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the timid and suspicious Italian soon be made a sally from the city and drove back gan to become distrustful of his foreign the Greeks with great loss, until the Normercenaries, and to fear that these wild mans, forcing their way through the press guests might become dangerous to him- of the fugitives, put spurs to their horses self and his own dominion ; be therefore and not only compelled the Arabs to make secretly sought a pretext to get rid of a stand, but these being terrified at the them.
sight of their unknown enemies and reIn the mean time the fame of the won treating in the greatest disorder to the derful valor of the Normans had spread city, the Normans pressed hard upon all over the Orient, and they were thus their rear and rushed together with them called away to new regions and new vic- into the city, which thus fell into the postories. The Byzantine emperors had never session of Maniakes. From Messina the forgotten the loss of Sicily; but all their Greek army then penetrated into the inteefforts, however strenuous, to regain pos- rior of Sicily, and captured thirteen other session of that fertile and beautiful island, towns. Before Syracuse a pitched battle had hitherto been rewarded with continual was fought, which
gave William of Hautedisasters. Michael the Fourth, the Paph- ville his surname Bras-de-Fer or Iron-arm, lagonian, who now occupied the imperial because he thrust his heavy lance with throne, resolved at last to take advantage of such violence into the breast of the the internal dissensions among the Arabs Arabian general," that the point passed in Sicily, and to make another attempt to through his back. Some time afterwards reconquer the island. A large army was Maniakes gained another great victory at assembled for this purpose, and the com Traina (Traianum) over the Saracens, who, mand of it was given to the Italian Cata- though their number is given at fifteen pan Georgios Maniakes, who formerly had thousand,” were manfully charged by acquired the reputation of an able general three hundred Normans riding in the van by several victories he had won over the of the army, and totally routed before Saracens of Syria." Maniakes requested Maniakes could bring up his Greeks. But Gaimar to lend him those Normans who while the Normans were pursuing the were in his service, and the prince of Sa- Saracens, the Greeks reached the battlelerno instantly seized this opportunity to field and plundered the Arabian camp, remove his northern guests, who willingly without leaving any portion to those to listened to the splendid promises of the whom they owed the victory. Provoked imperial governor. They met Maniakes at this, the Normans sent a Lombard, and the Greek army at Reggio, and, united Ardoin," who had joined their standard with them, they for the first time crossed and understood the Greek language, to the strait and landed in Sicily.
interpret their complaints to Maniakes ; We possess different accounts of the but the haughty Greek governor being first expedition of the Normans to Sicily, accustomed to servile obedience, looked in the year 1038: Byzantine by Zonaras upon this action as a punishable mutiny, and Cedrenus ; Icelandic in the Saga of and ordered Ardoin to be flogged naked Harald Haarderaade and Normanno ; Ital- all around the camp of the Greeks. The ian by Malaterra, William of Apulia, and Normans, exasperated at this outrage, Aimé, the chronicler of Monte Casino. All would instantly have taken a bloody rethese sources being contradictory, and it venge, yet they were induced by Ardoin being hardly possible to bring them in himself to tarry with their vengeance until harmony with each other, except by loose he succeeded in obtaining a Greek passguessing or arbitrary reforming, it would port, 9" with which they could more easily seem that one of them ought particularly get back to Italy. As soon as this was to be chosen as a guide ; and about the accomplished, they suddenly, during the choice there can hardly be any doubt in night, left the Greek camp. this case, the Norman chronicler Jeffrey The Normans having recrossed the strait Malaterra being the one who in every of Messina, invaded with fire and sword respect appears preferable. He relates the possessions of the Greeks, and adthat Maniakes having disembarked on the vanced to the frontiers of Apulia, where coast and besieged Messina, the Saracens they halted to deliberate on their further
