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MICHIGAN (CONSTITUTION OF 1908; 1959 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of the State of Michigan, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of freedom * * * [establish the Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"Every person shall be at liberty to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience * * *” (art. II, sec. 3).

"Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged” (art. XI, sec. 1). (6) Freedom of religion

"Every person shall be at liberty to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, or, against his consent, to contribute to the erection or support of any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion. * * * The civil and political rights, privileges and capacities of no person shall be diminished or enlarged on account of his religious belief” (art. II, sec. 3).

"No person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions of matters of religious belief” (art. II, sec. 17).

" * * * citizens of any religious denomination, who, from scruples of conscience, may be averse to bearing arms, shall be excused therefrom upon such conditions as shall be prescribed by law” (art. XV, sec. 1).

MINNESOTA (CONSTITUTION OF 1857 ; 1961 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

"We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings * * * [establish the Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"* * * The right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed * * *” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 16). (6) Freedom of religion

"* * * The right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed, nor shall any man be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any religious or ecclesiastical ministry, against his consent; nor shall any control of or interference with the rights of conscience be permitted, or any preference be given by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the State * * *" (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 16).

"No religious test or amount of property shall ever be required as a qualification for any office of public trust under the State. No religious test or amount of property shall ever be required as a qualification of any voter at any election in this State; nor shall any person be rendered incompetent to give evidence in any court of law or equity in consequence of his opinion upon the subject of religion" (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 17).

MISSISSIPPI (CONSTITUTION OF 1890; 1958 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of Mississippi in convention assembled, grateful to Almighty God, and invoking his blessing on our work, do ordain and establish this constitution" (preamble to constitution).

“No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state” (art. 14, sec. 265). (6) Freedom of religion

"No religious test as a qualification for office shall be required; and no preference shall be given by law to any religious sect or mode of worship; but the free enjoyment of all religious sentiments and the different modes of worship shall be held sacred. The rights hereby secured shall not be construed to justify acts of licentiousness injurious to morals or dangerous to the peace and safety of the state, or to exclude the Holy Bible from use in any public school of this state" (bill of rights, art. 3, sec. 18).

"[The legislature) may provide for * * * religious worship for the convicts” (art. 9, sec. 225).

“No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state" (art. 14, sec. 265).

MISSOURI (CONSTITUTION OF 1945; 1961 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for His goodness * * * [establish this Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to workship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences * * *” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 5). (0) Freedom of religion

“That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no human authority can control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person shall, on account of his religious persuasion or belief, be rendered ineligible to any public office of trust or profit in this state, be disqualified from testifying or serving as a juror, or be molested in his person or estate; but this section shall not be construed to excuse acts of licentiousness, nor to justify practices inconsistent with the good order, peace, or safety of the state, or with the rights of others" (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 5).

MONTANA (CONSTITUTION OF 1889; 1961 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

"We, the people of Montana, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty (establish this Constitution) * * *” (preamble to constitution). (6) Freedom of religion

"The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without support any ministry * * * against his consent; nor shall any preference be denied any civil or political right or privilege on account of his opinions concerning religion, but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed to dispense with oaths or affirmations, excuse acts of licentiousness * * *, or justify practices inconsistent with the good order, peace, or safety of the state * * *. No person shall be required to attend any place of worship or support any ministry * * *against his consent; nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship” (art. III, sec. 4).

NEBRASKA (CONSTITUTION OF 1875; 1951 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, * * * [establish this Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"All persons have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences * ** (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 4). (6) Freedom of religion

“All persons have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship against his consent, and no preference shall be given by law to any religious society, nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the legislature to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 4).

NEVADA (CONSTITUTION OF 1864 ; 1958 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

“We the people of the State of Nevada grateful to Almighty God for our free dom * * * [establish this Constitution]” (preamble to constitution). (6) Freedom of religion

"The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shall forever be allowed in this State, and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief, but the liberty of conscience hereby secured, shall not be so construed, as to excuse acts of licentiousness or justify practices inconsistent with the peace, or safety of this State" (art. I, sec. 4).

NEW HAMPSHIRE (CONSTITUTION OF 1783, AMENDED 1955 ; 1961 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

(See second and third paragraphs below.) (6) Freedom of religion

"Among the natural rights, some are, in their very nature unalienable, because no equivalent can be given or received for them. Of this kind are the Rights of Conscience" (pt. I, art. 4).

“Every individual has a natural and unalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and reason; and no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshipping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasions; provided he doth not disturb the public peace or disturb others in their religious worship" (pt. I, art. 5).

