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ment for a change in the course of the San An- as early as possible, with the information detonio and El Paso mail, so as to send it by way sired in the premises, and also with a copy of of Forts Mason, Griffin, and Stockton, instead the report, if any has been made by the comof by camps Hudson and Lancaster. This mission. Very respectfully, &c., &c., application requires immediate decision, but be

GEORGE W. MCLELLAN, fore final action can be had thereon it is desired

Second Assistant Postmaster General. to have some official information as to the report | The Honorable the SECRETARY OF WAR. of the commission above referred to.

Referred to the General of the army for report. Accordingly, I have the honor to request that

EDWIN M. STANTON, you will cause this uepartment to be furnished, I FEBRUARY 3, 1868. Secretary of War.

XXVI.

LETTERS, PAPERS, TESTIMONY, POLITICO-MILITARY ORDERS,

AND REPORT OF GENERAL GRANT.*

General Grant's Orders respecting Slavos, I II. Fugitive slaves may be employed as labore issued in the Field.

ers in the quartermaster's, subsistence, and enHEADQUARTERS DIST. OF WEST TENNESSEE, gineer departinents, and wherever by such em

FORT DONELSON, February 26, 1862. Tployment a soldier may be saved to the ranks. General Orders, No. 14.

They may be employed as teamsters, as comI. General Order No. 3, series 1861, frompany cooks (not exceeding four to a company,) headquarters department of the Missouri, is or as hospital attendants or nurses. Officers may still in force and must be observed. The neces- employ them as private servants, in which latter sity of its strict enforcement is made apparent case the fugitive will not be paid or rationed by by the numerous applications from citizens for the Government. Negroes not thus employed will permissson to pass through the camps to look for be deemed unauthorized persons, and must be fugitive slaves. In no caso whatever will per- excluded from the camps. mission be granted to citizens for this purpose. III. Officers and soldiers are prohibited from

II. All slaves at Fort Donelsod at the time of enticing slaves to leave their masters. When it its capture, and all slaves within the line of becomes necessary to employ this kind of labor, military occupation that have been used by the commanding officers of posts or troops must enemy in building fortifications, or in any man- send details (alwaye under the charge of a suitaner hostile to the Government, will be employed ble non-commissioned officer) to press into service by the quartermaster's department for the bene- the slaves of disloyal persons to the number fit of the Government, and will under no circum- required. stances be permitted to return to their masters. IV. Citizens within the reach of any military

III. It is made the duty of all officers of this station, known to be disloyal and dangerous, command to see that all slaves above indicated may be ordered away or arrested, and their are promptly delivered to the chief quartermaster crops and stocks taken for the benefit of the of the district.

Government or the use of the army. By order of Brig. Gen. U. S. GRANT.

V. All property taken from rebel owners JNO. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G. must be duly reported and used for the benefit

of Government, and be issued to troops through HEADQUARTERS DIST. OF WEST TENNESSEE, the proper departments, and, when practicable,

CORINTH, Miss., August 11, 1862. the act of taking should be avowed by the writGeneral Orders, No. 72.

ten certificate of the officer taking, to the owner Recent acts of Congress prohibit the army

army or agent of such property. from returning fugitives from labor to their

It is enjoined on all commanding officers to claimants, and authorize the employment of

see that this order is strictly executed. The desuch persons in the service of the Government.

rnment. moralization of troops consequent on being left The following orders are therefore published for to execute laws in their own way, without a the guidance of the army in this military district

proper head, must be avoided. * in this matter.

By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT. I. All fugitives thus employed must be regis

INO. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G. téred, the names of the fugitives and claimants given, and must be borne upon morning reports HEADQUARTERS DEPART. OF THE TENNESSEE, of the command in which they are kept, showing MILLIKEN'S BEND, LA., April 22, 1863. how they are employed.

General Orders, No. 25. [Extract.]

I. Corps, division, and post commanders will * For other papers of General Grant, see pages 67, 68, 120, afford all facilities for the completion of the 121, 122, 123 of the Manual of 1866, and 73, 74, and 78 of the

negro regiments now organizing in this departMuinal of 1867; or 67, 68, 120, 121, 1

, 200, and 204 of the conibined Manuals.

I ment. Commissaries will issue supplies and quartermasters will furnish stores on the same or about the camps of white troops, except such reqnisitions and returns as are required from as are properly employed and controlled. other troops.

