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panions passed through a scene of savage | did so npon the wet ground. Lieut. Unbarbarity and cruelty which will probably derwood asked permission to lay his head never occur again in the United States. I in the lap of a fellow soldier named GilThey were made to run the gauntlet. pin, which being readily granted, he This was done in the following manner. stretched himself upon the ground, the The Indians formed a line to the left of the better to enable the blood to escape from road or trace running along the river his wound. In this situation an Indian of bank, which was nearly perpendicular, and the Potowattamie tribe from the embankextending from the dilapidated walls of ment of the old fort, which was elevated the fort, about one hundred and fifty yards about four feet above the ground on which up the river, leaving a space of some forty the prisoners were sitting, presented his or fifty feet between their line and the rifle, and shot a prisoner near the base of bank of the river. Through this defile, the embankment. He then deliberately the prisoners were compelled to pass, in loaded his gun and shot another. After order to reach the gateway that led into this he laid down the gun, drew his tomathe fort. They were informed by the hawk, jumped off the embankment, and British soldiers, that it was the intention of drove it to the helve in the heads of two the Indians to whip, to wound, or to kill, others. He then scalped and stripped his just as their malevolence and vindictive- four victims, and departed with his troness should prompt, and that each from phies. The ball which passed through one the starting point, at the head of the line, of them, penetrated the hips of a soldier should make his way into the fort in the near by, inflicting a wound which afterbest way he could, and with all possible wards occasioned his death. So that it speed. The prisoners were told, that may be said, that five prisoners were murwhen within the walls they would be safe, dered by this infuriated savage

after safety but this promise was violated. As the had been promised them. It is believed, prisoners ran between the Indian line and however, that the British officers and solthe river bank, many were maimed and kill- diers were sincerely desirous to prevent ed with tomahawks, war clubs and rifles. the massacre which occurred in the fort. Those braves in whom all feelings of Whilst the Potowattamie was engaged in humanity were not totally extinct, only his work of death, hundreds of savage beat the prisoners over their heads and warriors dressed in their war costumes and shoulders, as they passed, with ramrods hideously painted, were stationed upon and wiping sticks. Lieut. Underwood, on and about the embankment which encircled reaching the head of the line, perceived the prisoners. Among them rage and fury that it was concave or circular, and that were manifested by every sort of ejaculathose who ran next to the river bank were tion. The British guard incessantly utmore frequently shot down than those tered the expression, “Oh nitchee wah, nearer the Indian line. He, therefore, de- oh nitchee wah.”. It can never be forgottermined to pass by the ends of the muz ten by those who heard it on that occasion. zles of their guns, knowing that if he It was the language of mercy addressed escaped being shot, when immediately in to the infuriated Indian, and those who front, the gun would not be turned upon surrounded him, and as afterwards interhim, because the ball, after killing him, preted to the Kentuckians, signified, “Oh! might also hit those standing further on brother, quit, go away.

brother, quit, go away.” This appeal may in the curved line. This policy of the have prevented the massacre of all the Lieutenant, although it gave him a better prisoners. chance to escape the bullets, brought him When the Potowattamie began the in closer contact with ramrods and wiping butchery, the prisoners in danger, and who, sticks, and he received many severe blows. up to that moment, had retained their Between forty and fifty prisoners were kill- seats upon the ground, now rose to their ed in thus running the gauntlet ; among feet and endeavored to get out of the way them the brave Captain Lewis, who com and save themselves, by jumping over the manded a company

from Jessamine county. heads of those who remained sitting. In As the prisoners passed into the old this melee of horror, while those on the fort, they were ordered to sit down, and outside were receiving the tomahawk, those

a little removed were, in their efforts to | against the King of Great Britain or his alescape, trampling the wounded and pros- | lies, during the continuation of the war, untrate Lieutenant under their feet in his own less regularly exchanged. Upon the preblood. When the Potowattamie had sentation of the paper, inquiry was made glutted his vengeance and retired, when whether, by the term “allies,it was intendthe uproar was calmed and order restored, ed to embrace the Indians. The reply was, he presented an appearance more readily “His Majesty's allies are known,” with an conceived than described. Having been intimation that the prisoners must act at previously stripped to his shirt and panta- their peril. Upon the execution of the loons, he now appeared as if plastered with paper, those officers and men capable of a compost of mud and blood. In this marching, were landed and discharged on situation, he was an object of one of the parole. Lieutenant Underwood and James most disinterested acts of benevolence | E. Davis, Esq., of Lexington, were landed ever performed. A generous soldier, at the mouth of Huron river, and found named James Boston, of Clark county, quarters in the cabin of a recent settler Kentucky, took off his hunting shirt, the named Sharrott, where they were treated uniform of his company, and insisted on with all kindness until they were able to clothing the Lieutenant with it, which was travel home. About the first of July, the done, thereby concealing the blood and Lieutenant reached the house of his uncle wound. This circumstance may have in Barren county. saved the Lieutenant's life, for it is believed This short but disastrous campaign harthat the Indians are disposed to put to ing terminated, Mr. Underwood resumed death all those who are wounded, and his legal studies, and in the fall of 1813 who fall into their hands.