"As morality and piety, rightly grounded on evangelical principles, will give the best and greatest security to government, and will lay, in the hearts of men, the strongest obligations to due subjection; and as the knowledge of these is most likely to be propagated through a society, by the institution of the public worship of the Deity, and of public instruction in morality and religion; therefrom, to promote these important purposes, the people of this state have a right to empower, and do hereby fully empower, the legislature, to authorize, from time to time, the several towns, parishes, bodies corporate, or religious societies, within this state, to make adequate provision, at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion, and morality ***

“And every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves quietly, and as good subjects of the state, shall be equally under the protection of the law: And no subordination of any one sector denomination to another, shall ever be established by law * * * (pt. I, art. 6).

“No person, who is conscientiously scrupulous about the lawfulness of bearing arms, shall be compelled thereto * * * (pt. I, art. 13).

NEW JERSEY (CONSTITUTION OF 1947 ; 1961 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

"We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors *** [establish this Constitution]" (preamble to constitution).

"No person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience * (art. I, sec. 3). (6) Freedom of religion

"No person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; nor under any pretense whatever be compelled to attend any place of worship contrary to his faith and judgment * * *" (art. I, sec. 3).

"There shall be no establishment of one religious sect in preference to another; no religious or racial test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust” (art. I, sec. 4).

"No person shall be denied the enjoyment of any civil or military right, nor be discriminated against in the exercise of any civil or military right, nor be segregated in the militia or in the public schools, because of religious principles, race, color, ancestry, or national origin” (art. I, sec. 5).

NEW YORK (CONSTITUTION OF 1938; 1961 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

"We, the People of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our Freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution" (preamble to constitution). (6) Freedom of religion

"The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this state to all mankind; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state" (bill of rights, art. 1, sec. 3).

** * * No person shall, because of race, color, creed or religion, be subjected to any discrimination in his civil rights by any other person or by any firm, corporation, or institution, or by the state or any agency or subdivision of the state" (bill of rights, art. 1, sec. 11).

NORTH CAROLINA (CONSTITUTION OF 1868; 1961 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign ruler of nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of our civil, political, and religious liberties, and acknowledging olir dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us * * * (establish this Constitution)” (preamble to constitution).

"That we hold it to be self-evident that all persons * * * are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights * * *” (art. 1, sec. 1).

“All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences * * *” (art. 1, sec. 26).

"The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God * * *” (art. VI. sec. 8). (6) Freedom of religion

“All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human authority should, in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights of conscience," (art. 1, sec. 26).

"The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God * * *," (art. VI, sec. 8).

6* * * Provided, that all persons who may be averse to bearing arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom,” (art. XII, sec. 1).

NEW MEXICO (CONSTITUTION OF 1911; 1959 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of New Mexico, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty * * * [establish this Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"Every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience * * *” (art. II, sec. 11). (6) Freedom of religion

“Every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and no person shall ever be molested or denied any civil or political right or privilege on account of his religious opinion or mode of religious worship. No person shall be required to attend any place of worship or support any religious sect or denomination; nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship" (art. II, sec. 11).

"The right of any citizen of the state to vote, hold office or sit upon juries, shall never be restricted, abridged or impaired on account of religion * * *" (art. VII, sec. 3).

NORTH DAKOTA (CONSTITUTION OF 1889; 1960 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of North Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, do ordain and establish this constitution." (6) Freedom of religion

"The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall be forever guaranteed in this state, and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness or juror on account of his opinion on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state (declaration of rights, art. I, sec. 4).

"* * * Persons whose religious tenets or conscientious scruples forbid them to bear arms shall not be compelled to do so in times of peace * * *” (art. XIII, sec. 188).

OHIO (CONSTITUTION OF 1851 ; 1961 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“We, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom * * * [establish this Constitution]” (preamble to constitution).

"All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to dictates of their own conscience * * *" (bill or rights, art. I, sec. 7). (6) Freedom of religion

"All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given, by law, to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required, as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the general assembly to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction" (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 7).

OKLAHOMA (CONSTITUTION OF 1907; 1961 SUPPLEMENT) (a) God, Supreme Being

“Invoking the guidance of Almighty God, in order to secure and perpetuate the blessing of liberty (we establish this Constitution) * * *" (preamble to constitution). (6) Freedom of religion

“Perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured, and no inhabitant of the State shall ever be molested in person or property on account of his or her mode of religious worship; and no religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights * * *” (art. I, sec. 2).

OREGON (CONSTITUTION OF 1859 ; 1958 SUPPLEMENT)

(a) God, Supreme Being

"All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences" (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 2). (6) Freedom of religion

"All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 2).

“No law shall in any case whatever control the free exercise, and enjoyment of religious opinions, or interfere with the rights of conscience” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 3).

“No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office of trust or profit” (bill of rights, art. I, sec. 4).

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