« AnteriorContinuar »
with a formidable sting, said to be capable | Under this head, however, we must notice of inflicting death, unless prevented by im- two or three pests which do not add to mediate attention. But the PaloMETA is the otherwise exceeding comfort of a resireally a dangerous creature, and may, dence in this lovely region. The first is with propriety, be called the fresh-water the Chigoe or Jigger. The male is not unshark. Its jaws are armed with fourteen like the common flea, and the abdomen of very sharp triangular teeth, with which it the female, like that of the queen of the is fully able to cut in two the human body. white ants, the Cocci, enlarges to an enor
One species of fish, like the Doras Cos- mous extent. These insects penetrate the talus of Demerara, has the singular prop- skin of the toes near the nail
, and there erty of travelling over land in seasons of nestle and breed with wonderful rapidity; severe drought, in search of water, and so that the sufferers soon behold their exfrom the superabundance of its secretory tremities in an awfully deformed and hor. ducts it never becomes dry as long as life ribly disgusting condition, and a stranger continues. We must refer the reader to would suppose that they must die by the fourth volume of Humboldt's Personal inches. But these insects are easily reNarrative for an account of the GYMNOTUS moved at first, and cause no inconvenience. or ELECTRICAL EEL. It may be sufficient Moreover a sure preventive is the constant to observe here, that their electric power use of shoes and stockings. Again Humfar surpasses that of any known species of boldt, Bonpland, and Gmellin all mention a the TORPEDO. A kind of CRAB, as well as species of gad-fly which attacks mankind. both land and water Turtles, are most It deposits its egg under the skin of the abundant here, and excellent for the table. abdomen, in which the grub remains six A good account of the latter may be found entire months. If molested it sinks deeper in Edwards's “Voyage." SHRIMP, the deli- and deeper, and, creating ulcers or inflamcacy of which all travellers to tropical mation, often causes death. This is also America will readily recall, are very nu- simply provided against by clothing. merous in the fresh-water rivers of Par But there is a plague far worse than aguay. But they are extremely small, both of these, in what we commonly call and when taken by the net, they are first the seven years' locust. This pestiferous dried in the sun and then preserved as insect is only a visitor within a circle household provision. We recommend to around Asuncion of about fifteen leagues. M. Agassiz to take a trip to the interior of In this they literally cover the land as South America, before he returns to Europe with a shroud, for they bring grief andagain. There he may do more for Ich mourning to all.
The time of their apo thyology in a short time, than he has yet pearance is not regular, varying from tws. done during his whole life, though that is to five, or more generally eleven yeare, enough for a full measure of fame and None can vouch from whence they comed renown.
or whither they go. Two kinds, the rm. Of ENTOMOLOGY we are obliged to ac
and the black, are recognized among thehe knowledge our utter and entire ignorance, Their eggs are deposited just beneath tch and must be content with saying that surface of the ground, the average of ea er South America affords to the lovers of in- female being about sixty, adhering togethe sects the most boundless and untrodden in an oval foam. Their disappearancfield in nature. The naturalist Ray asserts always takes place upon the first moon. that he discovered in England, within two light after their coming, and they leave no or three miles of his residence, upwards growing thing behind them, but all is a of three hundred different kinds of one tribe scene of wide-spread desolation.
of insects, (papiliones.) Therefore we Let us turn now to more agreeable and
would say to the ambitious Entomologist, profitable topics, so far, at least, as comthat, should he be endued with the life and mercial interests are concerned. The veghealth of Methusaleh to follow this pur- etable kingdom, in Paraguay, presents the suit, we doubt whether, when he came to richest attractions, not merely to the prodie, he would have become acquainted fessional botanist, but to the important with a tithe of the insects contained within class who devote themselves to mercantile a thousand square miles of Paraguay, enterprise. We shall pass over the splen
did varieties of plants and flowers which principal varieties of the Timber trees of are only ornamental. The MEDICINAL Paraguay. Herbs that abound in the greatest profu 1. First we shall place the LAPACHO, sion are Rhubarb, Sarsaparilla, Jalap, Bry- more admirable by far than English oak onia Indica, Sassafras, Holy wood, Dragons- or Indian teak for shipping. It is of imblood, Balsam of Copaiva, Nux Vomi mense size ; yellow color; lasts an age; is ca, Liquorice and Ginger. To these, attacked neither by worms nor rot, in air (though the product of a tree,) we may or water. We have seen timbers of the add one of the most valuable productions Lapacho that have supported the roofs of in the world, viz., the Peruvian or Jesuits houses, in Buenos Aires, for two hundred bark. Of dye-stuffs, too, there is an im- years. They are now as sound as ever, mense variety. The Cochineal, which is and, to all appearance, capable of perindeed the production of insects, but re- forming the same service for a thousand quiring the food of a species of the Cac- years to come. tus plant, Indigo, Vegetable Vermilion, 2. URUNDY.—This tree is higher and Saffron, Golden-rod, with others, produ- thicker than the Lapacho. It is beauticing all the tints of dark red, black and fully varied, like rosewood, from red to green; and the Tataiuva, which affords a black; is excessively hard, and takes a yellow of great durability, much used in splendid polish. It never rots, nor is it the dyeing of wool. Many of the forest affected by worms. There are three vatrees yield valuable gums not yet familiar rieties of the Urundy. to commerce or medicine; but they com 3. QUEBRACHO.-Medicinal bark. Same prise some of the most delicious perfumes as Urundy in color and texture. and incense that can be imagined. Oth 4. ESPINILLO and ALGAROBO, are very ers again are like Amber, hard, brittle, hard, of red color, and similar in quality to and insoluble in water. Some Cedars the Urundy. yield a gum equal to Gum Arabic ; others 5. Cedro.—There are many kinds of à natural glue, which, when once dried, is this noblest of trees, but the red is considunaffected by wet or dampness. The Seered the best. They are of immense size, ringa, or Rubber tree, the product of and all yield gums of varied value. We which is now almost a monopoly from are within bounds when we say that we Para, crowds the forests, ready to give have met them frequently eight and ten up its riches to the first comer; and the feet in diameter. sweet-flavored Vanilla modestly flourishes, 6. Palo AMARG0.—This wood is very as if inviting the hand of man.
