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encountered the most determined hostility: had returned to Democratic hands. MemMr. B.'s speech in its favor was a legal and bers were present from four States, who constitutional argument, as well as an had been elected by general ticket, in deearnest appeal to the justice and right fiance of the law of Congress! The Whigs feelings of the House.

were too few in number to contend sucAt this session Mr. Tyler sent in his fa- cessfully with a determined and lawless mous Exchequer plan : which was a plan majority. They resolved to content themfor an Executive Bank, to deal in deposits selves with a formal Protest against the and exchange, and be managed by the right of the general ticket members to Executive, or his clerks and secretaries. their seats. This paper was prepared by There was to be a Board of Exchequer, - Mr. Barnard. It received the signatures of which was only an Executive Treasury fifty Whigs. It cost the Whigs a desperate with sub-treasuries.

and protracted struggle to get the Protest As antagonistic to this, Mr. Barnard di- where they were resolved to have it on gested and presented a Fiscal plan for the the Journals of the House. In this effort safe keeping of the public money, and for the lead was in Mr. Barnard's hands, who the employment of issues strictly converti- offered the Protest. In this Congress, the ble, and which created no Sub-treasury, efforts of Whigs were those of opposition and no Executive Bank. But the whole to the party measures of the “Democsubject went over.

racy.” Such were Mr. Barnard's efforts. On the eve of the election in New York, He spoke against the Report of the Comin the fall of this year, Mr. John C. Spen- mittee on Elections in regard to elections cer, then Mr. Tyler's Secretary of War, by general ticket; against the bill to recame out with a manifesto to the people fund the fine imposed on Gen. Jackson ; on the merits of Mr. Tyler and his ad- against a proposed substitute for the tariff ministration. This was reviewed by Mr. of 1812 ; and against the Annexation of Barnard in an address delivered at a meet- Texas.

Texas. He prepared, also, and published, ing of the citizens of Albany, which was without having an opportunity to offer it immediately published and widely circu- to the House, a paper in “ Review of the lated and read.

Report of the Committee of Ways and In the third session of the twenty- Means on the Finances and the Public seventh Congress, after an ineffectual ef- Debt.” fort to reject the repeal of the Bankrupt This paper was got up with very great Law by the same Whig votes which had labor and research. It unravelled the passed it the year before, Mr. Barnard condition of the treasury and the finances, gave his attention mainly to the Presi- and, by a clear demonstration, placed the dent's Exchequer plan, now again sent in, creation of the public debt, as it then exand which he opposed, and to another isted, where it belonged, to the sole acplan of his own which he prepared and count of Mr. Van Buren's administration. presented to the House. He thought it It showed demonstrably that the twenthe duty of Congress to do something on ty-seventh Congress had created no this subject. But nothing was done. "His debt. “Provisional Bill for supplying a National In July and August, 1844, Mr. Barnard Currency” was fully explained and dis- addressed to his constituents, through the cussed in a speech delivered near the close Albany Evening Journal, a series of politiof this short session. This plan, leaving cal papers, five in number, on the leading the deposit system to operate under the public questions of the period, and on the old law of 1789, proposed, by a simple true policy of the country in regard to new and perfectly safe process, involving the as well as old issues before the people. government in not the slightest risk, to These papers were reprinted elsewhere in adopt and nationalize a limited amount of and out of the State. In March, 1845, sound convertible State bank currency for Mr. Barnard's services in Congress were general uses. The plan met the decided at an end. and warm approval of many of the best In the winter of 1844-5, there was pubmen of both branches of Congress. lished in a Philadelphia paper, a series of In the twenty-eighth Congress, power skilfully executed Daguerreotype sketches

35

VOL. I. NO. V. NEW SERIES.

of members of Congress, one of which related to him, and runs thus :

gress. He leaves behind him an honorable reputation, both for public and private virtue.”

