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some of which are equally gross, because | been furnished by our Government, al“it contained no provision for the payment though the President takes pains to inform by Mexico of the just claims of our citi- us, by way of showing with what a dig. zens.” Standing by itself, this might be nified and lofty reserve the conference taken merely as an assertion that this pro- must have been approached on the part ject of a treaty contained no provision for of the United States, that Mr. Trist“ the pecuniary payment of these claims; not directed to make any new overtures of and if so intended to be understood, the peace.” Nevertheless, he presented the assertion could have had no purpose, but draught of a treaty, the first article of to mislead and confound the intelligence of which began with declaring, “There shall the general reader, because, from the be- be a firm and universal peace between the ginning of this war, the President has had United States of America, and the United no design or desire, nor the remotest ex Mexican States," &c. The subsequent arpectation, that these claims should be paid ticles, of course, set forth the terms upon by Mexico in money, or provided for by which the President proposed this lasting

her in any

other way than by the cession of and universal peace should rest. territory to the United States. We must Now it is the particular mode adopted hold the President, therefore, as meaning in this draught of a treaty, of reaching to deny, by the expression we have quoted, the matters of difference and dispute bethat Mexico had made any offer whatever tween the two countries, to which we wish of indemnity for the claims of our citizens. to call the attention of the reader, by way And he has not left this matter in doubt; of preparing him to understand fully, and for by way of expressly negativing the idea without the possibility of mistake, the that

any cession of territory was offered as meaning and intention of the terms subindemnity for these claims, he proceeds to sequently proposed in the Counter-Project declare, as showing what he calls “the of the Mexican Commissioners. He must unreasonable terms proposed by the Mexi- remember that a main thing was, as the can Commissioners,” that this project of a President so strenuously argues, to obtain treaty, amongst other things, « offered to indemnity for the claims of our citizens by cede to the United States, fur a pecuniary a cession of territory. “Mexico," says consideration, that part of Upper Califor- the Message, “has no money to pay, and nia lying north of latitude thirty-seven no other means of making the required degrees. He refers to this offer of ces- indemnity. If we refuse this, we can obsion, as among the objectionable and un tain nothing else.” This, indeed, was assumreasonable things contained in the counter- ing a fact without any warrant of proof. project of the Mexican Commissioners—a But for the interruption caused by the ancession to be made “for a pecuniary con nexation of Texas, and finally by the war, sideration;" and he accuses the Commis- there cannot be a doubt that


dollar sioners of having “ negotiated as if Mexico of these claims would have been paid in were the victorious and not the vanquished money. And the President forgets that in party." In short, he means to state, and this very Message in which he urges the immeans that we shall understand him as stat possibility of squeezing anything out of ing, that while Mexico had the impertinence Mexico, except land, he exults in the prosto endeavor to get a bargain out of us, by pect of being able to do a good deal offering to sell us land in California for towards supporting our vast military opeready money, she refused to give us any rations in that country by the money which indemnity, or any satisfaction whatever, in shall be collected out of regular Mexican land or anything else, for the just claims custom house and internal duties, seized of our citizens. And this statement we are into the hands of our officers for that

purconstrained to pronounce utterly at vari- pose ! The internal revenue of Mexico ance with the facts.

and her Departments, is stated by the It will be observed by the reader that Secretary of the Treasury in his recent our Commissioner opened the negotiation Report, to have been about thirteen millat the conferences referred to, by present- ions of dollars per annum, and the receipts ing to the Mexican Commissioners the on imports he says have varied from six to draught of a treaty, with which he had | twelve millions. And he gives it as his de


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liberate opinion, more than once repeated, true of this plan, as it is of the Counterthat with the ports, and interior, and roads Project presented by the Mexican Comof Mexico in our possession, we may col-missioners, first, that “it contained no lect from duties on imports as much as provision for the payment by Mexico, of Mexico had been used to do; though how the just claims of our citizens ;" and next, much we may gather from internal duties that it contained a provision for the ceshe will not venture to estimate. Here, sion of territory to the United States " for then, we have the Administration propos a pecuniary consideration." If the Couning, with apparent candor and good faith, ter-Project was objectionable or offensive, to collect from Mexico, in the form of reg on either of these grounds, the plan preular taxes, while her principal ports and sented by Mr. Trist was objectionable and places shall remain in our military occu offensive to the United States for the same pation, many more millions annually, in reasons. The form of reaching both hard gold and siyer, for the support of the points—indemnity, and the cession of terwar, than would suffice to pay every dollar ritory-was precisely the same in each of the claims which our citizens have upon

