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cannot be very strongly enlisted. Yet principles, and the writers have written there is a satisfaction in thinking that opinions ex cathedra, rather than shown there have been great men among our an

the reasons of them.

The true province cestors. John Thompson, whose grand- of the art has not been defined. The unfather spent his days hammering a lap- educated have not been taught to distinstone, and grew rich by the rise of land, guish between music which is expressive takes now a secret joy in studying herald- and that which is merely effective; they ry, and ascertaining that the first of the have been left to fall into the old error Thompsons was slain in the wars of the respecting imitation and description. The Roses ; and if it makes John feel more like poetic element, which is the life of the art, a gentleman, or gives one a more assured has not been insisted on; and though good confidence that there is no hereditary im- musicians are always ready to feel and pediment in the way of his studying a acknowledge it, they do not think of fixing beautiful art, perhaps it does no harm to upon it as the one only test of excellence. encourage this propensity to think nobly The feeling with them is true, but in transof the blood from which we are descended. lating it into language, there is a lamentaIt is possible to judge well of ourselves ble want of clear ideas. without judging ill of others. We may Thus, for example, after hearing such a reverence our English music, as we do our beautiful piece as Fingal's Cave, which poetry, and still admire that of other na was played at the last Philharmonic retions, the German and the old Italian. hearsal, one might gather almost as many We

may have a list of great masters, tak- opinions as there were auditors. All ing in all history, and brought down to the would be pleased with it; but one would latest moment, like those odd catalogues pitch upon the peculiar richness of the inof saints one sometimes meets in the reli- strumentation : another would admire the gious newspapers. It may include, for perpetual novelty and variety in the treatexample, Jubal, Jeduthun, the chief mu ment of the subjects ; another would be sicians on Neginoth, Aijeleth Shahar, struck with the perfect imitation in the Shoshannim-eduth, Gittith, and Mahalath opening of the noise of a heavy sea rolling Leanoth, Apollo, St. Cecilia, Pope Greg- in upon a desolate shore. But all these ory, Palestrina, Bach, Handel, Ole Bull

, might have existed in the piece, and it still De Meyer, Jesse Hutchinson and Christy's have been poor music. It is in the poMinstrels. The continent of America is so etry of it that its excellence consists—the extensive that it is becoming in us, while musical idens, which the treatment, the we feel an honest pride in our lineage, to instrumentation, the imitation, belong to entertain enlarged views in matters of art and adorn, but would be nothing without. as well as in those of government and This one principle is the simple key to the :2ffairs.

highest mysteries of the art; and though Perhaps the great reason why so little it is applied differently in different minds, has been written upon music that has as it is by different composers, yet it would tended to its advancement, has been that save both hearers and musicians the trouthe true philosophy of it has been so im- ble of much vague thinking, to have it perfectly understood. The great artists always kept clearly present in their underare guided by intuition rather than by standings.

G. W. P.

FOREIGN MISCELLANY.