Mr. Barnard's connection with the Amer“D. D. BARNARD, OF New YORK.—Mr. Barnard is the leader of the Whig party in the ican Review, as an occasional contributor, House, if it can be said to have any acknowl- began with its first year, and has been edged head. He would occupy a prominent continued ever since. The readers of the position in any legislative body. He is a Review can judge of him as a political sound, logical thinker, and a hard student. He writer for themselves. possesses a fund of information upon politics,

There is another department in which law and general knowledge, that could only Mr. Barnard has performed a good deal of have been attained by a life of long and patient application. He belongs to a class of men who

severe labor, and which we should notice are unfortunately diminishing in every succes

before concluding this sketch. Considersive Congress-men of practical views, pro-ing his other occupations, he has wrought found minds, and strong common sense, who up, first and last, a great deal of literary apply themselves to the duties of Congressional matter. For many years he has been life, with the view of becoming useful and bene- often called upon to deliver addresses and ficent statesmen. He never sacrifices sense to lectures at our colleges, and before lycesound, nor seeks éclat by displays of brilliant rhetoric.

ums, literary societies, and mutual im“ Armed at all points with constitutional provement associations. These addresses learning, he is always ready to meet the cham are generally elaborate, as if produced pions of nullification, or of Locofocoism, who with much study, thought and research. attack the tenets of the Whig party, or seek to Of these there have been printed enough, palliate violations of law by crude and danger- if collected, to make two large volous expositions of our National Charter. His

umes. In 1839 “ An Historical Sketch powerful speeches on the general ticket question, and his firin and unflinching opposition to of the Colony of Rensselaerwick,” prethe admission of the illegally elected members, pared by him, and read before the Albany will not soon be forgotten. As an interpreter of Institute, was published. Shortly after the Constitution, Mr. Barnard, in common with this he was made an Honorary Member of the Wbig party, belongs to the school of Mar- the Massachusetts Historical Society. In shall, Story, Madison, Hamilton and Washing- 1835 the degree of Doctor of Laws was ton, and those who framed that instrument, conferred upon him by Geneva College, He looks upon the Constitution in the liberal spirit in which it was conceived, as the funda- and in 1845 the same honor was awarded mental law of a great nation, adequate to all him by Columbia College in New York. progress of our history. With these views, he have the force and character of settled is a friend of judicious internal improvements, convictions, and are severely held. He is the protective policy, and a bank of the United always anxious to have his party hold its States, and a sturdy opponent of the narrow views of the race of Virginia hair-splitters and principles in the same spirit

. He thinks abstractionists, who, for all practical purposes,

it the best policy to be honest in politics reduce the Constitution to a dead letter. as in everything else. He has a strong

“ As a speaker, Mr. Barnard is clear, convinc- aversion to demagogues and their tricks. ing and argumentative. He wants a lively He has never solicited office. When called imagination, which takes from his speeches the to the performance of public duties, he attractions of rhetorical ornament and illustra- has obeyed usually with all the signs of tion. He speaks in a measured and deliberate real reluctance, but we may believe not tone, and occasionally throws out a lofty sentiment which shows the depth and dignity of his without such feelings of gratified pride, as intellect. His manner is earnest, but at the a man may justly indulge when he finds same time courteous and deferential to oppo- himself trusted and honored by his fellow

He never gives an insult in debate, and men. He is evidently ambitious of such cannot be provoked to notice the blackguard honors as flow from desert, but has never isms which every gentleman encounters in

sought political distinction except in some such a body as the House of Representatives. The face of Mr. Barnard is that of a student field of useful and patriotic endeavor. pale, grave and thoughtful. In stature, he is Those who know bim best, will aver that tall; he is past the meridian of life. He re his highest aim is the good of his countires from public life with this session of Con- | try.

In Mr.

nents.

HOGARTH'S MUSICAL HISTORY.

This is the best musical history we have his intimate musical friends. There should in English, and its republication in a cheap be in it no parade of technicalities, none of form cannot but have a good influence in the concealments of quackery ; yet there diffusing correct ideas of music and gene- should be free opinions and the reasons ral views of its past progress, where they for them, given in an artist-like manner, are much needed. Mr. Hogarth was for and as though the work were intended for many years connected with one of the artists. London papers as musical critic; he is, There is no art that suffers so much we believe, the father-in-law of Dickens. through the timidity of its professors, as Without making any pretension to techni- music. The artists are so fearful the pubcal knowledge, he has evidently a culti- lic will not understand the true, that they vated taste; he writes in a plain, simple actually surfeit them with the false. Every style, and though he is neither so profound / one knows how it is at our concerts; the nor acute a critical writer as a thorough | most distinguished performers who come education and a more sensitive perception among us dare not supply our audiences might have made him, yet he is one who with anything but show music. We will understands himself, and whose judgments, mention in particular Herz and Sivori, beif not authoritative, are always respectable. cause they were very successful here, and For those who are not so constituted that because it is time to say that there are a they are compelled to read and remember few lovers of music among us who felt everything relating to music that comes aggrieved to think that artists of their within their reach, his history must be rank should have been so little disposed very interesting ;-we can faucy conditions to use their great skill for the love of truth. of being admitting such a supposition. Henri Herz might have given now and

