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ing more wisdom, combine with honest men in to the letter, but, as in all ages profoundly recursing their old master-piece.

ligious men bave observed that the heart is the ** The audience before which these societies true altar where the Deity chooses to be honordeliberate, constitutes their strength ; and when ed, and that internal adoration is a thousand one considers that men of business do not neg- times more valuable than all the pomp of a lect their affairs to listen at the debates of a

magnificent worship intrusted to a small numclub, and that men of intelligence prefer the ber of persons, and confined to certain places silence of the closet, or the peaceable conver by express consecration, we may say that fear sation, to the tumult and clamors of these noisy had never more truly altars erected to it, than crowds, it is easy to see what must be the or now in Paris ; that it was never honored with a dinary composition of the audience, and further, more general worship; that this whole city is what sort of language is the best recommenda- its temple ; that all respectable people have betion to them. One simple fallacy is all-suffi come its pontiffs, offering to it the daily sacrifice cient: the constitution being founded on that of their opinions and their conscience.” eternal truth, the sorereignty of the people, it is

The mob commit excesses; personal only necessary to persuade the listeners at the club that they are the people.

privacy and personal liberty are invaded ; “ Lecturers and journal-mongers have gen- the respectable people say nothing against erally adopted this definition. Some hundred it or about it, "for fear of being called vagabonds collected in a garden or at a play, aristocrats.or some gangs of robbers and shop-lifters, are impudently denominated the people; and never

“ The simple sound of this word aristocrat did the most wanton despot receive from the stupefies the public man, and attacks the very most eagre courtier adoration so vile and dis. principle of motion in him. He wishes the gusting, as the base flattery with which two or success of the good, with all his heart; he is three thousand usurpers of the national sove- making zealous exertions that way, and would reignty are every day intoxicated--thanks to the sacrifice all his fortune to it; in the midst of writers and speakers of these societies ! his action, let him hear those four fatal sylla

“As the semblance of patriotism is the only bles pronounced against him, and he trembles, profitable virtue, some men who have been he grows pale, the sword of the law falls from stigmatized by their disgraceful lives run to the his grasp. Now it is clear enough, that Cicero club to get a reputation for patriotism, by the

will never be anything better than an aristocrat, violence of their discourses, founding on their

to take Clodius or Cataline's word for it: if, riotous declamations, and the passions of the then, Cicero is afruid, what will become of us?" multitude, oblivion of the past and hope for the

It must be plead, however, in excuse for future, and redeeming themselves from dis, these respectable people who said nothing grace by impudence. At the clubs are daily proclaimed, sentiments and even principles for fear of being called aristocrals, that which threaten the fortunes and the property of they had pretty urgent motives for silence. all. Under the names of forestalling and mo To be unpopular at that day, was to have nopeły, industry aud commerce are represented your head cut off: the terms were conas crimes. Every rich man passes for a pub- vertible. There are many among us, to lic enemy. Neither honor nor reputation is whom such reproaches are infinitely more spared ; odious suspicions and unbridled slander are called liberty of opinion. He who de applicable, men who will not lift up their mands proof of an accusation, is a suspected voices against some popular abuse or inman, an enemy of the people. At the clubs, justice or prejudice, for fear of being every absurdity is admired, if it be only mur called federalist or aristocrat; although, derous--every falsehood cherished, if it be only thank God! to call a man federalist or atrocious. *

* * * Sometimes, in- aristocrat neither knocks him on the head deed, guilty parties are assailed, but they are

nor even takes a cent out of his pocket. assailed with a violence, a ferocity, and an un

And when we hear a man complaining of faimess that make them appear

innocent."

the tyranny of the majority and popular inAbout the same time, (its exact date timidation because his independent conand the medium of its publication are un

duct has caused his fellow-townsmen to certain,) Chénier wrote The Allars of refuse him their voices at an election, or Fear, a sort of last appeal to the lovers made some honest editor afraid to publish of good order. Its title alludes to the his communications, we would just refer practice of the ancients, who made fear a

him to Chenier, who was putting his neck divinity, and erected altars to him. under the axe every time he took pen in

hand. « To be sure, we have not yet imitated them The momentous tenth of August came,

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and that notorious popular potentate whom bins, having grown wiser as they grew our saucy friends over the water have fa more frantic; that he was then a suspectcetiously denominated “the Yankee Jus- ed if not a denounced man, and would himtinian," had the supreme jurisdiction in self have shared the fate of André, had the Paris. The Journal de Paris was put rule of Robespierre lasted a fortnight down vi et armis, and its conductors and longer. The two pleas are not perfectly contributors precipitately scattered. Ché- consistent, and we think that generally the nier was in imminent danger; many thought editors and biographers of the brothers that he must have fallen a victim to the have erred in trying to prove too much, popular fury, and Wieland, the German and in giving to the accusation a greater poet, wrote to inquire if he were yet alive. importance than it deserved.* For our But he was not dead yet, nor even silent; own part, we do not believe one syllable of only his writings were now anonymous or

it. The Chéniers had that strong family pseudonymous. Owing to this fact, nearly attachment which all families ought to all that he published in the autumn have, and it is absurd to suppose that if and winter of 1792-3 has been lost. It is Joseph regarded the wishes of his relacertain, however, that he was the author of tives, when the question was only about the letter in which Louis after his condem- breaking off a paper war with his brother, nation vainly appealed to the French peo- he would have disregarded them when ple. After the king's death his friends that brother's life was at stake. The adpersuaded him to quit Paris for Versailles, vice he gave his father, who wished him to where he remained a whole year. By that agitate openly for his brothers, “ Rather time most of his personal enemies had dis- try to let them be forgotten," was the very appeared, some torn to pieces by wolves, best that could have been given, as the and some by their fellow Jacobins. But event too truly showed. Had nothing been Collot d'Herbois still lived, and his power said about André, he might have remained nearly equalled Robespierre's.

