The session of the Legislature of same validity, be established by the same eviNorth Carolina, elected in 1866, indefinitely dence, be determined by the same rules, and be postponed.
enforced in the same manner as in like contracts August 10—Order of May 30 suspended in its where all the parties thereto are whites. application to the superior and county courts December 3-A system of taxation estabof North Carolina, on account of the inability of lished, for the support of the provisional gov. the latter to revise the jury lists.
ernment of South Carolina for the year from August 17—The finding of a court-martial October 1, 1867, to September 30, 1868. Approconfirmed, fining the captain of a steamer $250 priations ordered for the various offices and exfor refusing a person a first-class ticket on ac- penses of the State. count of color. It was added : “So long as the December 28~The election declared to have relaws imposed civil and political disabilities be- sulted in favor of a convention; and the delegates cause of servitude or color, carriers were per- notified to meet in Charleston, January 14, 1868. mitted to enforce the same discrimination among December 31-Convention declared carried in passengers. Such disabilities and usages have North Carolina; and the delegates notified to ceased, with slavery, to have any legal sanction. | meet in Raleigh, January 14, 1868. Whatever belongs of common right to citizens, December 31-Judgments or decrees for monecessarily follows the recognition of the blacks ney, or causes of action, from May 20, 1861, to as citizens, and belongs to them."
April 20, 1865, in North Carolina, and from DeSeptember 5 The act of the Legislature of cember 19, 1860, to April 29, 1865, in South North Carolina, of March 7, 1867, " for the re- Carolina, ordered not to be enforced, &c. All lief of executors, administrators, &c.," annulled proceedings for the recovery of money for the as in violation of the Constitution of the United purchase of slaves, made after January 1, 1863, States, and in violation of the acts of Congress suspended. Proceedings in any court in either passed prohibiting all acts in aid of the late re- State, recognizing or sanctioning the investment bellion. Courts directed to dismiss judgments, of the funds of minor heirs, or females, or in. orders, and decrees, under said legislation. sane persons in the securities of the late rebel
September 5-General Canby assumed com government, or the war securities of either State, mand.
will be suspended till the validity of such inSeptember 13-General Canby ordered that all vestments shall be determined by United States citizens assessed for taxes, and who shall have courts or by additional legislation. Power to paid taxes for the current year, and who are grant licenses for the sale of liquors remitted to qualified and have been or may be duly regis- local authorities. tered as voters, are declared qualified to serve as 1868, January 14-Conventions of both States jurors. Any requirement of a property qualifi. met, and adjourned March 17. cation for jurors is hereby abrogated. The col- February 6-Ordinance of South Carolina lection of certain illegal and oppressive taxes, Convention for the collection of taxes, proimposed in parts of North and South Carolina, mulgated, and the assessors ordered to collect the was suspended.
taxes therein levied. State Treasurer authorized October 16-An election ordered in South to pay the expenses of the Convention. Carolina, November 19 and 20, for or against a February 12-Same with regard to the North “convention," and for delegates to constitute Carolina Convention. the Convention. Violence, or threats of violence, February 27—Where advances are made by or of discharge from employment, or other op. General R. K. Scott, assistant commissioner of pressive agencies against the free exercise of the Bureau of Refugees, in behalf of the Govern. right of suffrage, prohibited. All bar-rooms, ment of the United States, in aid of the desaloons, &c., ordered closed from 6 on the even pressed agriculture of South Carolina, these ad. ing of November 18 to 6 on the morning of No- vances shall be a lien upon the produce of the vember 21. Military interference, unless “ne-plantation. cessary to repel the armed enemies of the United March 13-An election to be held in South States or to keep the peace at the polls," pro- Carolina, April 14 and 16, for or against the hibited.
constitution, and on the same ballot for State October 18-A similar order issued for North officers, and Representatives in Congress, one for Carolina, fixing the election November 19 and each of the four districts and two at large. 20.