buoyant, and easily bent when fresh. It But it is with the forest trees of Para- is fine-grained, like white pine, and highly guay that we love most to deal. Giants! useful for shipping. It is very white. there they are, vast and noble in their as 7. PETEREVUN.—This wood is unsurpect, and able, as it were, to utter for passed for masts and spars. It is white, themselves the sublime music of the wil. when dry, not liable to suffer from worms, derness. Still unknown, for the most part, and has a proper elasticity, and great duas regards their worth or their beauties, rability in the air. they spread abroad their sturdy arms : of 8. PALO DE LANZA, is a white wood and incredible girth, they tower aloft, and many splits easily. It is useful for household tribes of the ANIMATED CREATIon luxuriate purposes. beneath their shade, and from gambol to 9. Calandro is well adapted for cabirest, and from rest to gambol again, live net work. It is red and hard, as well as among their branches. Huge vines start durable, and exceedingly beautiful. from the tecming soil, and snake-like, shoot 10. TATORE is used in house-building. their serpentine coils round the trunks and The heart of the tree does not rot. through the branches, binding tree to tree. 11. TataruvA we have already mentionAnd thirty-seven species of the Passion ed as producing a useful dye. The wood flower, America's native beauty, color each is durable. twig with glorious tints of a
12. CARANDAY,- This tree is one of sky. We shall present to our readers, many species of the PALM. It is very hard, however, in a more distinct form, the and is unassailable by rot or worms, either
above or under the ground. When green, this part of our subject. Our object has the wood is white and soft; but when sea been to exhibit, in a slight sketch, the great soned, it is black, tough, and wiry, and wealth of Paraguay, in the hope of enlightsounds like a bell when struck.
ening, to some small extent, the great igno13. YGUYRA-PEPE.—This is a superior rance that everywhere prevails regarding it. wood for agricultural implements. The To this end we have already mentioned heart is white, but the remainder a deep roots, gums and resins enough. We have red. It yields an odoriferous gum.
found the forests spontaneously producing 14. Curupay and CEBIL produce bark everything necessary for the comfort and for tanning.
luxury of mankind, from the beautiful cot15. LAUREL is used for charcoal, and
ton tree that affords him clothing, to the Ysy produces medicinal gum of great from the woods that furnish his ship and
colors which suit his fancy as a dye ; and value.
house, or ornament his escritoire, to the 16. The ALFAROBA is medicinal, being herb that cures his sickness, or the gum
that diuretic, and in some varieties sudorific. delights his olfactories. It is only necessary It also makes an agreeable alcoholic drink.
to add, that the climate is favorable to all 17. Tamarinds and Cocoa are found the useful grains and table vegetables, with all over the country. The MULBERRY TREE delicious fruits to support and gratify. furnishes saffron dye. The Seibo, when green,
Of the ANTHROPOLOGY of Paraguay, we be cut like an apple; but when dry it is have said nothing. Blumenbach himself so hard, that axes cannot hew it.
would be puzzled to tell the original of some Again we have the Palo de Vivora, or of the mongrel breeds to be found there. snake tree, whose leaves are an infallible But the upper classes have ever been much cure for the poisonous bites of serpents. more regardful of their blood, than in any The STERARO produces a cordage from the other part of Spanish or Portuguese Ameristringy portion of its bark, which is supe
ca; and they continue to this day pure rior in strength and durability to the best and uncontaminated. They are brave, hemp; in fact, it has supported with a sin- stout and healthy ; hospitable and simple. gle strand sixty pounds more than hemp! hearted, and true and faithful, to a degree The Palo DE LECHE, or milk-tree, may be that would be perfectly astonishing in this called a vegetable cow; and the PALO DE or any other civilized country. Perfect Borracho, the drunken tree, a vegetable confidence in the government, and subordistillery. The Ycica resin is found at dination to the laws, are two of their carthe roots of trees under ground, and is a dinal virtues, and security for life and pitch ready prepared to pay the seams of property is the blessed consequence. They vessels. The tree called ABATY TIMBABY are an agricultural people, philosophically is very large. In the heat of the sun it content with what they have, until they sheds a quantity of gum, of a golden color, can get more ; but they are determined, and clear as the purest crystal. Of this nevertheless, to gain the navigation of the gum, the lower orders of the Spaniards river Paraná. Tyranny enough they have and the foresters make crosses, earrings, already suffered, to have learned how to and other ornaments. Although as fra- escape its toils in future, and their chief gile as glass, the gum can be melted by no desire is to learn those arts which may moisture. It might be found to contain conduce to their comfort and happiness, valuable properties. Hitherto no one has and elevate their country to its proper pomade a trial of its virtues.