But for our own part, (we speak not then something much better than his own personally, but in the name of all unfortu- themes and variations, without doing himnate amateurs,) Mr. Hogarth's history is self any pecuniary injury. Louis Philippe, as tedious as a twice-told tale. It is all who, he said, was very fond of Sachini and very well, but the facts are as familiar as the old Italians, must have grown very the events narrated in the Old Testament; weary of his pianist unless he had the and for the criticism, it is so far off, cold, power to procure from him something and general, that though all very true, it other than his own writing, when he comis tiresome. It is to be regretted that manded him to the palace. Sivori, we some learned musician has not written a have been informed by good authority, technical work of this kind on music. Al excels in solid music as much as he does series of thorough examinations of the pe- | in superficial; yet all he ever gave was a culiarities of the styles of the great mas sonata of Beethoven on one occasion, and ters, and of different times and schools, his way of doing that was not what it would be the most interesting work on would have been before a discerning audimusic that can be conceived ; and it is to tory. Whenever these players did give be hoped that some one who combines the anything good, it was sure to be timidly rare qualities of artist and critic will some and ineffectively done. Once they did day devote himself to this task. The sub-advertise a classical concert; the result stance of it should be such as we may fancy was the usual Campanella and Carnival, such a man as Mendelssohn to have uttered the everlasting Last Rose of Summer, with in familiar conversations with his pupils or variations, and a few airs from Don Gio

* Musical History, Biography, and Criticism, by GEORGE HOGARTH. New York: J. S. Redfield. 1848.

vanni. They thought that the word our city, how much more gratifying to “ classic”

on the posters might increase every true musician would have been the for once the potency of these enormous result! For we cannot conceive that Verblisters, but they did not dare to actually di, though there are many odd things in exhibit the article in the Tabernacle in any his pieces, and sometimes good ones, is appreciable quantity.

really loved by those who have deemed it But we do not for this blame them so their duty to subject themselves to the much as if they were all that their personal nightly fatigue of hearing him. Whereas, friends would have it believed ; for by if Mozart had been given the same number their thus degrading the sacred art of mu- of times, and with a force equally capable sic to a mere trade, they, in so far, show a of rendering him properly—at the worst want of those qualities which mark the true he could but have failed, as Verdi bas; artist, and are not to be reproved for not but he would not have failed before thrilldoing what they might have done for their ing many hearts with his tenderness and art, because they set out with no end in fire, and leading them thus upward to a view but to use it as a business. If Men- wider sphere of enjoyment; we should, by delssohn, in the midst of his great life, had this time, have heard his melodies in the stopped short, and made his fortune by streets; and they would, for that is their show-playing, he would have deserved the legitimate effect, have exerted a refining most severe criticism that could be applied influence on our social life. to an artist; though as a man of the world The writers on music for popular readhe would have acted very prudently. But ing are also much troubled by this same when performers give themselves wholly to timidity, or want of confidence in the the trickery of the art, and for years make power of truth ; and that is probably the it their sole study, it has, of course, a re- great reason why no learned musician has tributive influence upon their minds; men ever attempted such a work as we have cannot“ go here and there and make them- above suggested. The truly learned preselves a motley to the view," and “ look on fer, with Mozart, to "show how it ought truth askance and strangely," without be to be done,” to writing on their art; or if coming somewhat parti-colored in their they write, they are afraid of being too abminds, and incapable of looking at truth struse and technical. They are too ready directly. They make their fortunes, and to distrust the capacity of the unlearned. live and enjoy their well-earned wealth ; Hence we have so very little really satisbut they do not grow into great artists ; factory and instructive musical criticism. indeed, if they live long enough, and carry Such works as this of Mr. Hogarth are out their system purely enough, they de- doing much, however, we may hope, to generate into unmixed charlatanry. They lead the way to a more thorough mode of do not deserve, therefore, to be criticised treating music than has been hitherto as true artists; for by their course they, in practiced by our writers. The histories of effect, disclaim the title. Or, since that Burney and Hawkins are not books of phrase may seem to put it too roundly, we which an English musician can feel particmay admit them to be artists, but yet, in ularly proud ; the “ Music of Nature” is such a department of musical art that the probably the worst thing that was ever same criticism which would apply to truly written on music in any language. The greut artists must not be used towards London Musical Review, published many them.