obtained license to practice law. He After many other interesting and thrill- opened an office in Glasgow in the winter, ing incidents, Lieutenant Underwood reach- and attended the first court in Bowling ed the prison ship lying in the Maumee Green in February, 1814. He was forriver, eight or nine miles below the rapids, tunate in obtaining fees and money enough about nine o'clock at night. He was put to pay his expenses, the more necessary on board, and being announced as because his good uncle had now deterwounded officer, was taken to the cabin of mined to throw him upon his own rethe vessel and permitted to lie upon the sources. Well did he meet his uncle's floor, where he spent the night without a confidence in his success. He rose rapidly, blanket or covering of any kind. Mid- and in a few years stood high in his proshipman Parsons was kind enough on the fession. The Hon. John J. Crittenden, next day to surrender his berth to the Lieu now his colleague in the Senate, and Solotenant, who thereafter, during his stay on mon P. Sharp, a distinguished member of board, received every attention from Cap-Congress, and subsequently Attorney-gentain Stewart and the other officers in com eral of the State, were his associates at the mand. Captain Stewart and Midshipman bar, in the beginning of his professional Parsons were captured by Commodore career. These eminent lawyers then lived Perry in the naval battle on Lake Erie, in that part of Kentucky where Mr. Underand with other officers, were sent to Frank-wood has always resided. fort, Kentucky, and there confined in the He was elected in the year 1816, being penitentiary to answer as hostages for just eligible, to represent Barren county in the treatment American prisoners might the legislature, and was annually returned receive in England. This was a measure for four years. He then voluntarily withof retaliation, in consequence of the out- drew from the political arena, that all of rage perpetrated at Dartmouth, in Eng- his energies might be devoted to the payland. Lieutenant Underwood visited the ment of heavy debts, incurred by the incaptain and midshipman in the penitentary solvency of those for whom he was bound with a view to return the kindness they as surety. He was greatly harassed, but had shown him when a prisoner.

by severe struggles freed himself. His On the day after the battle, the Ame- books were even surrendered to satisfy credrican officers, for themselves and men, itors, but he never was sued at any time of signed a pledge, promising not to fight his life except as surety for others. He pune

a

tually complied with his own contracts dur- | felt a deep interest. Time, however, deing his great difficulties, and the confidence monstrated the correctness of their course, of his clients and the public was never with and the act, which had passed contrary to drawn. He has often been heard to say their votes, was repealed. that he lost the best ten years of his life In December, 1828, Governor Metcalfe in working to pay the debts of others. commissioned Mr. Underwood as one of Having extricated himself from these em- the judges of the court of appeals. He barrassments, he is now in easy circum- and Judge Robertson, who were schoolstances.

