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and Hamden-to organize an efficient op- cause, from his avaricious love of gold”position against British tyranny; and his a prophecy fulfilled at last to the very mission was, therefore, unsucessful. After letter. the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga, he was Dissatisfied by the apathy of the Conemployed in company with Allen to pre- gress, and disgusted with a service which cede the expedition against Canada, main- might bring him under the command of a ly to assure the inhabitants that no de man whose principles and character he signs against their liberties were intended detested, Col. Brown threw up his comby the invading army. In an attack upon mission and resumed the practice of law. Montreal, projected by himself, and under- He did not again enter the army until the taken with a very inadequate force, Allen year 1780. Solicited at that time to take was taken prisoner, and after the most command of a regiment which had been cruel usage, was sent in chains to Great mustered for the relief of Fort Schuyler, Britain. Col. Brown then joined the then greatly endangered by the invasion forces under Arnold, and was present on of Sir John Johnson, he consented and was the 31st of December, in the unfortunate immediately ordered up the Mohawk. On attack upon Quebec. Charged with the his birth-day, October 19, 1780, being Boston troops, of whom he had the com then thirty-six years old, he and forty-five mand, to co-operate with Col. Livingstone Berkshire men with him, fell dead in the in making a false attack upon one of the murderous attack of the Indians at Stone gates of the city, he triumphed over all Arabic. the obstacles in his way, and succeeded in We have alluded to the cruel treatment accomplishing his purpose, Livingstone which Ethan Allen received from the having been unable to reach the spot, British authorities, after he was made owing to the great depth of the snow. prisoner at Montreal. In the numerous The history of the attack is well known, sketches of his life, we do not remember and need not be recited here.

ever to have seen the following letter, It was during this campaign, that the written by his brother to Gen. Washinggrowing dislike of Col. Brown towards ton, which deserves to be preserved, if for Arnold was increased to an avowed and nothing else, as a curious document of the implacable hostility. He had repeatedly times remonstrated with him upon the im policy of making treacherous promises to the

Salisbury, Ct., Jan. 27, 1776.

“MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY:--I have Canadians, of exacting needless and heavy rode some hundred miles in consequence of my distraints upon their property, and wick- brother, Ethan Allen, (commonly called Col. edly devastating their villages. Finding

Finding Allen,) being taken prisoner near Montreal, entreaties and reason to be of no avail, and 25th Sept. last; have waited on your Excelhaving proof of Arnold's constant pecula- leney at head-quarters, in Cambridge, Decemtion of the public funds intrusted to him, ber last; since that, waited on Gen. Schuyler

on the same business. He read me a parahe broke entirely from all connection with

graph of your Excellency's letter directing him him, and posted him as a coward and a

to inquire what was become of Col. Allen, and villain. In fourteen articles of accusation desired me, if possible, to get some evidence of which he published against Arnold, he the treatment he received after being taken branded his name with every epithet which prisoner. Accordingly have spared neither it bears at this day, and challenged him to trouble, nor pains, nor cost, to accomplish the falsify the charges. Before a committee

same. One affidavit have only been able to of Congress, he offered to prove all

obtain, which I inclose.

“There is a number og ministerial troops in he had 'published, but finding the lead this and the neighboring towns prisoners, but ing men desirous at that early day, and few of them have seen my brother since a wisely so, to quiet all contention among prisoner, only those taken on board the Gasper the officers of the still new and undisci- brig, and it is next to impossible to get any of plined army, and unwilling to investigate them to say that Allen or any other prisoner the charges he brought, Brown declared they have been charged by Prescott and all the

was used ill, for fear of retaliation; besides publicly, that though they might now officers, not to mention Allen's being put in “ trust in Arnold as a brave officer, he irons, on pain of death. would yet prove a traitor to the American The soldier who made the affidavit here in


closed, was very loth, and I should not have ob- his ardor in the cause of American freedom tained it but he had previously dropped words to had suffered no abatement, he felt too the same import as the affidavit. I then brought certainly the disadvantages of old age

for him before proper authority, and told him he

the duties of active military life, and volmust declare under oath whether Col. Allen was put into irons or not, and then he declared untarily resigned his place to younger on oath what the affidavit says, at the same Congress had honored him with the time begged that none present would mention appointment of Brigadier General, and his his name.