And more than this: the substance the justice of that country; and at the of the several provisions, embracing these same time—in the same breath-we have two objects, and, to a great extent, the it laid down as a fact—"clear and unques- language, was identical in the two protionable as our right to Oregon up to jects of a treaty, except only—and this fifty-four forty, or as our right to the Rio was the only essential difference—as to the Grande as a boundary—that Mexico is ut- amount of territory to be ceded. We terly unable to pay in anything but land! here place the articles containing these In such miserable and gross contradictions provisions in juxtaposition on our pages, does the rapacious and dishonest policy of that they may be read together and easily the President constantly involve him. He compared ; only premising that the mat. was resolved, from the beginning, to have ter inclosed in brackets, in the copy first territory, as much as he could wring from given, was not, according to the authorthe fears and distresses of that unhappy ity of the Washington Union, embraced country-territory conquered in fact, be in the original draught furnished to Mr. cause forced from its unwilling owner by Trist. the terror, and, if need be, by the desolation of our arms; but he wished to put a mask on the harsh and bloody features of the abominable transaction, by providing ARTICLE IV. The boundary line between the that the forced cession should pass under two republics shall commence in the Gulf of the fraudulent guise of a necessary indem- Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the nity, with a generous offer of payment, of Rio Grande ; from thence up the middle of that how many millions we know not, for what- | line of New Mexico; thence westwardly along

river to the point where it strikes the southern ever balance of value there might be over the southern boundary of New Mexico, to the and above the indemnity. This was his southwestern corner of the same ; thence northpolicy and his resolution, and hence his ward along the western line of New Mexico, labored and awkward attempt to make the until it intersects the first branch of the river country believe, at one and the same mo

Gila, or if it should not intersect any branch of ment, that taxation in Mexico would give that river, then to the point on the said line

nearest to such branch ; and thence in a direct us millions for the support of the war, but

line to the same, and down the middle of said could not be made to produce a farthing branch and of the said river until it empties for the payment of our claims.

into the Rio Colorado, and thence downwards But we return to the point of our argu- | by the middle of the Colorado, and the middle nent and exposition. A principal thing to of the Gulf of California, to the Pacific Ocean. be secured in a treaty of peace, was the pay

ARTICLE V. In consideration of the extension ment of our claims. This was to be done, of the boundaries of the United States, as defined as the President insists, only by obtaining lations which will appear in article No. 8, the a cession of territory. Mr, Trist carried United States abandon, for ever, all claims out with him a plan of a treaty which em against the United States of Mexico on account braced this object; and yet it is just as of the expenses of the war) the United States



agree to pay to the United Mexican States, at which remains between the river Nueces and the city of Vera Cruz, the sum of

the Bravo del Norte. dollars, in five equal instalments, each of

5th. In just compensation for the extension dollars; the first instalment to be paid immedi- of old limits which the United States may acately after this treaty shall have been duly rati- quire by the previous article, the government fied by the government of the United Mexican of said United States is bound to pay over to States.

the republic of Mexico the sum of - which ARTICLE VI. As a further consideration (of shall be placed in the city of Mexico, at the article No. 4) for the extension of the bounda- disposal of the said government of the Mexican ries of the United States, as defined by the fourth republic, in the act of exchanging the ratificaarticle of this treaty, the United States agree to

tion of this treaty. assume and pay to the claimants all the instal 6th. The government of the United States is ments now due, or hereafter to become due, un further bound to take upon itself and satisfy der the convention between the two republics fully to the claimants all the instalments (canconcluded at the city of Mexico on the 30th day tidades) which are due up to this time, and may of January, 1843, "further to provide for the come due in future, by reason of the claims payment of awards in favor of claimants under now liquidated, and decided against the Mexithe convention between the United States and can republic, agreeably to the conventions arthe Mexican republic, of the 11th April, 1839;" ranged between the two republics, the 11th of and the United States also agree to assume and April, 1839, and 30th of January, 1843, in such pay, to an amount not exceeding three millions manner that the Mexican republic shall have of dollars, all claims of citizens of the United absolutely no further payment to make by reaStates, not heretofore decided against the gov son of the said reclamations. ernment of the United Mexican States, which 7th. The government of the United States is may have arisen previous to the 13th of May, also bound to take upon itself and pay fully all 1816, and shall be found to be justly due by a the claims of its own citizens, not yet decided, board of commissioners, to be established by the against the Mexican republic, whatever may be government of the United States, whose awards the title or motive from which they may proshall be final and conclusive : provided, that in ceed or in which they are founded; so that from deciding upon the validity of these claims, the the date of the exchange of the ratifications of board shall be guided and governed by the prin the present treaty, there shall remain settled ciples and rules of decision prescribed by the definitely and for ever, the accounts of every first and fifth articles of the unratified conven kind that exist, or may be supposed to exist, tion, concluded at the city of Mexico, on the 20th between the government of Mexico and the day of November, A. D. 1843; and in no case citizens of the United States. shall an award be made in favor of any claim 8th. In order that the government of the not embraced by these principles and rules. And United States may be able to satisfy, in observe the United States do bereby for ever discharge ance of the previous article, the claims not yet the United Mexican States from all liability for decided of its citizens against the Mexican reany of the said claims, whether the same shall public, there shall be established by the governbe rejected or allowed by the said board of ment of the said United States a tribunal of commissioners.