The revolution in France has not been pro- | fraternisers to Paris, who have paid a visit to ductive of any political consequences in Eng- the Provisional Government. A very large land. Considerable excitement was of course number of English male and female work-peocaused by that event; but this was in a great ple, who were employed in France, have been degree quieted, by the announcement of Lord driven away by the French populace, and comPalmerston in the House of Commons on the pelled to return home, losing the wages due 29th February, that the English Ambassador to them, and all the little property they poswas in communication with M. Lamartine, sessed. The Queen has added another princess and that the French Provisional Government to the Royal Family, now six in number. The expressed a disposition to preserve peace; and proposed addition of two per cent to the income also by an emphatic declaration of Lord John tax has been abandoned on account of its great Russell, made in the same place on the 28th unpopularity. February, that the government had no inten Great preparations were made in Ireland for tion whatever of interfering with the form of meetings to address the French nation, which government which the French nation might were to have been held on St. Patrick's day, please to adopt ; nor would the British govern- but these were postponed. * Smaller meetings ment in any way meddle with the internal were, however, held in the various parishes of affairs of France. The news, however, had Dublin and other places, at which resolutions great influence on the stock. exchange. On were passed, and Repeal petitions adopted. On the 28th February, consols fell as low as 801, the 20th March the Trades Union and Young and have ever since continued to fluctuate. Ireland party had a demonstration at Dublin, On the 25th March the closing price was about at which violent harangues were delivered. 83, but by the news just arrived, we perceive The people were congratulated on having esthey had on the 2d April receded to 811. On tablished their right of meeting; and told, it the 18th March, the amount of bullion and coin was hoped they would be ready, when called in the Bank of England was over fourteen mil upon, to meet in another and more effective lions sterling. Early in March there were way. Among the resolutions, was one approvsome meetings in London of a tumultuous ing of “the recognition of the rights of labor” character; lamps and windows were broken, by the French government. On the following and numerous depredations were committed. day Mr. Smith O'Brien, M. P., Mr. T. F. Some Chartists attempted to give a political Meagher and Mr. J. F. Mitchell, were held to turn to the affair, but the mobs, which were in bail by a Police Magistrate, the two former for great part composed of thieves and mischiev having delivered speeches calculated to excite ous persons, were dispersed by the police, and unlawful opposition to the government, and the the ringleaders consigned to jail. The work- | latter for having published in a paper called ing men and all other classes, have volunteered “ The United Irishman,” articles of a similar in great numbers to officiate as special consta- tendency. The latest accounts state, that bles, if necessary, to preserve order. In Glas- rifles and other weapons, including pikes of gow there were outbreaks of a more serious twelve feet long, are being purchased in connature. A mob of about 5000 assembled, and siderable quantities, and meetings held in rooms after being addressed by some Chartists, they for drilling and teaching the use of these wearobbed the stores of gunsmiths and others, but pons. The military force is being augmented were completely put down by a small military by the government, for the purpose of suppressforce, after five or six of their number had been ing any attempted outbreak. killed by the fire of a body of fifteen or sixteen On the 24th February, Louis Philippe and military pensioners, who being surrounded and the ex-queen commenced their flight from threatened by the mob, were compelled to use Paris, proceeding to Versailles, where they their muskets in self-defence. About one hun hired a common carriage and drove to Dreux; dred and fifty of the rioters were arrested. after which, they wandered in disguise from Plunder appears to have been the great object, place to place, until the afternoon of Thursday, as the crowds in every instance, except that the 2d of March, when they embarked at Honquoted, ran away at the first appearance of the fleur in a fishing boat, and were conveyed on military. The Chartists are getting up meet board the English steamer“ Express," then ings and delivering inflammatory addresses in waiting at Havre with her steam up, and which several of the large towns, but nothing serious immediately started for England. On the folhas occurred. They have sent a deputation of I lowing morning they landed at Newhaven

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without money, and the late king even without It recognizes the fact that working men are a change of clothing, dressed in a cap and entitled to unite together to enjoy the legitiblouse, with a pilot coat lent to him by the mate advantages of their labor." Twenty-four captain of the steamer. Their companions battalions of National Guard were recruited in were Generals Dumas and Roumigni, M. Thu- the city of Paris, to be paid 1 fr. 50 c. per day, ret, the king's private valet, and Mlle. Muser, and clothed and armed at the public cost. attendant on the queen. They have assumed These were immediately marched for the fronthe names of Count and Countess de Neuilly, tier. All linen clothes and small articles and have taken up their residence at Clermont, pledged at the Mont-de-Piété, on which not a seat belonging to the King of the Belgians. more than 10 fr. had been lent, were to be reAll the other members of the late Royal Family deemed at the public charge, and delivered to have arrived safely in England, except the the owners. T'he Tuilleries was declared an Duchess of Orleans and her children, who asylum for invalided workmen. Admiral Bauescaped to Germany, and at the last accounts din was sent to Toulon to sail with a fleet, and were residing at Ems. MM. Guizot and has taken possession of Algeria, in the name of Duchatel also escaped to England.

the Government. The National Guard which The Provisional Government of France, on had been suppressed out of Paris by the late, the 25th February, distributed its labors as fol- was reinstated by the present government lows: Dupont, (de l'Eure,) President of the throughout France, and the Colonels of the Council; Lamartine, Foreign Secretary ; Ara- twelve legions in Paris were dismissed. All go, Secretary of Marine; Crémieux, of Jus- political prisoners set at liberty. On Saturday, tice; Gen. Bedeau, of War; Marie, of Public 26th February, a great number of armed workWorks: Ledru Rollin, of the Interior ; Beth- men presented themselves at the Ministry of emont, of Commerce; Carnot, of Public In- the Interior. M. Ledru Rollin energetically struction ; Goudchaux, of Finances ; Garnier addressed them, and requested them to withPagès, Mayor of Paris. Gen. Cavaignac was draw, and they ultimately did so in compliance appointed Governor of Algeria, and Gen. Cour- with his recommendation to go and enrol as tais, Commandant General of the National National Guards. Several similar scenes took Guard. One of their first acts was a procla- place at the Hotel de Ville, where M. Lamarmation by the Provisional Government, declar- tine was compelled to address the multitude ing that by the "call of the people and some five times in the course of the day. The same deputies," in the sitting of the 24th of Feb-scenes occurred on the following days, and the ruary, it was for the moment invested with the appearance and demeanor of the assemblages care of organizing and securing the national were at times anything but respectful to their victory. It proceeds :-“ Frenchmen, give to rulers; the tact and the eloquence of the memthe world the example Paris has given to bers of the government were sufficient, howFrance. Prepare yourselves, by order and ever, to appease all angry feeling; and the confidence in yourselves, for the institutions conduct of the populace has hitherto, from a which are about to be given you. The Pro- reliance on the very liberal promises of the new visional Government desires a Republic, pend- government, and other causes, been remarkaing the ratification of the French people, who bly peacable; but notwithstanding this, Paris are to be immediately consulted. Neither the has been ever since the Revolution, and is at people of Paris nor the Provisional Government present, at the mercy of an armed multitude, desire to substitute their opinion for the opinion all regular troops having been withdrawn at of the citizens at large, upon the definite form the demand of the populace, and the National of government which the national sovereignty Guard incorporated with an additional force of shall proclaim."