Have some thoughts of going to acceptance of the office was earnestly deEngland incog. after my brother, but am not sired by the Commander-in-chief. His positive he is sent there, though believe he has.

own inclinations also were strong in the Beg your Excellency would favor me with a line, and acquaint me with any intelligence

same way, but the apprehensions of his concerning him, and if your Excellency family, the failure of his usual robust pleases your opinion of the expediency of health, and the earnest desire of his pergoing after him, and whether your Excellency sonal friends, decided him at last to dewould think proper to advance any money for cline it. this purpose, as my brother was a man blessed But though withdrawn from the active with more fortitude than fortune. Your Ex

duties of the field, Pomeroy had not decellency may think at first sight I can do no

serted the service of his country. As soon thing by going to England. I feel as if I could do a good deal, by raising a mob in London, by as it was known that he had retired from the bribing the jailor, or by getting into some ser camp, the Provincial Congress, then holding vile employment with the jailor, and by over its sessions at Watertown, immediately apfaithfulness make myself master of the keys, or pointed him to the command of the militia at least be able to lay my hand on it some in Hampshire county, with instructions to night. I beg your Excellency will countenance

see that they were duly trained and discimy going ; can raise more than £100 on my own property; shall regard spending that no

plined, in preparation for actual service. more than a copper.

For nearly two years he was engaged in “ Your Excellency must know that Allen this duty, diffusing a spirit of military arwas not only a brother, but a friend that stick dor among the people, training them to eth closer than a brother. Have two brothers the use of arms, urging early enlistments in the Continental army, one a captain, the among


young men of the county, and other a lieutenant. The last with the army supplying disciplined troops for the rank before Quebec. Whether these now, or with Gen. Montgomery, cannot tell. We look up to

and file of the army. His services in this your Excellency as our political father, and respect were repeatedly acknowledged, head of a great people.

both by the Provincial and Continental “ Your Excellency's most obedient,

Congress. “Ever faithful and very humble servant, When, at the call of the country, the


rough peasantry of New England were “ N. B.- If your Excellency choose, I shall crowding into the camp at Saratoga, a wait on you personally. I only want your commands; cannot live without going to Eng

large number marched from Northampton land if my brother is there. Beg your Excel.

and the adjacent towns. As the regilency will be very secret, lest the opposite party

ment, mustered from them, wheeled one should discover my design.”

morning into the lines, Gen. Gates, who

was surveying his army from a little emiHistory does not inform us what action nence on the right, remarked that they Gen. Washington took upon this very re must be old soldiers. “ Those ?” asked markable and curious letter. It is certain, Wilkinson ; “why, those are raw recruits however, that the wild project of Mr. Levi from Northampton." “ What? PomeAllen, if it was ever attempted, was with roy's men, eh ! I ought to know them !" out any favorable results, as Ethan Allen, and putting spurs to his horse, he rode after his imprisonment in England, was over to that part of the field where they sent back to this country, and after a time stood, and complimented the commanding exchanged as prisoner of war.

Colonel upon the appearance of his men. But to return to the subject of our no But though conscious of rendering sertice. Upon the accession of Gen. Wash- vice to the cause of the colonies by remainington to the command at Cambridge, ing at home, the ardent soul of the old Pomeroy retired from the field. Although man could not be satisfied with the mere