mates at Lancaster, were united as the In November, 1823, Mr. Underwood only judges of the court. Never did two removed to Bowling Green, where he still officers perform more labor than during resides. He became one of the actors in the first year, when they discharged the the memorable contest between what was whole business of the court without the called the new and old court parties, aid of a chief justice. It had greatly acgrowing out of the intense agitation of cumulated during the struggle between great constitutional questions, that had the new and old court. Each refrained nearly resulted in a civil war. The legis- from doing business, from the uncertainty lature had violated the obligation of con- which hung over the ultimate validity of tracts, by the passage of relief laws, as its acts. Judge Robertson was commisthey were termed. The judges declared sioned as chief justice in December, 1829, them to be unconstitutional, and the legis- and Hon. Richard A. Buckner appointed lature attempted to remove them from of as one of the associate justices of the court. fice by re-organizing the court, and there Judge Underwood remained upon the were then two sets of men claiming to be bench until 1835, when he resigned, and judges of the appellate court. Although was elected to represent the third conMr. Underwood's pecuniary affairs seemed gressional district. He served as a reprenaturally to throw him on the side of the sentative in Congress for eight successive new court, yet his convictions and princi- years. He notified his constituents of his ples sustained the old court, and their de- intention to retire at the end of the third cisions against the relief laws. He was term, and left Washington with his family, selected by the members of that party as intending to execute his design. But at their candidate for the legislature, and was Louisville, on his way homeward, he was clected in 1825, after a most animated | informed of his unanimous nomination in contest. The controversy was not decided convention, by the people of his district, until the next year, when he again repre- for a fourth term. He did not think prosented the county ; and upon the settle- per to resist the flattering call, and was ment of this exciting question that had again elected. At the end of eight years convulsed Kentucky, he retired and labored he was permitted to retire, when he dilimost earnestly to relieve his pecuniary gently resumed the practice of his propressure. But he was not permitted to fession. remain in private life. In 1828, he was In 1845, he consented to serve his selected by the anti-Jackson party, as county-men, who had nominated him withtheir candidate for the office of Lieutenant out his knowledge, when from home, in Governor, and was placed on the ticket the State legislature. He was elected by with the Hon. Thomas Metcalfe, who was a very large majority, many of his political the Gubernatorial candidate. Although opponents voting for him. He was elected General Metcalfe succeeded and was elect Speaker of the House in December, and ed by a few hundred votes over Major presided over that body so much to their Barry, subsequently appointed postmaster satisfaction, as to merit and receive a general, Mr. Breathitt, (late Governor of unanimous vote of thanks. At the next Kentucky,) obtained a small majority over session, he was elected to the Senate of Mr. Underwood. This result was partly the United States for the term of six years, in consequence of votes given by Major commencing on the 4th of March, 1847. Barry and Mr. Underwood when members In enumerating the offices which Senator of the legislature, against a bill, in the Underwood has filled, it should not be provisions of which the occupants of lands overlooked that he was twice a presidential

commonwealth. To this, more than any staunch Whig, that was certain ; and Coloother cause, is to be attributed the early nel John Brown, then called 'Squire and vigorous stand which the Berkshire Brown, he being the only lawyer in town, population took in favor of colonial re who had just been sent for to the consistance.

clave, was also a firm friend of the peoImmediately after the battle at Lexing- ple's rights; and more than all, the minton, Gen. Pomeroy, then at the head of ister, Parson Allen, who had just walked the undisciplined forces investing Boston, through the hall towards the same, was laid before several members of the Provin not to be doubted, for he had preached cial Congress a plan for surprising and resistance to England from the pulpit, taking possession of Fort Ticonderoga. In ever since the passage of the Stamp Act; pursuance of this plan, Benedict Arnold so that, quieted of patriotic fears, the vethad been sent into the New Hampshire erans of the village drank their usual poGrants, as Vermont was then called, to tations, and retired in good season to their raise, if possible, the men and means to homes. accomplish the undertaking. Fearing, It was here, during that night of the from letters he had received, that Arnold first day of May, 1775, that the plan for was likely to be unsuccessful, Gen. Pome the attack upon Fort Ticonderoga was roy communicated his plans to several concerted. Sixteen men only had been members of the Provincial Assembly of raised for the expedition in Connecticut, Connecticut, then in session at Hartford, the main reliance being placed upon reand solicited their interest in the under cruits who should be raised on the New taking. These gentlemen entered imme- Hampshire Grants. To this Col. Brown diately into the spirit of the affair, and very opposed the objection, that the people on soon enlisted a number of persons in its the Grants were mostly poor, and that it behalf. Three of these, Capt. Noah would be difficult to induce them to leave Phelps, Mr. Bernard Romans, and Mr. Ed their planting, at that season of the

year. ward Mott, gentlemen of standing and As a preferable plan, Col. Easton offered reputation in the colony, having received to raise fifty men from his own regiment, three hundred pounds in money from the all of whom should be mustered at Bentreasury, immediately started upon the nington within four days, at which place enterprise.