í II. They may be employed in the quarter. It is expected that all commanders will espe- master's department, subsistence department, cially exert themselves in carrying ont the policy medical department, as hospital nurses and launof the administration, not only in organizing col- dresses, in the engineer department as pioneers. ored regiments and rendering them efficient, but As far as practicable, such as have been or may also in removing prejudice against them. * * be rejected as recruits for colored regiments by By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT.

the examining surgeon will be employed about JNO. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G. hospitals and in pioneer corps.

III. In regiments and companies they may be HEADQUARTERS DEPART. OF THE TENNESSEE, employed as follows: One cook to each fifteen

VICKSBURG, Miss., August 10, 1863. men, and one teamster to each wagon. Officers General Orders, No. 51.

may employ them as servants, but not in greater I. At all military posts in States within the

number than they are entitled to commutation department where slavery has been abolished

for. by the proclamation of the President of the

IV. Commanders of regiments and detacbUnited States, camps will be established for such

ments will see that all negroes in or about their freed people of color as are out of employment.

respective camps, not employed as provided in II. Commanders of posts or districts will de

this order, are collected and turned over to the tail suitable officers from the army as superin

provost marshal of the division, post, or army tendents of such camps. It will be the duty of

corps to which their regiment or detachment such superintendents to see that suitable rations

belongs. are drawn from the subsistence department for V. Provost marshals will keep all negroes such people as are confided to their care.

thus coming into their hands from straggling and III. All such persons supported by the Gov.

wandering about until they can be put in charge ernment will be employed in every practicable! of the superintendent of the camp for colored way, so as to avoid, as far as possible, their beli

be people nearest them; and all negroes unemcoming a burden upon the Government. They ployed, in accordance with this or previous may be hired to planters, or other citizens, on orders, not in and about camps of regiments and proper assurances that the negroes so hirod will detachments, will be required to go into the not be run off beyond the military jurisdiction camps established for negroes, and it is enjoined of the United States; they may be employed on upon provost marshals to see that they do so. any public works; in gathering crops from VI. Recruiting for colored regiments in negro abandoned plantations; and generally in any camps will be prohibited, except when special manner local commanders may deem for the best authority to do so is given. interests of the Government, in compliance with | VII. All able-bodied negro men who are law and the policy of the administration. found, ten days after publication of this order,

IV. It will be the duty of the provost mar-1 without a certificate of the officer or person em. shal at every military post to see that every | ploying them, will be regarded as unemployed, negro within the jurisdiction of the military and may be pressed into service. Certificates authority is employed by some white person, or given to negroes must show how, when, and by is sent to the camps provided for freed people. I whom they are employed, and if as officers' ser

V. Citizens may make contracts with freed) vants, that the officer employing them has not persons of color for their labor, giving wages a greater number than by law he is entitled to per month in money, or employ families of them

commutation for. by the year on plantations, &c., feeding, cloth

By order of Major General U.S. GRANT. ing, and supporting the infirm as well as the

JNO. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G. able-bodied, and giving a portion—not less than one-twentieth-of the commercial part of their L Lotter on Slavery and Reconstruction. crops in payment for such service. VI. Where the negroes are employed under

VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI, this authority, the parties employing will register | Hon EB WASTRIRNE.

August 30, 1863. with the provost marshal their names, occupa

cupao DEAR SIR: * * * The people of tion, and residence, and the number of negroes employed. They will enter into such bonds as

groes the North need not quarrel over the institution

of slavery. What Vice President Stephens the provost marshal, with the approval of the

acknowledges the corner-stone of the Confedlocal commander, may require, for the kind

eracy is already knocked out. Slavery is already treatment and proper care of those employed, and as security against their being carried be

dead, and cannot be resurrected. It would take

a standing army to maintain slavery in the yond the employer's jurisdiction. VII. Nothing in this order is to be construed

South, if we were to make peace to-day, guaran. to embarrass the employment of such colored |

| teeing to the South all their former constitutional

privileges. I never was an abolitionist, not even persons as may be required by the Government.! By order of Major General U. S. Grant,

what could be called anti-slavery; but I try to T. S. BOWERS, A. A. A. G.

judge fairly and honestly, and it became patent

to my mind early in the rebellion that the North HEADQUARTERS DEPART. OF THE TENNESSEE. and South could never live at peace with each

VICKSBURG, Miss., August 23, 1863. '| other except as one nation, and that without General Orders, No. 53.

slavery. As anxious as I am to see peace estabI. Hereafter, negroes will not be allowed in I lished, I would not, therefore, be willing to see any settlement until this question is forever a divided North. This might give them reinsettled. Your sincere friend,

forcements from Tennessee, Kentucky, MaryU. S. GRANT. land, and Missouri, while it would weaken us.

With the draft quietly enforced, the enemy On being a Candidate for Political Office.

would become despondent and would make but NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, little resistance.