gers of Gaimar returned to Italy, they not the following year, 1017, on their march only were accompanied by several of those to Italy nearly at the same time when the Normans who at Salerno had fought the wild rovers of Scandinavia made their Saracens, but also by many others, bold last predatory descent upon the coasts of and valiant men. Among these were the France." brothers Asmund Drengot," Ralph, Rai It has generally been assumed, that the nulf, and Anquetil of Quarrel. A favorite Normans went by sea from Normandy of Duke Richard the Good, William Re- through the strait of Gibraltar,'* to Italy, postel, had in an assembly of high-born and this opinion is upon the whole not Normans boasted of having dishonored without probability. Those authors who the daughter of Asmund, who, burning remembered that the Normans had arrived with revenge, sought and found a favora- in Neustria with numerous fleets, and that ble moment to slay his enemy, while the they, after their final settlement in Norlatter, in company with the Duke, was mandy, for centuries continued to nourish hunting in one of the dense forests of Nor- the predilection of their ancestors for a mandy. Asmund, fearing the resentment sea-faring life and the dangers of the of the Duke, fled with his brothers to the deep, were easily tempted to suppose Anglo-Saxons in England, whence he now that the migrations of the Norman warriors returned to France in order to join the to Italy were undertaken in the same Salernitan ambassadors and leave his na manner as the former expeditions from tive country forever. Having overcome the Baltic to France. Others, who knew all the dangers and hardships which at something about the fortunes of the Northat time were still inseparable from a mans in Italy, were at a loss, except by journey through France and Italy, the adopting this opinion, to account for the envoys of Gaimar and their companions sudden appearance of so many ships, with at last in safety reached the end of their which the Normans, a short time after wandering. In Salerno the greater part their first descent into Italy, were swarmof the Normans remained in the military ing along the coasts of Calabria and Sicily. service of Gaimar ; but Asmund and his To this may still be added, that the sources brothers left the city again and went on a of their history generally express thempilgrimage to Mount Gargano, where they selves so very indistinctly, that in many intended to visit the sanctuary of Saint places it is nearly impossible to distinguish Michael," of high repute even in the far if the travels were undertaken by land or North, and to offer their thanks to the by water. This is for instance the case in Saint for his protection during the misfor- | Aimé, the chronicler from Monte Casino, tunes of their exile and toilsome wander- where he mentions the migration of Willings. On the wood-clad summit of the iam, Drogo, and Humfrey. Nor is Arnolfo mountain they met a stranger, dressed of Milan, or William of Apulia, more clear and armed in the Oriental style, with in their relation of the expedition of those whom they became acquainted. It was bands, who on the invitation of Rainulf Melo, a distinguished citizen of Bari, who departed from Normandy for Apulia. .a few years before had placed himself at Jeffrey (Galfridus) Malaterra repeatedly the head of an insurrection against the speaks of the wanderings of the eldest Greeks, but being forced to flee, was now sons of Tancred, of Robert Wiscard and wandering about as an exile. Between Roger the Generous, without any indicahim and the Normans so close an alliance tion of the direction of their route ; and was now formed on the summit of Mount this is generally the case too with William Gargano, that Asmund Drengot and his of Jumièges and Ordelicus Vitalis. brothers, instead of entering the service of Nevertheless, we do not hesitate here at the prince of Salerno, sent a message to once to contest and reject the opinion, that their relations and friends in Normandy, the Normans arrived in Italy by water, as requesting them to leave their home, and inconsistent with distinct and clear eviwith Melo for their leader, to wage war dence in the sources. By a closer investiagainst the wealthy but cowardly Greeks gation of the latter we find several of these of Apulia. About three thousand Nor- expeditions mentioned in such a manner as mans gladly accepted the offer, and were to let us infer, that they were made by


JOSEPH ROGERS UNDERWOOD was born a large family of children to provide for, in Goochland county, Virginia, on the 24th were induced to commit him to his maday of October, 1791. He was the eldest ternal uncle, Edmund Rogers, who, shortof eight children of John Underwood, who ly after the Revolutionary War, (in which frequently represented that county in the he was a gallant soldier, and engaged in Legislature. The name of Senator Under- several battles,) emigrated to Kentucky, wood's grandfather was Thomas, and that and became a locator and surveyor of of his great-grandfather, William Thomas land warrants, by which he secured a Underwood. The last emigrated from handsome estate. England as a merchant's clerk, when quite Mr. Rogers conducted his youthful a boy, in the latter part of the seventeenth charge to Barren county, Kentucky, in the century. He had two wives : the last, spring of 1803, and nobly did he fulfil the whose maiden name was Taylor, was the promise made to the parents of the little mother of Thomas Underwood, who rep boy “to be unto him as a father.” The resented the county of Goochland in the Green river country in Kentucky, in which Legislature of Virginia ten years, begin- he had settled, was then a wilderness, and ning in 1777 and ending in 1790; a contained but few schools, and those not period when it may be safely affirmed that of the best class. Joseph was placed at no man, unless he possessed a clear head school, near the town of Glasgow, with the and sound heart, was likely to be trusted. Rev. John Howe, a Presbyterian minister, Thomas Underwood, the grandfather, also and under his tuition commenced learning had two wives. The second, whose maid- the Latin language. After remaining with en name was Taylor, was the mother of him a year, he was transferred from place nine children, among whom John was the to place, and put under the charge of second child. Thus, by a double con various teachers in different parts of the nection, Judge Underwood is related to State, as suited the means and arrangethat very numerous family of Taylors who ments of his uncle, until, having been preinhabit the low lands of Virginia. On the pared for college, he was sent to Transylmother's side, Judge Underwood is de- vania University, where he completed his scended from the Rogers and Pollard scholastic course in the year 1811. On families. His maternal ancestors have re- leaving the University, he commenced the sided in Virginia from the earliest periods study of law in Lexington with Robert of the colony. His mother was Frances Wickliffe, Esq., and under the instructions Rogers, daughter of George Rogers and of this learned and accomplished lawyer, Frances Pollard. His great-grandfather, he finished the course of elementary readJoseph Pollard, and his wife, lived until ing. they were about ninety-three years of age, About this time Kentucky was thrown and were man and wife more than seventy into great excitement by the war with years.