years since, had a great many good artiThus this timidity operates badly in the cles, but in general it was very ponderous. first instance on the public, and reacts un The Musical Library, with its specimens of favorably on the professors. The history the styles of the various masters, and of music shows, that wherever the true short critical notices of them, was excellent ; has been presented fairly, and with the a reprint of the music given in it, with the same confidence that is wasted upon the notices, would be one of the best things false, it has always been acknowledged that could be done for music in this country. and felt. If the same money had been Holmes's Life of Mozart is a very interestspent upon Mozart that has been lavished ing work, but it would have been much upon Verdi, during the past year, within better, if, in addition to the affecting

narrative of the great composer's strug- / him as

one of her own sons. Handel gles, it had also included a learned and lived in England from 1710 till 1759, and minutely discriminating review of his style, wrote all his best works during that time. letting us fully into what was new in bis He was as much an Englishman as Mr. Asmanner, showing, by some striking exam tor was a citizen of the United States, and ples of each, how his boldness astonished more so; for artists make themselves at the old tie-wig composers, giving some home sooner than others. Messrs. Loder, of his characteristic peculiarities, in short, Timm, Dr. Hlodges--yea, Mr. Chubb-are treating of him at large as artist. Mr. not these and many more, New Yorkers ? Holmes has done a little of this, it is true, If being a necessary and integral part of a just enough to render the reader unhappy city can make them so, they certainly are; that he has not done more. Besides these for the town cannot do without them. books and a very few more, we have abso- | Take away the Tabernacle, Apollo Saloon, lutely nothing in the language on music that Trinity Church, the Park Theatre, and is worth reading, excepting grammars and you have no longer the same village ! scientific treatises. That sort of writing But Handel was English, not only by which, while it conveys knowledge, quickens residence, but in the tone of his ideas, and the perception and communicates the love form of his expressions. The characterof truth, has not yet been bestowed upon istic Handelian melody, so large, open, this art. At least it has not been so rich, flowing, was written to please Engbestowed in a permanent form accessible lish ears ; it was the conforming of Hanto our public; for undoubtedly there has del's style to that of previous English been much good writing in the Musical composers, and to the peculiarities of EngWorld, &c., as well as much of the publish national melody. His genius would lisher's puff sort of criticism.

not have developed itself in so universal To this fact it is probably owing that a manner had he not been, as it is said he the Germans and French still remain, to a was, a great reader of our best poets, and great extent, under their ancient delusion able to sympathize with our deepest emowith regard to English music. The Ger- tions and affections. Conceive such a man mans, indeed, since they became acquaint- living at Paris ! ed with Handel, have grown somewhat We are glad that Mr. Hogarth has wiser ; they at least must acknowledge given so full accounts of the English muthat if England has produced no music, sicians before and since Handel ; for beshe has bought and paid for the best; and cause they are seldom heard, and not it was her cash that soothed the unhappy brought into notice by writing, they are Beethoven when he was dying, oppressed generally underrated. The opportunities with the dread of want, among his friends of hearing new music with us are not freat Vienna. But the French are still, from quent, and nothing is more easy or more the necessity of their natures, i. be common than to seem to know more than cause they cannot understand the truly others. We will confess that all we ever great in art, quite ignorant that any melo- heard of Purcell (unless he, instead of dies but sea songs and “God Save the Lock, wrote the music to Macbeth) was Queen” were ever written across the at a few very entertaining lectures on channel. It is quite amusing to see M. Shakspeare, with musical illustrations, Fetis and other French writers, speaking given last winter by Mr Lynne. But of Handel as “the German musician who that was enough to justify the high rank lived in England,” while on the same page assigned him by all the best writers, and they will claim Cherubini, who was born to make it more a matter of surprise than and educated in Italy, for a Frenchman. ever that he is not oftener heard. One It is true that such great geniuses belong such musician, if our Saxon blood had proto no country; but when a man goes to a duced bul one, is worth a whole wilderness foreign land in youth, makes and loses of Aubers and Adams. several fortunes, acquires an immortal But to us, on this side of the world, fame, spends a long life, and finally goes to questions of nationality present themselves his rest there, it would seem that his adopt- as pure abstractions ; they are matters in ed country might very properly consider which the feelings of American amateurs

e.

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