March 23-An election ordered for North October 19_Order issued suspending Hon. A. Carolina, April 21, 22, 23; regulations preP. Aldrich from the exercise of all functions as scribed. judge of the court of common pleas and gen- April 8–Quarantine of ports of South Caroeral sessions; and Gov. Orr authorized to pro- lina established. vide for holding his term of court, by assigning May 2-Constitution announced ratified by a another judge. The election of municipal offi- majority of the votes actually cast by the qualirers in Charleston forbidden.
Ified electors of South Carolina.
May 12–Constitution of North Carolina an-| August 2-No civil court will entertain any nonnced similarly ratified.
action against officers or soldiers, or others, for June 15—W. W. Holden, Governor elect of acts performed in accordance with the orders of North Carolina, called a meeting of the Legisla the military authorities. All such suits now ture for July 1.
pending to be dismissed. Third Military District-Georgia, Alabama, and
August 12–Ordered, that all advertisements Florida.
or other official publications under State or mu
nicipal authority shall be made in such news. 1867, April 4 General Pope issued an order papers only as have not opposed and do not opdirecting post commanders to report acts of local
pose reconstruction under acts of Congress, nor or State authorities or tribunals which discrim- lattempt to obstruct the civil officers appointed inate against persons on account of race, color, | by the military authorities. or political opinion.
August 19--Grand and petit jurors, and all April 8—Registration order issued. It pro- other jurors, shall hereafter be taken exclusively vides, among other sections :
from the lists of voters without discrimination, “It is desirable that in all cases the registers as registered. Sheriffs to require jurors to swear shall be civilians where it is possible to obtain that they have been registered. Jurors already such as come within the provisions of the act drawn shall take this oath or be replaced by and are otherwise suitable persons; and that those who can. military officers shall not be used for the pur- August 26—General Pope disclaimed the purpose, except in case of actual necessity.
pose to interfere with the relation of debtor and “The registers are specifically instructed to see creditor under State laws, not considering a stay that all information concerning their political law to be within his province to adjust. rights is given to all persons entitled to vote August 31-An election ordered in Alabama under the act of Congress; and they are made on a convention, and for delegates, October 1, responsible that every such legal voter has the to continue three days. opportunity to record his name.
September 19-Alike election ordered for ** Interference by violence, or threats of vio- Georgia, October 29, to continue three days. lence, or other oppressive means to prevent the October 30—Polls ordered to be kept open till registration of any voter, is positively prohib- 6 p. m., November 2. ited; and any person guilty of such interference October 5-Alike election for Florida, Novemshall be arrested and tried by the military author- ber 14, to continue three days.
October 18–Convention declared carried in April 11–Headquarters removed to Atlanta. Alabama, names of delegates announced, and
April 12–General Wager Swayne issued this convention directed to meet in Montgomery, order at Montgomery, Alabama :
November 5. General Orders, No. 3.
October 19~Post and detachment commandI. Complaints of hardship in the needless ers directed to furnish to the proper civil officers apprenticing of minors, particularly in pursu- such military aid as may be needed to enable ance of the preference given to the “former them to collect taxes imposed by the laws of the owner" in the law, have been almost incessant. State. It is enjoined upon probate judges, upon appli- November 5—Alabama Convention met; ad. cation, to revise the action taken in such cases, journed December 6. and as a rule to revoke indentures made within November 7-General Swayne ordered, for the the past two years of minors who were capable purpose of securing to agricultural laborers pay. of self-support.
ment for the labor of this year, a lien in their II. The attention of magistrates is called to favor upon the crops grown on the farms on the repeal by the last Legislature of the "va- which they are respectively employed, said lien grant law," approved December 15, 1865, and to attach from date and be subordinate to prior published with the code. Attempts which are | liens. still made to put it into execution will hereafter | November 19-Convention'declared carried in be the subject of military cognizance.