Great Britain, then raging with violence Senator Underwood was named for his on the Canada border. The melancholy maternal uncle, Joseph Rogers, who went affair of the River Raisin had deprived the with his cousin, Gen. George Rogers State of some of its best citizens, and Clark, to Kentucky at an early period, plunged the commonwealth in mourning. was captured by the Indians near Mays. The impulse to arms was universal, and ville, and subsequently killed at the battle pervaded all classes. With a mind imbued, of Piqua Plains in attempting to make his by the teachings of his uncle, with strong escape from them.

admiration for military achievements, it was The parents of Senator Underwood not to be expected that young Underbeing in humble circumstances, and having wood should remain an indifferent specta

tor of the martial preparations around him. violation of Ġen. Harrison's orders, instead In March, 1813, a company of volunteers of returning to the boats, and crossing the being about to be raised in Lexington, to river to Fort Meigs, the regiment pursued be commanded by John C. Morrison, two the retreating Indians and Canadian miliregiments of militia, which were to supply tia into the woods. These kept up a rethe number of men required, were drawn treating fire, and were rapidly reinforced. up in parallel lines, and a stand of colors The pursuit continued about two miles, planted in the centre. Those who design the Indians contesting every inch of ed to volunteer, were requested, at the ground, sheltering themselves behind trees beat of the drum, to march to the colors. and logs, and shooting down the KentucYoung Underwood was the first to reach kians as they advanced. When the regi- • and raise the stars and stripes, and bearing ment charged upon the foe in their amthem aloft, marched after the musicians buscades, as soon as they fired, they along the lines, other volunteers falling in would retreat, load, take new positions, as he passed. This little, but prompt in and again shoot from behind trees and logs, cident, stranger as he was among the on the advancing regiment. In this manyoung men who volunteered on that occa ner the fight continued for many hours. sion, led to the election of Mr. Under- At length orders were given to retreat to wood as the Lieutenant of the company. the captured battery, which had been left A gentleman, much Mr. Underwood's sen- in charge of two companies; where, inior, then holding a military commission, stead of finding friends and companions, tendered his services. The privilege was the regiment met foes. A detachment of conceded to the volunteers of electing the British army had retaken the battery their own officers. When the election for and driven the two companies to their the Lieutenancy was about to commence, boats; and, as if anticipating what would a voice in the ranks was heard exclaim- happen, waited the arrival of the retreating, “Where is the man who carried the ing regiment, which, coming up in disorder, colors ? Let's elect him." Upon this, was incapable of resistance and surren. young Underwood stepped forward and dered. said to the company, he should be happy In the battle, Captain Morrison was to serve them if thought worthy. The killed, and the command of the company voters formed two lines, Mr. Underwood and devolved upon Lieutenant Underwood. his competitor being at the head of their The loss of the company, owing to its respective supporters

. On counting the position on the extreme left of the regivotes, the numbers were found to be pre ment, and the efforts of the enemy to outcisely equal. It was agreed to decide the flank and surround it, was very severe. matter by lot. The competitor of Mr. In the retreat Lieut. Underwood was seUnderwood threw up the dollar. He cried verely wounded. The ball still remains in heads, and so it féll. Those who voted his body. After the surrender, the prisonagainst him immediately surrounded him ers were marched down the left bank of in the best humor, saying, “ It's all right; | the Maumee river, about two miles, to the we'll now go for him who has luck on his old fort built by the British and retained side.”

for years after the end of the RevolutionIsaac Shelby was then Governor of ary War. In marching from the place of Kentucky, and signed the first commission surrender to the fort, the Indians stripped that Mr. Underwood ever held in the ser the prisoners, with a few exceptions, of vice of his country. The company was their clothing, watches, and whatever else attached to the thirteenth regiment, com of value they possessed. Lieut. Undermanded by Col. William Dudley, consti wood, however, saved his watch by hiding tuting part of Gen. Green Clay's brigade. the chain, so that it was not discovered, On the 5th of May, 1813, Dudley's regi and it was afterwards of great service to ment was defeated and captured by the him and his fellow soldiers. He was stripcombined British and Indian forces oppo ped of all his clothes, except his shirt and site Fort Meigs. After taking the British pantaloons, and in this condition, bleeding battery, which the regiment was ordered to from his wound, was marched to the fort. attack, most imprudently, and in direct But before getting into it, he and his com

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