commissioners, whose decisions shall be conclusive and definitive ; provided that, on deciding upon the validity of any demand, it may be adjusted by the principles and rules which were

established in the articles 1st and 5th of the 4th. The dividing line between the two re convention (not ratified) which was held in publics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico on the 20th of November, 1843, and in three leagues from land, opposite the southern no case to give sentence in favor of any claim mouth of the bay of Corpus Christi, running in which is not adjusted in the prescribed rules. a straight line from within the said bay to the

Here, then, the state of the case may be mouth of the river Nueces; thence through the middle of that river in all its course to its source;

seen at a glance. The President proposed from the source of the river Nueces shall be through Mr. Trist, in substance, that the traced a straight line until it meets the present line of boundary between the two counfrontier of New Mexico on the east-south-east tries be so drawn that Mexico should cede side, then follow the present boundary of New to the Unitef States, besides Texas, parts Mexico on the east, north and west, until this of the several States of Tamaulipas, Coalast touches the 37th degree; which will serve as a limit for both republics, from the point in Mexico, and the two Californias, comprising,

huila, and Chihuahua, the whole of New which it touches the said frontier of west of New Mexico to the Pacific ocean. The govern- altogether, about 690,000 square miles of ment of Mexico promises not to found any new territory-rather more than twice the area towns or establish colonies in the tract of land within the present limits of the old thir.




teen States of this Union! This is in the millions of Mexican indebtedness. fourth article ; and then follows the pro- territory is about three times as large as posed stipulations on our part, “in consid- the whole of New-England ; and though, eration of this extension of the boundaries no doubt, a considerable portion of it, lying of the United States.” The first of these interior, between the coast chain and the is, to pay a sum of money, in blank, to Rocky Mountains, is of little value, yet we Mexico; and the next, to assume and pay know that other parts of it have been the claims, liquidated and unliquidated, of found valuable enough to attract to it a our citizens on Mexico. Here we have the considerable and increasing emigration, President's draught and proposition for a from our own country.

This is particutreaty.

larly the case with the country on the SaAnd how does the Counter-Project of cramento, which is understood to be settled the Mexican Commissioners differ from principally by emigrants from the United this? It proposes that the line of bound States. All these settlers would be ary shall be so drawn, that Mexico shall brought within our own limits by this cescede to the United States, besides Texas, sion—thus putting an end at once to a five degrees of latitude, or more than one serious difficulty which was brewing in half of the territory of Upper California, that quarter before the war began, and comprising about 190,000 square miles, or which could hardly fail, sooner or later, to an area larger than that of eleven of the At bring on another Annexation question to lantic States of this Union, taken together, disturb the peace of the two countries. beginning with Maine and running through The Message sets forth in strong terms the to Virginia. This is in the fourth article ; advantages, commercial and other, which and then come the articles in which it is would accrue to the United States from the stipulated," in just compensation for the possession of Upper California. But all this extension of old limits," first, that the has its best application to that northern United States shall pay to Mexico a sum portion, including the bay of San Francisco, of money, in blank; and next, this gov- which lies above the thirty-seventh parallel

. ernment shall take upon itself to pay

and It is this portion of the country that, “if satisfy the claims, liquidated and unliqui- held by the United States, would soon be dated, of our citizens on Mexico. Such is

Such is settled by a hardy, enterprising, and intelthe Counter-Project. And what, we ask, ligent portion of our population.” It is now becomes of the official statement of the bay of San Francisco that “would the Message, that this project proposes to afford shelter for our navy, for our nucede territory " for a pecuniary considera merous whale ships, and other merchant tion"-as if there was something offensive vessels employed in the Pacific Ocean, and in that but contains “no provision for the would, in a short period, become the mart payment by Mexico of the just claims of of an extensive and profitable commerce our citizens ?" If there is no such provis with China, and other countries of the ion in the plan proposed by Mexico, then East." One thing is certain—the Presithere is none in the plan proposed by the dent and his partisans are estopped by President himself.