| Georgia, names of delegates announced, and III. The use of “chain-gangs" as a mode of Convention directed to meet in Atlanta, Decemlegal punishment being found to involve serious ber 9. abuses, will be henceforth. discontinued, except November 26–Payment of expenses of Ala. in connection with the penitentiary.
bama Convention by State treasurer authorized. May 1-The use of the "chain-gang" as a December 9-Georgia Convention met; ad. mode of legal punishment in Georgia is ordered journed March 11, 1868. discontinued, except in cases connected with December 20—Election on Alabama constitu. prisoners sentenced to the penitentiary.
tion ordered for February 4, 1868, to continuo * May 21-The States of Georgia and Alabama four days. Lists of voters to be revised for fourdivided into registration districts, the boards of teen days prior to election. State officers and registration for each district to consist of two Representatives in Congress to be voted for at white registers and one colored, each to take the same time, as provided by the election ordinance. test oath of July 2, 1862. Violence and threats December 27-All military organizations exprohibited.
pressly prohibited; and no parading of armed * May 29—The duties of mayor, chief of police, men permitted, except of United States troops. &c., defined, in view of the riot at Mobile 1 December 28--Convention declared carried in
June 17—Special instructions given to regis- Florida; delegates announced, and called to tering boards in Florida.
I meet at Tallahassee, January 20, 1868.
· 1868, January 6-General Meade assumed | bad advice given them by others not to mako compand.
contracts but await relief from the Atlanta ConJanuary 10—The ordinance of the Alabama vention. Convention, to stay the collection of debts, was February 22–Imprisonment for debt in Georannounced as to be deemed to have taken effect gia prohibited, in accordance with an ordinance from this date, and continue in full force unless of the Convention. the pending constitution should not be accepted ;) February 28--All civil courts and officers but if it be adopted, the ordinance to be valid whose duty it is to provide for the relief of pau. till Congress shall act on the constitution. pers, shall extend relief to all persons entitled to
January 11-State officers admonished not to relief, as such, without any discrimination as to interfere, under color of State authority, with race or color. the exercise of military authority in the States March 14–An election ordered in Georgia, composing this district.
to commence April 20, 1868, to continue four January 12-General Meade sent this tele- days, on the ratification of the constitution gram :
adopted by the Convention; State officers and “ General U. S. GRANT :
Representatives in Congress to be voted for at “ Unless the pending bill in Congress, directing military commanders to fill all offices in the State under their com
March 16–An election ordered in Florida, first mand, rescinds the test oath and provides for selection from qualified voters, I am informed its execution in this district will be entirely impracticable."
like purposes. January 13-This order was issued: “Charles March 18-In all the jails and other prisons, J.Jenkins, Provisional Governor, and Jno.Jones, colored prisoners are to receive the same food, provisional treasurer, of the State of Georgia, in quality and quantity, as white prisoners, and having declined to respect the instructions of the sheriffs shall get the same fees for victualling and failed to co-operate with the major general, all classes of prisoners. commanding the third military district, are here- / March 26-Freedmen being threatened with by removed from office.” Brevet Brigadier Gen- discharge, " for the purpose of controlling their eral Thomas H. Ruger appointed Governor, and votes, or of restraining them from voting," buBrevet Captain Charles F. Rockwell to be trea- | reau officers were directed by the superintend. surer of Georgia.
ent of registration, E. Hulbert, to report all cases January 15-Order issued, that the frequency of interference with their political rights. of reported outrages, and the accompanying ex- April 3—General Meade, on being applied to, pression of opinion of subordinate officers, that expressed the opinion that Judge Irwin was in: no justice is to be expected from the civil author- eligible for the governorship of Georgia. April ities, require notice and action on the part of the 4, he gave the opinion that General John B. major general commanding, who instructs the Gordon was eligible, under the acts of Congress. military to co-operate with the civil in detecting April 4-General Meade issued an order, of and capturing criminals, but states that where which this is the first paragraph : the civil authorities fail to do their duty, he will “I. The recent assassination at Columbus, Ga., take prompt action for the punishment of crim- of the Hon. G. W. Ashburn, late a member of inals and the removal from office of derelict civil the Constitutional Convention of said State, and officers.