Col. Brown with the Connecticut men It was early in the evening of the 1st of was to meet him. "In eight and forty May, 1775, that three strangers on horse- hours after this, he had redeemed his back arrived at Col. Easton's inn. The pledge, and mustered his forces with those public was at this time in such a state of which Ethan Allen had raised, on the alarm, that every trivial incident was mag common at Bennington. nified into great importance, so that the On the 4th of May, the Whig parson, news of the unexpected guests soon ran Rev. Thomas Allen, thus writes to Gen. over the village. As one after another of Pomeroy :the evening visitors at the bar-room drop

Pillsfield, May 4th, 1775. ped in, the subject of conversation turn “Gen. POMEROY, Sir:-I have the pleasure to ed upon the new-comers. Various were acquaint you, that a number of gentlemen from the speculations upon their character and Connecticut went from this place last Tuesday purpose, and broad the intimations from morning, having been joined by Col. Easton, the more patriotic of the duties which de- Capt. Dickenson, and Mr. Brown, with fifty volved upon all good citizens in these soldiers, on an expedition against Ticonderoga ; troublous times, to see that no harm, in above here, a post having previously taken his

expecting to be reinforced from the Grants the disguise of honest travellers, came to departure to inform Col. Ethan Allen of the dethe commonwealth. As the Colonel was sign, and desiring him to hold his Green Mounabsent, however, no serious proposals were tain boys in actual readiness. The expedition entertained for apprehending the strangers, We expect they will reach there by Saturday,

has been carried on with the utmost secresy. though it was not until it was known that he had been closeted with them ever since pray for success in this important expedition,

or the Lord's day at farthest. We earnestly their arrival, that the fears of the company as the taking of those places would afford us a were allayed. Colonel Easton

a key to all Canada.

was

ADVENTURES AND CONQUESTS OF THE NORMANS IN ITALY,

DURING THE DARK AGES.*

manners.

The narrative of the Icelandic historian, Ki ne sevent parler se non Daneis Snorro, in the Heimskringla, of the visit of Et pur ço Sire quens Boton, King Sigurd the Palmer (Jorsala-far) to

Voil ke vos l'aiez ensemble ad vos, King Roger in Sicily, proves, that the

Et de li enseigner curios.":t Northmen at an early period had accustomed themselves to consider the Italian The great bulk of the Normans in Normans as descendants of their own

France may thus be considered already Scandinavian race. On that account the at that time to have been essentially Roattention and researches of the Scandina- manized, yet it cannot be regarded as an vian historians have, during the last cen accident, that Normandy happened to be tury and down to the present day, been that province of France from which the directed to the achievements and con- expeditions to Italy and England were quests of the Normans in the South, undertaken. These expeditions were emialthough both those who participated in nently called forth by the same ardent the emigrations to Italy, as well as those desire to acquire renown and dominion, who followed William the Conqueror to which at an earlier period had inspired England had already long ago adopted the roving Sea-kings of Scandinavia to the Romanic, or French, language and brave the dangers of the ocean ; they

were the last undulations of that immense Ralph Ganger, who in the year 912 swell, which burst forth from the low was invested with Neustria, and his com

shores of Denmark and the rocky coasts panions, had married French women, and of Norway and Sweden. in the interval of two or three genera- too, were undertaken by heroes, who tions the Romanic, or French, element had fought in the true spirit of Old Scandinearly entirely superseded the Scandina- navia, and, as a Danish poet says, “who vian. Even the Danish language, which cleared the battle-field and terrified the certainly was the strongest memorial of dwarfs." the Scandinavial origin of the Normans, It is particularly the expeditions of the had already at the time of William Long- Normans to Italy, and their early consword, (932—943,) been so effectually quests in Naples and Sicily, which so supplanted by the French, that Benedict strongly remind us of their genuine Scanof More made the Duke of Normandy thus dinavian spirit

. This part of their history express himself in regard to the education will perhaps the more attract our attenof his son :

tion, as the chroniclers of Italy, who

wrote their conquests and settlements, “ Se à Roem le faz garder

have chiefly dwelt upon the relations into Et norir gaires longement,

which they soon entered with the Roman Il ne sara parler neient

Pontiffs, and the wars which they carried Daneis; kar nul nel i parole.

on beyond the Adriatic against the EmSi voil kil seit à tele escole Ke as Daneis sace parler.

perors of the Eastern Roman Empire.' Se ne serent neient forz romanz,

Finally may be added, that many new and Mer à Bajuez en a tanz,

interesting features, highly illustrative of

These wars,

* Views on the Emigrations from Normandy to Italy, and on the earliest Conquests of the Normans in Naples and Sicily, from the Danish of F. Schiern. † For this and the succeeding notes see the end of the article. VOL, I. NO, VI, NEW SERIES.

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