a little removed were, in their efforts to | against the King of Great Britain or his alescape, trampling the wounded and pros- lies, during the continuation of the war, untrate Lieutenant under their feet in his own less regularly exchanged. Upon the preblood. When the Potowattamie had sentation of the paper, inquiry was made glutted his vengeance and retired, when whether, by the term “allies,” it was intendthe uproar was calmed and order restored, ed to embrace the Indians. The reply was, he presented an appearance more readily “His Majesty's allies are known,” with an conceived than described. Having been intimation that the prisoners must act at previously stripped to his shirt and panta-their peril. Upon the execution of the loons, he now appeared as if plastered with paper, those officers and men capable of à compost of mud and blood. In this marching, were landed and discharged on situation, he was an object of one of the parole. Lieutenant Underwood and James most disinterested acts of benevolence E. Davis, Esq., of Lexington, were landed ever performed. A generous soldier, at the mouth of Huron river, and found named James Boston, of Clark county, quarters in the cabin of a recent settler Kentucky, took off his hunting shirt, the named Sharrott, where they were treated uniform of his company, and insisted on with all kindness until they were able to clothing the Lieutenant with it, which was travel nome. About the first of July, the done, thereby concealing the blood and Lieutenant reached the house of his uncle wound. This circumstance may have in Barren county. saved the Lieutenant's life, for it is believed This short but disastrous campaign havthat the Indians are disposed to put to ing terminated, Mr. Underwood resumed death all those who are wounded, and his legal studies, and in the fall of 1813 who fall into their hands.
obtained license to practice law. He After many other interesting and thrill- opened an office in Glasgow in the winter, ing incidents, Lieutenant Underwood reach- and attended the first court in Bowling ed the prison ship lying in the Maumee Green in February, 1814. He was forriver, eight or nine miles below the rapids, tunate in obtaining fees and money enough about nine o'clock at night. He was put to pay his expenses, the more necessary on board, and being announced as because his good uncle had now deterwounded officer, was taken to the cabin of mined to throw him upon his own rethe vessel and permitted to lie upon
Well did he meet his uncle's floor, where he spent the night without a confidence in his success. He rose rapidly, blanket or covering of any kind. Mid- and in a few years stood high in his proshipman Parsons was kind enough on the fession. The Hon. John J. Crittenden, next day to surrender his berth to the Lieu now his colleague in the Senate, and Solotenant, who thereafter, during his stay on mon P. Sharp, a distinguished member of board, received every attention from Cap- Congress, and subsequently Attorney-gentain Stewart and the other officers in com eral of the State, were his associates at the mand. Captain Stewart and Midshipman bar, in the beginning of his professional Parsons were captured by Commodore
These eminent lawyers then lived Perry in the naval battle on Lake Erie, in that part of Kentucky where Mr. Underand with other officers, were sent to Frank- wood has always resided. fort, Kentucky, and there confined in the He was elected in the year 1816, being penitentiary to answer as hostages for just eligible, to represent Barren county in the treatment American prisoners might the legislature, and was annually returned receive in England. This was a measure for four years. He then voluntarily withof retaliation, in consequence of the out- drew from the political arena, that all of rage perpetrated at Dartmouth, in Eng- his energies might be devoted to the payland. Lieutenant Underwood visited the ment of heavy debts, incurred by the incaptain and midshipman in the penitentary solvency of those for whom he was bound with a view to return the kindness they as surety. He was greatly harassed, but had shown him when a prisoner.
by severe struggles freed himself. His On the day after the battle, the Ame books were even surrendered to satisfy credrican officers, for themselves and men, itors, but he never was sued at any time of signed a pledge, promising not to fight his life except as surety for others. He punc
tually complied with bis own contracts dur- | felt a deep interest. Time, however, deing his great difficulties, and the confidence monstrated the correctness of their course, of his clients and the public was never with and the act, which had passed contrary to drawn. He has often been heard to say their votes, was repealed. that he lost the best ten years of his life In December, 1828, Governor Metcalfe in working to pay the debts of others. commissioned Mr. Underwood as one of Having extricated himself from these em- the judges of the court of appeals. He barrassments, he is now in easy circum- and Judge Robertson, who were schoolstances.