other acts of violence and atrocity committed January 16—The Georgia ordinance of relief, about the same time in various parts of this disof December 12, 1867, was announced as having trict, and the simultaneous publication ef incentaken effect, till the Convention take further diary articles, and the receipt by many persons action, or further orders are issued.
of threatening letters, indicating a concert of January 17-John T. Burns removed as action, by violence and intimidation, to alarm comptroller, and Captain Charles Wheaton ap- and overawe a large part of the population, and pointed his successor, who was also appointed by this means affect the results of pending elecsecretary of State, vice N. C. Barnett, removed. tions in this district, all of which acts appar
January 20-Florida Convention met; ad- ently emanate from a secret organization, for journed February 25.
no good purpose, which seems to be rapidly January 29—The Florida ordinance of re- spreading through these States, make it neceslief, of January 21, 1868, given effect as in the sary for the commanding general to warn all case of Georgia.
persons against the commission of such acts, the February 2 The order of August 12 last publication of such articles, the sending of such modified so as to apply only to such newspapers | letters, or connecting themselves with such evil as attempt to obstruct in any manner the civil organizations, and to assure all the good people of officers appointed by the military, in the dis- | this district that he will use all the powers be charge of their duty, by threats of violence, I possesses to protect them in the peaceable enjoy. prosecution, or other penalty to be enforced as ment of their homes and property, and in the foon as military protection is withdrawn. exercise of their personal rights and political
February 3-Registered voters may vote any- privileges. where in the State on constitution, on proof of “Military and civil officers are directed to arrest registration.
and bring to trial persons who may print and February 4–8,114 less than half the regis- circulate incendiary papers or threatening letters; tered vote of Alabarna cast for the constitution. and conductors of newspapers and other print
February 11—The assistant commissioner of ing offices are prohibited from publishing articles freedmen's affairs urged freedmen to make con- tending to produce intimidation, riot, or blood. tracts for the present year, and to disregard the I shed; public writers and speakers are enjoined
to refrain from inflammatory appeals, and mili- | other service, but simply to enable them to share tary and municipal officers required to organize equally with the white men in the privilege of patrols to detect such persons as avail themselves choosing who shall hold office in the county, of the secrecy of the night for executing their State, and United States wherein they reside, criminal purposes. Good citizens are called on and that unless they register they may be deto aid in preserving the peace, and are admon- prived of this privilege. ished that if intimidation and violence are not Whenever freedmen are interfered with, threatchecked, bloody retaliation may be provoked." ened or deprived of any advantage, place, or hire,
April 6-General Meade ordered an election on account of their registering or showing a wish in Georgia, April 20, for Governor, General As- to register, they will be informed it is their duty sembly, county officers, and Representatives in to report, such interference or deprivation, so Congress.
that the party offending may be dealt with acFourth Military District-Mississippi and Ar.
cording to law. Registers and officers of the kansas.
army throughout the district will report all such 1867, April 5—Headquarters transferred to
offenders to the assistant adjutant general at Vicksburg.
these headquarters, with the names of witnesses, April 13–General orders or circulars of the
date, and places given carefully, so that the ofassistant commissioner of refugees to be sub
| fence may be punished. mitted, prior to promulgation, to General Ord.
July 29-An order issued notifying all State April 15-No elections to be held for any
and municipal officers that any attempt to renpurpose, till a registration of voters be made.
der nugatory the action of Congress designed Freedmen urged not to neglect their business to
to promote the better government of the rebel engage in political discussions, but to continue
States, by speeches or demonstrations at public to provide for themselves and families, lest “a
meetings in opposition thereto, will be deemed famine may come and they have no food.” Due
sufficient cause for their summary removal. The notice will be given of the times and places for
same prohibition in regard to speeches will be
applied to all officers holding appointments from registration. May 6-Attention called to the prevalence of
these headquarters, and to officers of the army horse-stealing, and post commanders directed to
in this district. exert themselves to break it up.