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uments is a species of manifesto from M. Lam on the evils of unlimited competition, and the artine to the various foreign ministers in Paris. benefits of association; the proceedings were It contains the following: “You are acquainted most disorderly, silence could not be preserved, with the events of Paris, &c. The French and the Minister abruptly quitted and went to Revolution has thus entered its final period. the Hotel de Ville, to assist in the receptions The proclamation of the French Government there. A decree having been issued by which is not an act of aggression against any form of certain compagnies d'élite of the National government in the world. War is not then Guards which were somewhat more select than the principle of the French Republic, as by a the general body, were to be dissolved and fatal and glorious necessity, it had become in fused in the mass for the purpose of furthering 1792. In 1792, it was not the entire people the designs of the ultra-democratic party, exwho had entered into possession of its then gov- cited great indignation among the old National ernment; it was the middle class alone who Guard, a large body of whom presented themdesired to exercise and enjoy liberty. The tri- selves unarmed at the Hotel de Ville, and deumph of the middle class was then selfish, as is manded a recall of the ordinance, which being the triumph of every oligarchy. In 1792, the refused, they threatened to return in arms the people were only the instruments of Revolu- following day, and they did accordingly return tion, not the objects of it. Today, the Revo- in a large force, but were compelled to retire, lution is made by them and for them. But a crowd of 30,000. persons having assembled to apart from these disinterested considerations, prevent their access to the seat of government. the sole interest of consolidation and duration The election of the National Assembly, to of the Republic, will inspire the statesmen of consist of nine hundred representatives, (fifteen France with thoughts of peace. The French of them from Algiers,) having been decreed to Republic will not then provoke war against take place on the 20th April, the Provisional any one.

She need not say that she will ac Government sent out Commissioners to the cept it, if the conditions of war be laid down to various departments, who were instructed by the French people. The feeling of the men M. Ledru Rollin, that their powers were unlimitwho govern France at this inoment, is this: ed ! “ Agents of a revolutionary authority, happy France, if war be declared against her, you are revolutionary also. The victory of the and if she be thus constrained to increase her people has imposed on you the duty of getting power and glory, despite of moderation. The your work consolidated and proclaimed. For i reaties of 1815 exist no longer, as a right, in the accomplishment of this task, you are inthe eyes of the Republic; however, the territo- vested with its sovereignty ; you

take orders rial limits of these treaties are a fact which it only from your own conscience.' They are diadmits as bases and starting points in her rela- rected strongly to forward republican sentitions with other nations." It then goes on to ments; to change the prefects and sub-prefects say, that if the hour for the reconstruction of everywhere; also mayors and deputies; to some oppressed nationalities in Europe or else- nominate their successors, preferring young where should appear to be announced in the men, “as order and generosity is the privilege decrees of Providence, and if limits or obstacles of that age;" to dissolve hostile municipal were opposed to these internal transformations, councils; to call out the military and to susthe French Republic would believe herself pend its commanding officers; to demand from authorized to arm for the protection of those the legal functionaries a devoted co-operation. legitimate movements of growth and nationality “The elections are your great work”-“ New -“she will never permit the hand of any one men, and as much as possible from the ranks between the pacitic radius of her liberty, and of the people. The working classes, who form the regard of nations." A permanent commis the living strength of the nation, should choose sion, with M. Louis Blanc at its head, has been from among them, men recommended by their formed, with the express and special mission of intelligence, morality and devotedness; united occupying itself with the rights of labor, and to the élite of thinking men, they will bring workmen are invited to form part of the com force into the discussion of all great questions mission, which sits in the late Chamber of which will be agitated under the authority of Peers; working time has been reduced one

their practic

experience.” On the 1st Jan. hour per diem-to ten hours in Paris, and | 1811, the public debt (deducting government eleven in the provinces. On the 29th Febru- stock belonging to the sinking fund,) was ary, the Archbishop of Paris and the clergy 4,267,315,402 francs. On the 1st February, sent in their formal adhesion; also various | 1818, it was 5,179,614,730 francs, and the other public bodies. Strikes of workmen for floating debt had increased from 1831 to Feb. more pay and less labor have taken place in 1848, from 250 to 670 millions of francs. The Paris, and have extended to the provinces; the annual expenses of the late French Governwages of omnibus drivers have been raised by ment considerably exceeded that of Great order of the government. At the commission Britain, and loans to over 900 millions of of workmen on the 17th March, M. Louis Blanc francs had been made since 1831. It is not met a deputation of masters whom he addressed | possible in our limits, to give a detailed state