January 20, 1864. I have no doubt but the enemy are exceedHon. I. N. MORRIS.

ingly anxious to hold out until after the PresiDEAR SIR: Your letter of the 29th of Decem-dential election. They have many bopes from ber I did not receive until two days ago. I re- its effects. They hope a counter revolution; ceive many such, but do not answer. Yours, they hope the election of a peace candidate; in however, is written in such a kindly spirit, and fact, like Micawber, they hope for something to as you ask for an answer, confidentially, I will turn up. Our peace friends, if they expect peace not withhold it. Allow me to say, however, that from separation, are much mistaken. "It would I am not a politician, never was, and hope never be but the beginning of war, with thousands of to be, and could not write a political letter. My northern men joining the South, because of our only desire is to serve the country in her present disgrace in allowing separation. To have “peace trials. To do this efficiently it is necessary to on any terms," the South would demand the have the confidence of the army and the people. restoration of their slaves already freed. They I know no way to better secure this end than by would demand indemnity for losses sustained, a faithful performance of my duties. So long as and they would demand a treaty which would I hold my present position, I do not believe that make the North slave-hunters for the South. I have the right to criticize the policy or orders They would demand pay or the restoration of of those above me, or to give utterance to views every slave escaping to the North. of my own except to the authorities at Washing Yours, truly,

U. S. GRANT. ton, through the General-in-Chief of the army. In this respect, I know I have proven myself a

On Filling the Armies. "good soldier."

City Point, September 13, 1864, In your letter you say that I have it in my

10.30, a. m. power to be the next President. This is the last Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. thing in the world I desire. I would regard such We ought to have the whole number of men & consummation as being highly unfortunate for called for by the President in the shortest possimyself, if not for the country. Through Provi- ble time. Prompt action in filling our armies dence I have attained to more than I ever hoped, will have more effect upon the enemy than a and with the position I now hold in the regular victory over them. They profess to believe, and army, if allowed to retain it, will be more than make their men believe, there is such a party satisfied. I certainly shall never shape a senti- North in favor of recognizing southern independ. ment, or the expression of a thought, with a view ence, that the draft cannot be enforced. Let of being candidate for office. I scarcely know them be undeceived. Deserters come into our the inducement that could be held out to me to lines daily, who tell us that the men are nearly accept office, and unhesitatingly say that I in- universally tired of the war, and that desertions finitely prefer my present position to that of any would be much more frequent, but that they becivil office within the gift of the people. | lieve peace will be negotiated after the fall elec

This is a private letter to you, not intended tion. for others to see or read, because I want to avoid | The enforcement of the draft and prompt filling being heard from by the public except through up of our armies will save the shedding of blood acts in the performance of my legitimate duties. to an immense degree. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your

U.S. GRANT, Lieutenant General. obedient servant,

-
U. S. GRANT.

On Protecting Colored Soldiers.
On Results of “Peace on any Terms."

HEADQ'RS ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,
HEADQ'RS ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,

October 29, 1864. City Point, Va., August 16, 1864. General R. E. LEE, C. S. A., Hon. E. B. WASHBURNE.

Commanding Army Northern Virginia. DEAR SIR: I state to all citizens who visit me GENERAL: Understanding from your letter of that all we want now to insure an early restor- the 19th that, the colored prisoners who are emation of the Union, is a determined unity of ployed at work in the trenches near Fort Giimer sentiment North. The rebels have now in their have been withdrawn, I have directed the withranks their last man. The little boys and old drawal of the Confederate prisoners employed in men are guarding prisons, guarding railroad the Dutch Gap canal. bridges, and forming a good part of their gar- I shall always regret the necessity of retaliatrisons for entrenched positions.

ling for wrongs done our soldiers; but regard it A man lost by them cannot be replaced. They my duty to protect all persons received into the have robbed alike the cradle and the grave to army of the United States, regardless of color oi get their present force. Besides what they lose nationality. When acknowledged soldiers of in frequent skirmishes and battles, they are now the Government are captured they must be treatlosing, from desertions and other causes at leasted as prisoners of war, or such treatment as they one regiment per day. With this drain upon receive will be inflicted upon an equal number of them the end is not far distant if we will only prisoners held by us. be true to ourselves. Their only hope now is in | I have nothing to do with the discussion of the slavery question : therefore decline answer- change prisoners because we found ours starved, ing the arguments adduced to show the right to diseased, and unserviceable when we received return to former owners such negroes as are cap- them, and did not like to exchange sound men tured from our army.