unnoticed for two days longer, which On the 6th of January, 1794, Chénier would have been enough to save his life, and was arrested. The immediate and ostensi- actually did save the life of Sauveur ; but ble cause of his arrest was a visit to a sus the memorial which his father addressed pected lady at Passy. The proceeding to that body called with a mournful irony was utterly illegal, even according to such the Commillee of Public Safety, was his scanty remains of law as the Terrorists death-warrant. had preserved for themselves, for Chénier And now comes a characteristic speciwas not under the local jurisdiction of the men of radical inaccuracy. Another of man who seized him, and had a safe con- | the Cheniers, Sauveur, formerly an officer duct and certificate of good citizenship in the army of the north, had been arrestfrom the authorities of his quartier. In- ed and imprisoned at Beauvais. In such deed the gaoler of the Luxemburg prison haste was the indictment against Andre refused to receive him, but the functionary drawn up, that it confounded him with at St. Lazare was less scrupulous.

Sauveur; attributed to one brother the As Joseph Chénier had been an influ- acts and writings of both, and designated ential Jacobin and a member of the Convention, there were not wanting persons * Especially do we think M. Arnault to blame, afterwards to assert that he had neglected for seriously confuting, in a narration of two pages, to save his brother's life when it was in his

a scandalous story of Madame de Genlis, aboui

Mademoiselle Duinesnil's reception of Joseph Chepower to do so ; nay, some even charged nier; as if a French actress would trouble herself

about truth, when there was a chance of saying a him with having contributed to his con

mot, or making a scene. demnation. This imputation his friends + And yet, after all, must we not say that, in a have indignantly repelled. They main- higher sense, Joseph Chenier was morally guilty of

his brother's death ? He had encouraged the Ja. tain that, on the contrary, it cobins in their earlier attempts; he had defended chiefly through his influence that An or apologized for their excesses; he had given them dré had remained unmolested for the six- his pen, his voice, and his influence. In so far,

then, as he had contributed to their triumph, must teen months preceding. They affirm, he be deemed answerable for the consequences of moreover, that Joseph had been for some

that triumph. Alas! it is not too well remembered

even at the present day, that they who help to open time virtually disconnected with the Jaco- | the flood-gates, are responsible for the inundation.

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the poet-editor as ex-adjutant-general and fulfils himself in many ways," and faith chief of brigade, under Dumouriez! One will illumine for him what, to the eye of of Andre's eulogists suggests that he made reason alone, is thick darkness. no allusion to this palpable flaw, in hopes that this confusion of personal identity θάρσει μοι θάρσει σέκνον, , might be the means of saving his brother. μέγας έτι εν ουρανο Ζεύς If so, his silence was successful.

ός τάδ' εφορα και κρατύνει. There were, indeed, many reasons why Andre Chenier should have made no fur But we very much fear Chenier had not ther opposition to the proceedings against this consolation. His views, lofty and him, than was necessary to expose their noble as they were, were still bounded by injustice and illegality in the eyes of future this world and the limits of human ability. generations. To one whose patriotic hopes And at that time it seemed as if no human had been so cruelly disappointed, life was ability could do anything for the French. of little value. When a man of refined | The people, from whom the gallows was education, liberal principles, hopes of libe- a more acceptable gift than the right hand ral institutions, and freedom from party of friendship,* had triumphed, and he had fanaticism, sees all constitutional land- | long before made up his mind which altermarks swept away, and the ochlocracy native to choose. triumphant, his despondency is utter and

Chenier was guillotined July 25th, 1794. hopeless. He has lost the dream of His works were not collected till 1819, doing and the other dream of done,” and and complete editions of them did not apknows not how to help himself or others.

pear till 1840. In one case only can he be sustained. If his mind has been deeply imbued with the true philosophy-the philosophy of Chris

*“ S'ils triumphent, ce sont gens par qui il vaut

mieux etre pendre que regarde comme ami."- Avis tianity-he may remember that “God

aur Francais sur leurs veritables Ennemis.

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. KING OF PRUSSIA.

[The accompanying portrait of the present King of Prussia, was taken from an excellent German print, furnished for the purpose, by the politeness of J. W. Schuidt, Esq., Prussian Consul for this city. It is a pen drawing, printed by Donlevy's Chemity pic press.-Ed.)

was

FREDERICK WILLIAM the Fourth burying in ruin the ancient house of the born in the royal palace, at Berlin, on the Capets, and all the time-honored institu15th of October, in the year 1795. His tions of the Church and of the State. All father was then Crown Prince of Prussia, the old orders of society, all the former for his grandfather, Frederick William II., usages and opinions, all the cherished was still on the throne.

modes of administering the government, It must be confessed, that this monarch and even the very boasted military tactics came into existence in one of the most of the age of Louis the Great, (as Louis stormy periods that mark the history of XIV. had long been called,) had gone our world. The great French Revolution down together in the overwhelming vortex was well advanced in its wonderful career, of that astounding movement; and a new Like a tornado, it had swept over France, I social and political world was beginning to

VOL. I. NO. I. NEW SERIES. 6

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