sition among the nations of the world. In Some thirty different fruits, comprising return for that knowledge, their commerce all the known and some unknown tropical will bring to us much that we have never species, abound plentifully. Our apples, seen, and will cheapen for our manufacpears, peaches, et cetera, are grateful to turers what we already import from other the taste ; but a rich luscious pine-apple, parts of South America, while to the nator orange, fresh plucked from the tree and uralist and the historian, the most exteneaten before breakfast, is much more so. sive fields of undeveloped richness and in.
But we have probably said enough on expressible beauty will open at command.
I DARE not sing of lofty things,
Were they but grown,
It, long, had flown.
Feebly the yearling falcon flies;
His arms the pine ;
That slow decline.
Swift deeds but meet the swifter fate,
But in thy mind,
By thee designed.
In the deep bosom of the past,
Thou art sole heir
And fabric care.
Oh! much avails the strong desire-
Would ceaseless rise !
The virtue lies.
Still, at the mountain's wooded base,
Of stronger plumes :
Whom hope illumes.
And should my day be limited,
But cannot rise
In Hope that lies.
THE PROSE WRITINGS OF ANDRE CHENIER.*
Every one at all conversant with French “ Comme un dernier rayon, comme un dernier literature has heard of the young poet, who zephyre," &c., “struck his lyre at the foot of the scaffold,” and whose last verses were inter owe their celebrity more to the unexrupted by the summons of the executioner. ampled circumstances under which they It is not so generally known that this man were written, than to any intrinsic merit. was one of the most vigorous, independent, And, generally, his “rough sketches," and sagacious writers of the exciting pe- (ébauches,) as Thiers appropriately calls riod at which he lived. The first feeling them, have been praised by his compatriots, on reading his political essays is one of chiefly for the promise they gave, as if, to surprise, that writers on the French Revo use his own dying words, he “had somelution should have alluded to him only as thing in his head," which would have come the poet-or rather the youth who would out with more time and opportunity. Now hare been a poet, had he not perished so
this sort of reputation is, we repeat it, very young. Even his cousin, M. Thiers, while far below Chénier's deserts.
And we going so far as to call him a distinguished would vindicate for him, not the vague poet, | makes not the least mention of his and doubtful renown of a possible poet, controversial writings.
but the real and tangible character of an Now in this we are persuaded that excellent political writer, with a strong and Chénier has not been fairly treated. His clear style, an indomitable spirit of indepoetry, rough and fragmentary as most pendence, and a sagacity which, considerof it is, does not put him very high on ing the circumstances in which he was Parnassus-even the Gallic Parnassus. placed, is but faintly depicted by the His longer productions are principally imi- epithet extraordinary. Before proceeding tations of the classics ; and every body to justify this claim of ours in detail, we knows what French imitations of the clas- will mention two facts which may, at any sics are, and that they resemble the Greek rate, tend to gain us a hearing. It was originals about as much as the domestic André Chénier whom the conservative madonnas, so common in a certain city of secession from the Jacobin Club, selected this Union, do the Raphaels at Florence. to prepare their manifesto and profession To our mind the man who could translate of faith. It was Andre Chénier who com
posed that letter in which the unfortunate αλλάλαις λαλεύνται τέον γάμον αι κυπάρισσαι, | Louis XVI. made his last appeal to the
people. C'est ce bois qui de joie et s'agite et murmure,
Louis Chenier, a French consul, married
a Greek beauty. His third son, Andre, had fallen very far short of the spirit of was born at Constantinople, in 1762. Sent Theocritus. In shorter pieces, (such as his to France in his infancy, and liberally edustanzas to Fanny, and other erotics,) where cated, he entered the army, and at the age he had, partially at least, escaped from of twenty was in quarters at Strasburg as the influence of his classic pseudo-models, a sub-lieutenant. A soldier's life, in time there is more poetic fire. But even his of peace, is particularly unsatisfactory to an last and best known verses,
active and ambitious young man.
In six months Andre quitted his profession for
ever, and returned to Paris. There he * (Euvres en Prose d'Andre Chenier. Paris : Charles Gosselin. 18-10.
began to study furiously. He seems to +“ Dans le nombre etaient deux poetes celebres, have proposed for himself what Chatham Roucher, l'auteur des Mois, et le jeune Andre Che is said to have proposed for his son, " to nier, qui lassa d'admirables ebauches."--Thiers, Revolution Francaise, vi. 200.
learn the whole Cyclopædia." As is usual