for such men ? A. There never has been any In answer to the question at the conclusion of such reason as that. That has been a reason your letter, I have to state that all prisoners of for making exchanges. I will confess that if our war falling into my hands shall receive the kind men who are prisoners in the South were really est treatment possible, consistent with securing well taken care of, suffering nothing except a them, unless I have good authority for believing little privation of liberty, then, in a military any number of our men are being treated other point of view, it would not be good policy for wise. Then, painful as it may be to me, I shall us to exchange, because every man they get inflict like treatment on an equal number of Con- back is forced right into the army at once, while federate prisoners.

that is not the case with our prisoners when we Hoping that it may never become my duty to receive them. In fact, the half of our returned order retaliation upon any man held as a prisoner prisoners will never go into the army again, and of war, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, none of them will until after they have had a your obedient servant,

furlough of thirty or sixty days. Still, the fact U. S. Grant, Lieutenant General. of their suffering as they do is a reason for

making this exchange as rapidly as possible. Goneral Grant's Testimony before the Committee | Q. And never has been a reason for not

on the Conduct of the War, on Exchange of making the exchange ? A. It never has. ExPrisoners, February 11, 1865.

changes having been suspended by reason of Q. It is stated, upon what authority I do not disagreement on the part of agents of exchange know, that you are charged entirely with the on both sides before I came in command of the exchange of prisoners. A. That is correct. And armies of the United States, and it then being what is more, I have effected an arrangement for near the opening of the spring campaign, I did the exchange of prisoners, man for man and not deem it advisable or just to the men who officer for officer, ör his equivalent, according to had to fight our battles to reinforce the enemy the old cartel, until one or the other party has with thirty or forty thousand disciplined troops exhausted the number they now hold. I get a at that time. An immediate resumption of ex. great many letters daily from friends of prison changes would have had that effect without giyers in the South, every one of which I cause to ing us corresponding benefits. The suffering be answered, telling them that this arrangement said to exist among our prisoners South was a has been made, and that I suppose exchanges powerful argument against the course pursued, can be made at the rate of about 3.000 a week. I and so I felt it. The fact is, that I do not believe the South can deliver our prisoners to us as fast as that, on Gonoral Grant and the Proposed Mission to account of want of transportation on their part.

Mexico. But just as fast as they can deliver our prison GENERAL GRANT TO SECRETARY STANTON. ers to us, I will receive them, and deliver their HEADQ'RS ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES, prisoners to them.

WASHINGTON, October 27, 1866. * Q. There is no impediment in the way? All Your letter of this date, enclosing one from No, sir; I will take the prisoners as fast as they the President of the United States of the 26th can deliver them. And, I would add, that after instant, asking you to request me “to proceed I have caused the letters to be answered, I re- to some point on our Mexican frontier most fer the letters to Colonel Mulford, the commis suitable and convenient for communication with sioner of exchanges, so that he may effect special our minister; or (if General Grant deems it exchanges in those cases wherever he can do so. best) to accompany him to his destination in The Salisbury prisoners will be coming right on. Mexico, and to give him the aid of his advice in I myself saw Colonel Hatch, the assistant com- carrying out the instructions of the Secretary of missioner of exchanges on the part of the South, State," is received. Also, copy of instructions and he told me that the Salisbury and Danville to Hon. Lewis D. Campbell, minister to Mexico, prisoners would be coming on at once. He said accompanying your letter, is received. that he could bring them on at the rate of 5,000. The same request was made of me one week or 6,000 a week. But I do not believe he can ago to-day, verbally, to which I returned a do that. Their roads are now taxed to their written reply, copy of which is herewith enclosed. utmost capacity for military purposes, and are On the 23d instant, the same request was rebecoming less and less efficient every day. Many newed in cabinet meeting, where I was invited of the bridges are now down. I merely fixed, to be present, when I again declined respectfully As a matter of judgment, that 3,000 a week will as I could the mission tendered me, with reasons. be as fast as they can deliver them.