August 13-An order issued, that the general May 13—Instructions to registering officers
commanding having been credibly informed that directed the exclusion of all persons who held
in some instances land-holders within this disan office under the General Government prior
trict are, without legal cause, but upon frivolous to the war, and who afterwards engaged in or
pretexts, driving off their laborers, with a view gave aid and comfort to rebellion. Registers
to withhold their arrears of wages, or share in not permitted to be candidates for Convention,
the growing crops, assistant commissioners of or to make speeches, or electioneer for or against
the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Aban
doned Lands will instruct their subordinates any candidate for office. June 124Sales of land, implements, stock,
carefully to investigate every such case which &c., under authority of State courts, where the
may come to their knowledge, affording all the cause of action accrued prior to January 1, 1866,
parties a full hearing, so that, should the cirstayed till December 30, 1867, to go into effect
cumstances as developed disclose, on the part of in Mississippi June 20, and in Arkansas June 30.
the employers, cruel treatment of the laborer, or Illicit distilling of corn into whiskey, prohib.
an attempt to defraud him of his wages, the ofited; property seized for violation of this order
fender may be brought to trial before a military to be sold for the benefit of the poor.
commission. June 17-A poll-tax having been imposed
Where laborers on the crop of 1866 have not upon freedmen by the county boards of police
been paid, the removal of the crop is prohibited in Mississippi, under Section II of the act of
till the claim can be adjusted by three referees, Legislature of November 24, 1865,* "An act to 10
|(one to be selected by each party and the third amend the vagrant laws," it being, so far as it
Il by them,) " the courts of the States in this disdiscriminates against freedmen, manifestly con
trict not being open to persons too poor to give trary to the civil rights act, all civil officers are o
| bonds." forbidden to collect it.
August 31-It was held that an attorney or June 29—An order issued, reciting that, as
counsellor at law is not an officer in the sense of mistaken ideas on the subject of registering and
the acts of Congress relating to registration, and voting may spread or arise among the freedmen
voting for secession was giving aid and comfort in this district, which, if not corrected, would
to the enemies of the United States. tend to prevent them from registering and
September 6—Where a person, indicted for å voting, sub-district commanders will direct the
criminal offence, can prove by two credible witagents of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen,
nesses that he was a loyal man during tho reand Abandoned Lands to visit every important
bellion, believes that he cannot by reason of plantation within their reach and instruct the
that fact get a fair and impartial trial by jury, freedmen upon these points. They and regis.
the court will not proceed to try the case, but the ters will inform the freedmen that the registra
papers shall be transmitted to these headquartion, where their names have to be entered and
ters. As freed people bear their share of taxa. an oath taken, is not for the purpose of impos
tion, no denial to them of the benefit of those ing any tax, or holding them to any military or
laws will be tolerated, and a refusal or neglect
to provide properly for colored paupers will be * See page 30 of Manual of 1866.
I treated as a dereliction of official duty.
September 9-The assembling of armed or- binations or conspiracies have been formed, to ganizations or bodies of citizens, under any pre- carry into effect such purposes by lawless viotence whatever, is prohibited.
lence, I now warn you that you cannot sucSeptember 10- Persons connected with the ceed." rebel armies, who have avoided taking the parole Upon the reference of the papers referred to oath, will, within 30 days, report, and take it. in this proclamation to General Ord, he, under
September 26—Registration having been com- date of November 2, instructed General Gillem pleted, an election for or against a convention, to learn what white men have been advising the and for delegates, will be held on the first Tues- freedmen to take arms, seize lands, or do any day in November. Judges and clerks of election other illegal act, and to instruct the leading to take the test oath ; registration to be revised freedmen that Congress has no intention to take for fourteen days prior to election; sheriff of land from the late masters for the benefit of each county made responsible for good order; former slaves. General Gillem ordered promptly public bar rooms closed; no register, judge, or to arrest all incendiaries. Gov. Humphreys, in clerk, to be a candidate.