mates at Lancaster, were united as the In November, 1823, Mr. Underwood only judges of the court. Never did two removed to Bowling Green, where he still officers perform more labor than during resides. He became one of the actors in the first year, when they discharged the the memorable contest between what was whole business of the court without the called the new and old court parties, aid of a chief justice. It had greatly acgrowing out of the intense agitation of cumulated during the struggle between great constitutional questions, that had the new and old court. Each refrained nearly resulted in a civil war. The legis- from doing business, from the uncertainty lature had violated the obligation of con- which hung over the ultimate validity of tracts, by the passage of relief laws, as its acts. Judge Robertson was commisthey were termed. The judges declared sioned as chief justice in December, 1829, them to be unconstitutional, and the legis- and Hon. Richard A. Buckner appointed lature attempted to remove them from of as one of the associate justices of the court. fice by re-organizing the court, and there Judge Underwood remained upon
the were then two sets of men claiming to be bench until 1835, when he resigned, and judges of the appellate court. Although was elected to represent the third conMr. Underwood's pecuniary affairs seemed gressional district. He served as a reprenaturally to throw him on the side of the sentative in Congress for eight successive new court, yet his convictions and princi- years. He notified his constituents of his ples sustained the old court, and their des intention to retire at the end of the third cisions against the relief laws. He was term, and left Washington with his family, selected by the members of that party as intending to execute his design. But at their candidate for the legislature, and was Louisville, on his way homeward, he was elected in 1825, after a most animated informed of his unanimous nomination in contest. The controversy was not decided convention, by the people of his district, until the next year, when he again repre- for a fourth term. He did not think prosented the county ; and upon the settle- per to resist the flattering call
, and was ment of this exciting question that had again elected. At the end of eight years convulsed Kentucky, he retired and labored he was permitted to retire, when he dilimost earnestly to relieve his pecuniary gently resumed the practice of his propressure. But he was not permitted to fession. remain in private life. In 1828, he was In 1845, he consented to serve his selected by the anti-Jackson party, as county-men, who had nominated him withtheir candidate for the office of Lieutenant- out his knowledge, when from home, in Governor, and was placed on the ticket the State legislature. He was elected by with the Hon. Thomas Metcalfe, who was a very large majority, many of his political the Gubernatorial candidate. Although opponents voting for him. He was elected General Metcalfe succeeded and was elect- Speaker of the House in December, and ed by a few hundred votes over Major presided over that body so much to their Barry, subsequently appointed postmaster satisfaction, as to merit and receive a general, Mr. Breathitt, (late Governor of unanimous vote of thanks. At the next Kentucky,) obtained a small majority over session, he was elected to the Senate of Mr. Underwood. This result was partly the United States for the term of six years, in consequence of votes given by Major commencing on the 4th of March, 1847. Barry and Mr. Underwood when members In enumerating the offices which Senator of the legislature, against a bill, in the Underwood has filled, it should not be provisions of which the occupants of lands overlooked that he was twice a presidential
elector, voting first, in 1824, for Henry ions run through nine volumes of ReClay as President, and John C. Calhoun ports, published by authority of the State as Vice President, and in 1844, for Mr. of Kentucky. Clay and Mr. Frelinghuysen. The college Mr. Underwood has been twice married. of electors visited Mr. Clay in 1844, after First to Miss Eliza M. Trotter, of Glastheir votes had been given, and Mr. Under gow, daughter of Mr. John Trotter, and wood delivered to him an address, having granddaughter of the Rev. David Rice, a been selected for that purpose.