ment of the present financial or commercial prisoner. The American Minister was the state of France. Mercantile failures were first to recognize the Provisional Government. numerous at the commencement of the revolu- He was succeeded by those of Great Britain, tion. They were first manifested in Paris, but Belgium, and Prussia. spread rapidly to all the commercial towns; In Belgium the news from France created and throughout France the mercantile commu great sensation and much commercial embar. nity may be said to be in a state of bankruptcy. rassment. The King announced that if the A decree was passed postponing all payments people desired a republic, he would abdicate for fifteen days, and subsequently another stay- rather than be the cause of bloodshed. This ing law-suits for three months.' The Bank of announcement was responded to in terms of France was early compelled to suspend specie loyalty ; a determination was expressed to uppayments, except ten per cent. on amounts hold their government and national integrity; drawn out, when that portion was certified to and measures were adopted to maintain their be necessary

for

payment of workmen. Nearly position in case of attack. The whole of all the private bankers in Paris have failed, Europe has been violently affected by the crisis. and mercantile confidence is lost. Numerous In the Italian provinces of Austria risings have establishments are closed, and multitudes of taken place and the Emperor's troops have met workmen are out of employ. In many places with defeats. The King of Sardinia is said outbreaks of the laboring classes have arisen to have marched his army for the purpose of In Rouen the Commissary has been compelled driving the Austrians out of Italy. The Pope, to forbid the visits of large asserablages, and at the demand of his people, has accorded a ordered them to send in their communications constitution. A revolution has taken place in by small deputations; and in Lyons, that func- the Duchy of Modena, and the Duke was vainly tionary has sent to the Provisional Government trying to conciliate the people by concessions. for instructions to quell the tumults, and has In Sicily the King of Naples is still defied. expressed his determination to pursue his in- The Austrians have availed themselves of the structions rigidly. The Government of Paris prevailing excitement to demand large conwere obliged to augment the direct taxes forty- cessions from the Emperor, who has been comfive per cent., and the Commissary at Lyons pelled to yield. Prince Metternich, so long added fifty-five per cent. more, thus doubling his chief adviser, was obliged to fly from the amount in that city. Having undertaken Vienna to his estate in the country, from to find employment for all idle hands, has whence, it is said, he has found it necessary thrown upon the government a burden which, to depart, and is now on his way to England. under any circumstances, would be insupport- Bohemia and the States of Hungary also rose able: in the present crisis it appears impossi- in revolt ; the latter has been granted a minisble, and yet there seems no retreat open at try of her own, and hence all cause of danger present. The Revolution said the government as regards that portion of the empire would was made for the people, and they are to bene seem to have ceased. A proclamation has fit by it. The calm, which at first appeared al been issued granting liberty of the press and a most incredible, seems to be giving way. In constitution to the Bohemian States. The a late paper we counted a list of fifty-two polit- greatest enthusiasm is said to prevail in both ical clubs established in Paris. Attacks on the these countries. Serious disturbances occurred government have lately appeared in some of in Berlin on the 13th March. A large assem. the newspapers; the Presse, edited by M. blage having met to consider a petition to be Emile Girardin, was threatened by the mob, presented to the King, it was reported that and protected by armed workmen of the estab some arrests had been made, and that the lishment. The residents of Paris are in a con government intended, by armed force, to prestant dread of the populace, and an unarmed vent any public demonstration. A gendarme police force of 1300 has lately been organized. happening to arrive was pursued by the crowd, The election of members of the National As which in its turn was driven back by the milisembly has been postponed till the 23d April. tary, upon which serious riots ensued. On The Government have ordered the Banks in the the following day the Burgomasters and Senaprincipal commercial cities to suspend cash tors issued a proclamation expressing confipayments, and that their notes shall be received dence in the good intentions of the King, and in payment. Large bodies of troops are being urging peace and good order on the people. collected at various points, particularly in the On the same day a deputation was received by neighborhood of the Alps, to be ready, if re the King, who presented to him the petition. quired, to enter Italy. A band organized in On the 18th the King issued a proclamation France invaded Belgium, to effect a revolution, convoking the States for the 2d April, and but the first detachment being carried by the granting the liberty of the press. The ministry railroad considerably beyond the frontiers, were was also changed. received by two regiments of soldiers, and con The King of Bavaria, who had rendered ducted to a fortress for safe keeping; the latter himself both obnoxious and contemptible hy his detachment was defeated, and its leader taken conduct with the notorious Lola Montes, re

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