his proclamation, admonished the whites that, September 27-Election for convention or as they prized constitutional liberty for themdered in Arkansas, first Tuesday in November. selves, they must accord to the black race the
December 5-It was ordered that, in conse- full measure of their rights, privileges, and quence of stolen goods being sold or delivered liberties secured to them by the Constitution and after dark, traders and all other parties are forbid laws of the land; that they must deal justly purchasing or delivering country supplies after with the blacks, and in no case undertake to resunset till market hour in the morning, and dress wrongs, except in the mode and manner making such sale or delivery a military offence. authorized by law.
December 5-A “Convention" declared car- December 16-It was declared that boards of ried by a majority of the registered vote in each arbitration for the protection of laborers, would State. The delegates for Mississippi are called be hereafter appointed only where a laborer may to meet at Jackson, on January 7, and of Ar- complain that his wages or share of the crop is kansas at Little Rock on January 7. All per- wrongfully withheld from him, and where a sons not in the military service, and not properly landlord or merchant may complain that the engaged in executing the laws, are prohibited planter has fraudulently assigned to the laborer from carrying concealed weapons.
an undue share of the crop, to the injury of the December 12–Whenever a citizen is arrested complainant. by the military, he will be at once furnished December 17-All freedmen who are able will with a written copy of the charges. Writs of be required to earn their support during the habeas corpus by United States courts will be in coming year. Those who can, but will not all cases obeyed and respected by all officers of work, will be liable to arrest as vagrants. the military service in this command.
December 19--County courts in Arkansas diDecember 14—Sheriffs and other peace officers rected to make immediate provision for their are requested to be prepared, with the aid of the poor. posse comitatus, to arrest, disarm, and confine December 21-Result of election in Arkansas offenders against the peace and good order of on convention officially declared, and conventhe community; vagrancy and crime are to be tion directed to assemble. suppressed. This order covered a proclamation 1868, January 7-Arkansas Convention met; of Governor Humphreys, of December 9, to this adjourned February 11. Same day-Mississippi effect:
Convention met; adjourned May 18. Whereas comm'inications have been received January 9 An order was issued restoring to at this office, from gentlemen of high official the civil courts of Mississippi the jurisdiction and social position in different portions of the of general cases of horse-stealing, &c.; though, State, expressing serious apprehensions that should it appear that any person charged with combinations and conspiracies are being formed this crime could not obtain an impartial trial by among the hlacks, "to seize the lands and es- reason of his political sentiments or his race, the tablish farm.a, expecting and hoping that Con- jurisdiction shall still remain in the hands of the gress will arrange a plan of division and distri- military. bution," "but unless this is done by January January 27-Hereafter all questions arising next, they will proceed to help themselves, and from settlements of crops, and generally the reare determined to go to war, and are confident lations of debtors and creditors of civil suitors, that they will be victors in any conflict with the will be left to the proper civil courts, except whites," and furnish names of persons and such cases affecting the rights of freedmen, or places; and
others, as by acts of Congress are specially comWhereas similar communications have been mitted to the care of the Bureau of Refugees, received at headquarters fourth military district, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. and referred to me for my action, and the co- February 4 The general commanding reoperation of the civil authorities of the State, fused to issue an order for the relief of debtors, with the United States military, in suppressing believing that the homestead and exemption violence and maintaining order and peace laws of Mississippi placed every one beyond the
Now, therefore, I, Benjamin G. Humphreys, necessity of such protection. Guvernor of Mississippi, do issue this my proc- February 14-Élection on constitution of Arlamation, admonishing the black race, that if kansas, State officers, and Representatives in any such hopes or expectations are entertained, Congress, ordered for March 14. you have been grossly deceived, and if any com-) March 14-Election held in Arkansas