Presbyterian minister, who emigrated from In a sketch like this, the different pro- Virginia to Kentucky in 1783. This lady ductions of Judge Underwood's mental died in 1835. During his Congressional labor cannot be noticed. To do so would service in the House of Representatives he extend this article far beyond the limits was married the second time to Miss Elizaprescribed. It may be said, however, beth Cox, daughter of Colonel John Cox, there is not an important political topic of Georgetown, D. C. that has agitated Kentucky, or the people In person, Judge Underwood is almost of the United States, since he entered pub six feet high and well proportioned. He lic life, upon which he has not fully and retains, to a remarkable degree, the vigor freely delivered his opinions. The collec- and elasticity of early manhood, and is one tion of his speeches and various addresses of the youngest looking men of his age in to his constituents, would, of themselves, the United States. form a large volume. His judicial opin
THERE is a king, a lord severe,-
Yet 't is no land of pleasure ;-
But hearts, there, have no treasure.
There, all is life, and all is truth,
But 't is a vision only.
Hands, there, with hands enfold;
All's sharp, and keen, and cold.
Though days are clear in that pure land,
While the vesper hymn is swelling ;
Joy finds nor food nor dwelling.
But souls live dark and lonely.
And he, that monarch cold and stern,-
So clear, all things he sees,--
Nor tender sympathies.
ADVENTURES AND CONQUESTS OF THE NORMANS IN ITALY,
DURING THE DARK AGES.*
The narrative of the Icelandic historian, Ki ne sevent parler se non Daneis Snorro, in the Heimskringla, of the visit of Et pur ço Sire quens Boton, King Sigurd the Palmer (Jorsala-far) to
Voil ke vos l'aiez ensemble ad vos, King Roger in Sicily, proves, that the
Et de li enseigner curios.":f Northmen at an early period had accustomed themselves to consider the Italian The great bulk of the Normans in Normans as descendants of their own France may thus be considered already Scandinavian race. On that account the at that time to have been essentially Roattention and researches of the Scandina- manized, yet it cannot be regarded as an vian historians have, during the last cen accident, that Normandy happened to be tury and down to the present day, been that province of France from which the directed to the achievements and con- expeditions to Italy and England were quests of the Normans in the South, undertaken. These expeditions were emialthough both those who participated in nently called forth by the same ardent the emigrations to Italy, as well as those desire to acquire renown and dominion, who followed William the Conqueror to which at an earlier period had inspired England had already long ago adopted the roving Sea-kings of Scandinavia to the Romanic, or French, language and brave the dangers of the ocean ; they manners.
were the last undulations of that immense Ralph Ganger, who in the year 912 swell, which burst forth from the low was invested with Neustria, and his com
shores of Denmark and the rocky coasts panions, had married French women, and of Norway and Sweden. These wars, in the interval of two or three genera- too, were undertaken by heroes, who tions the Romanic, or French, element had fought in the true spirit of Old Scandinearly entirely superseded the Scandina- navia, and, as a Danish poet says, “who vian. Even the Danish language, which cleared the battle-field and terrified the certainly was the strongest memorial of dwarfs.” the Scandinavial origin of the Normans,
It is particularly the expeditions of the had already at the time of William Long- Normans to Italy, and their early consword, (932—943,) been so effectually quests in Naples and Sicily, which so supplanted by the French, that Benedict strongly remind us of their genuine Scanof More made the Duke of Normandy thus dinavian spirit. This part of their history express himself in regard to the education will perhaps the more attract our attenof his son :
tion, as the chroniclers of Italy, who
wrote their conquests and settlements, “ Se à Roem le faz garder
have chiefly dwelt upon the relations into Et norir gaires longement,
which they soon entered with the Roman Il ne sara parler neient
Pontiffs, and the wars which they carried
on beyond the Adriatic against the EmKe as Daneis sace parler.
perors of the Eastern Roman Empire. Se ne serent neient forz romanz,
be added, that many new and Mer à Bajuez en a tanz,
interesting features, highly illustrative of
* Views on the Emigrations from Normandy to Italy, and on the earliest Conquests of the Normans in Naples and Sicily, from the Danish of F. Schiern. † For this and the succeeding notes see the end of the article. VOL. I. NO. VI. NEW SERIES. 38