the Message from setting up any want of There was not only indemnity offered in value in the cession which Mexico prothe case, but indemnity of the most ample posed to make, to constitute a full indemkind. We do not know that anybody nity, and a good deal more than that, for would think of setting up the pretence, the claims of our citizens on the justice of that the territory proposed to be ceded that country. was not, at least, equal to the amount of Here, then, we have the important fact these claims. There cannot be doubt that this object of the war, namely, the that it was worth a great deal more, and obtaining of indemnity for our unsatisfied that equal justice would have required the claims on Mexico, was fully met and repayment of a considerable balance to Mex- sponded to by that government at the conico, on account of the cession. It includes ferences in September, between the Comthe harbor and bay of San Francisco, of missioners of the two republics. These itself worth a great deal more to the United claims have figured largely in all the war States than the three, or four, or five manifestos of the President. All that he


has had to say, and repeat, as he does in upon the expenses of the war, as if he this last Message, about “ the wanton vio- had ever made these expenses any part lation of the rights of person and property of his demands upon Mexico for indemof our citizens committed by Mexico; her nity. He does not make this assertion in repeated acts of bad faith through a long terms; that would have been too gross series of years, and her disregard of solemn and palpable for him to venture upon. treaties, stipulating for indemnity to our And yet he means that the uninitiated injured citizens ;" all this, and much more reader shall so understand him. Referof the same sort, wrought up, in the face of ring to the project of a treaty, prepared notorious facts, to the point of most absurd at home, and which Mr. Trist took out with exaggeration and bluster, has had refer- him, and to the fact that by the terms of ence, of course, to these claims, for which, that plan, “ the indemnity required by the it stands confessed and recorded, whatever United States was a cession of territory," may have been her conduct in regard to he proceeds to state why it was that this them in times past, Mexico offered, in the kind of indemnity—namely, territory—was conferences under the walls of her belea- insisted on. The reason is thus stated : guered capital, the most ample indemnity. “It is well known that the only indemnity From that moment these claims ceased to which it is in the power of Mexico to make, be matter which could be talked about, in satisfaction of the just and long deferred with decency, as cause of war with that claims of our citizens against her, and the power; from that moment, if war was to be only means by which she can reimburse the prosecuted further against her, for any

United Stutes for the expenses of the war, is cause or any objects whatever, it was not a cession to the United States of a portion of certainly on account of these claims. And her territory.” while the claims themselves could no longer Certainly no plain man, unacquainted be set up as a reason for continuing the with the particular facts, could read this war, it was equally impossible, with de- paragraph without concluding that the cency, to talk any longer, as the President demands of the President for indemnity, does in this Message-perhaps from the as imbodied in the provisions of this promere habit of a sort of parrot repetition ject of a treaty, embraced the expenses of -about our magnanimous forbearance, the war; that, instead of being a demand of years' duration, in regard to these of indemnity for three or five millions at claims, manifested by our not having long most, the demand was for indemnity to and long ago asserted our rights by force; the amount of a hundred millions at least and how patiently we sought for redress -for the full cost of the war, up to that by amicable negotiation; and how we time, was not one dollar within that sum. were finally insulted in the person of The advantage, no doubt, which the Pres“our minister of peace,” by the mortifying ident proposed to himself by this staterejection he endured. All this, we say, as ment, was the creation of a prevalent popincident to the subject matter of these ular impression, that, however the actual claims, became obsolete, after the tender issue might turn out, and whatever crimiof full indemnity made by the Mexican nality, in the public es.imation, had markCommissioners in September. And this ed his conduct in precipitating the country war, as re-commenced and prosecuted after into this war, he, for one, had endeavored the breaking up of the conferences near to take care that it should cost the country Chapultepec, must find its justification, if nothing_except, indeed, some thousands any there be, in something else besides of lives, which it would be difficult to make these claims, or any conduct of Mexico in anybody pay for; that Mexioo, besides relation to them.

being chastised into a compliance with But we observe that the President, in his whatever terms of peace we might see fit Message, with that general disingenuous to prescribe to her, was to pay the money ness and unvarying obliquity of purpose, expenses of her own humiliation. And, which characterize nearly all the state- besides this, it was convenient to the arguments of the Message on the subject of the ment he was endeavoring to set up, to war, attempts to confound the understand swell the supposed indemnity which was ing of his readers, by affecting to insist to be exacted of Mexico, from three or five

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