I now again beg most respectfully to decline Q. The fact is, that there is no impediment the proposed mission for the following additional now in the way except the lack of transporta- reasons, to wit: tion ? A. That is all. There is no impediment Now, whilst the army is being reorganized, on our side. I could deliver and receive every and troops distributed as fast as organized, my oue of them in a very short time, if they will duties require me to keep within telegraphic deliver those they hold. We have lost some communication of all the department commandtwo weeks lately on account of the ice in the ers, and of this city, from which orders must river.

emanate. Almost the entire frontier between Q. It has been said that we refused to ex. I the United States and Mexico is embraced in the departments commanded by Generals Sheridan military aid of the government to support tho and Hancock, the command of the latter being laws of Maryland. The tendency of giving such embraced in the military division under Lieu- aid or promise would be to produce the very retenant General Sherman, three officers in whom sult intended to be averted. So far there seems the entire country has unbounded confidence. to be merely a very bitter contest for political

Either of these general officers can be in- ascendancy in the State. structed to accompany the American minister to Military interference would be interpreted as the Mexican frontier, or the one can through giving aid to one of the factions, no matter how whose command the minister may propose to pure the intentions or how guarded and just the pass in reaching his destination.

instructions. It is a contingency I hope never If it is desirable that our minister should com- to see arise in this country, while I occupy the municate with me he can do so through the offi- position of general-in-chief of the army, to bave cer who may accompany him, with but very to send troops into a State, in full relations with little delay beyond what would be experienced the general government, on the eve of an elecif I were to accompany him myself. " I might tion, to preserve the peace. If insurrection does add that I would not dare counsel the minister come, the law provides the method of calling in any matter beyond stationing of troops on out forces to suppress it. No such condition the United States soil, without the concurrence seems to exist now. U.S. GRANT, General. of the administration. That concurrence could October 25—The President asked for the numbe more speedily had with me here than if I ber of troops at convenient stations; to which were upon the frontier, The stationing of troops General Grant replied, on the 27th, giving them. would be as fully within the control of the November 1, President directed Secretary Stanaccompanying officer as it would of mine. ton: "In view of the prevalence in various

I sincerely hope I may be excused from us. portions of the country of a revolutionary and dertaking, a duty so foreign to my office and turbulent disposition, which might at any motastes as that contemplated.

ment assume insurrectionary proportions and U. S. GRANT, General. lead to serious disorders, and of the duty of the Hon. E. M. STANTON,

government to be at all times prepared to act Secretary of War,

with decision and effect, this force is not deemed

adequate for the protection and security of the General Grant and the Baltimore Troubles of seat of government. I therefore request that October, 1866.

you will at once take such measures as will in1.-GENERAL GRANT TO PRESIDENT JOHNSON. sure its safety, and thus discourage any attempt HEADQ'RS ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,

for its possession by insurgent or other illegal WASHINGTON, October 24, 1866.

combinations." His Excellency A. JOHNSON,

November 2-The President gave Secretary President of the United States.

Stanton this order: I have the honor to enclose to you the within

EXECUTIVE MANSION, report from General Canby, commander of this

WASHINGTON, D. C., November 2, 1866. military department, upon the threatened vio- l.

SIR: There is ground to apprehend danger of lence in the city of Baltimore previous to the

an insurrection in Baltimore against the constiapproaching elections. Upon receiving your

tuted authorities of the State of Maryland, on verbal instructions of the 20th instant, to look

U or about the day of the election soon to be held into the nature of the threatened difficulties in

5 l in that city, and that in such contingency the Baltimore, to ascertain what course should be

aid of the United States might be invoked under pursued to prevent it, I gave General Canby,

the acts of Congress which pertain to that subwhose department embraces the State of Mary

ject. While I am averse to any military demonland, instructions, also verbal, to proceed to

stration that would have a tendency to interfere Baltimore in person, to ascertain as nearly as

with the free exercise of the elective franchise he could the cause which threatened to lead to

in Baltimore, or be construed into any interferriot and bloodshed. The report submitted is

ence in local questions, I feel great solicitude given in pursuance of these instructions.

that, should an insurrection take place, the Since the rendition of General Canby's report

government should be prepared to meet and I had a long conversation with him, and also Pr

I promptly put it down." I accordingly desire with Governor Swann, of the State of Maryland. I

you to call General Grant's attention to the It is the opinion of General Canby and the state

subject, leaving to his own discretion and judgment of Governor Swann, that no danger of riot

ment the measures of preparation and precau. need be apprehended unless the latter should

Wition that should be adopted. find it necessary to remove the present police

Very respectfully, yours, commissioners of Baltimore from office and to

ANDREW JOHNSON.

Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, appoint their successors. No action in this direction has been taken yet, nor will there be

Secretary of War. until Friday next, when the trial of the com- Same day, General Grant sent this telegram missioners before the governor is set to take to General Canby : place. I cannot see the possible necessity for General E. R. S. CANBY, calling in the aid of the military in advance of

Comm'g Depart. of Washington. even the cause, (the removal of said commis! Enclosed I send you orders just received from bioners.) which is to induce riot.

the President of the United States. They fully The conviction is forced on my mind that no explain themselves. As commander of thie mili. reason now exists for giving or promising the tary department including the State of Mary

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