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such as may be interested in the inquiry Iambics of nine syllables are rare, though to prove, or disprove, what is asserted, by occasionally to be met with in the older farther examples, we venture
dramatists ; never, perhaps, in Milton. that the first principle of metrical, is the In the line, same with that of musical verse, namely, that the line taken for a rule, or model,
Flavsă's ă wit, bắt å wit or harsh or keen, though the number of its syllables may vary, will always be of the same metrical
there are twelve syllables ; but equal in length, or in other words, will be equal to metrical quantity to the more usual verse the same number of metrical units, or short of ten syllables, two short. Six of the times ; and if a line varies from this meas- syllables being short and six long, the ure, it is either an alexandrine or a curt whole together equal two shorts and eight line, introduced for variety, or it is falsely long, or eighteen times, or units; which is measured and out of time. We intend, the invariable quantity of all English healso, that if these principles, with the roics of this form, except alexandrines. It others previously expressed, are true in does not often happen that more than two the given instances, they are equally true shorts are used in this line, and in good for all languages and all varieties of metre,
verse rarely more than four. even to the denial that any poetic metres, founded on other principles, can properly | Tő toast our wants and wishës is her way;
“Flavíă’s å wit, has too much sense to pray; exist. And this, of course, is directly Nor asks of God, bắt of her stars to give opposed to a favorite theory of some Thě mighty blessing, while we live to live. writers, that good verse may be composed Then all for death, thăt opiate of thě soul, in our language by accents alone, without Lucretia's dagger, Ròsămonda's bowl. regard to quantity. It maintains that Say what can cause such impotence of mind ? good English verse is as thoroughly quan- Wise wretch! with pleasures too réfined to
A spark too fickle, or a spouse too kind ? titative as the Greek, though it be much
please; more heavy and spondaic.
With too much spirit to be ere at ease;
With too much quickness ever to be taught ;
You purchase pain with all thăt joy can give, Flavia's å wit, has too much sense to pray. And die of nothing but thở rage to live.” POPE.
EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH METRES.
In this line there are four short (metrical) "O prince, O chief of măny throned powers, syllables. The first foot, Lu, has the That led the embattled sěrăphim to war, form of a hexametrical dactyl, but as the Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds metrical accent of that dactyl falls on the And put to proof his high súpremăcy;"
Fearless, endangěrěd heaven's perpětŭal king, first, but that of this upon the last (metri
MILTON. cal) syllable, it may be called an iambic dactyl, formed by the substitution of two It is not unusual to find a heavy line in short for one long time in the last portion Milton, in which a double consonant is of the foot. Iambic spondees and dactyls slurred, as in the third verse of the above are to be distinguished by the metrical passage, where for and, we read an', and accent falling on the last syllable. The make er before th as short as e alone. line consists of eleven syllables, although The (formulas of the Miltonic verse admits not longer in quantity than a spondaic one a vast variety ; but, like the hexameters of nine, or an ordinary iambic line of ten; of Homer, retains something of the heavieleven syllables, four of which are short, ness of the earlier ages. The lines just being equal in quantity to nine long; or given may be scanned as follows:to ten, of which two are short.
-1 Yield not your truth || though gold you persuade, is equal in quantity to the regular iambic, but has a peculiar character and accent. -1--|--|-
The first of these verses has a supernumer
Eftsoons oně of those villains him did rap ary syllable; an addition very usual in the Upon his headpiece with his yron
mall." heroic verse of Sophocles, Euripides, Shak
Fairy Queen. speare and Milton. The quantity of the blank The foregoing examples may suffice to verse of Milton and Shakspeare equals illustrate, at least, if not to establish, the eighteen times, or metrical units, and, with views put forth in the above essay. At the supernumerary, nineteen or twenty times. That of Sophocles, with even greater to the subject; and if it be not regarded
another time we propose to revert again variety of structure, equals nineteen, and with the supernumerary, twenty, or
as too trifling or contemptible a matter to twenty-one, short times, arranged in twelve, engage the serious consideration of critics, thirteen, or fourteen syllables, in every be the principles and laws of English
to develop farther what seem to us to form that is consistent with the iambic
It is now a part of courtesy to thank “ Wilt thou bě gone ? it is not yet near day:
the author of the work before us, for offerIt was thě nightingale, and not the lark, ing, at once, an apology and occasion for That pierced the fearful hollow of thine ear." what has been said. The views supported
Romeo and Juliet. in the work itself are not, indeed, such as
we would subscribe to, nor can we admit Formula of the above:
the numerous analyses of English metres
which it contains to be correct; yet, as it ---||
is as complete in design and execution -||
as anything that has yet appeared on
the subject, and well calculated to excite A great part of the variety of the verse
the attention, and direct the inquiries, of in Shakspeare and Milton is due to the vari- English scholars, the study of our own ous placing of the cæsura, or dividing metres, we shall even pass it by without a pause, in the time, indicated by the double word of criticism. The book is a small, mark in the above formula. When this well printed volume, cheap enough, and breaks a word, it is most effective.
well worth its price, if it were only for
the numerous beautiful specimens of verse “ And, if by fortune ăny littlě nap
which it contains.
J. D. W. Upon his heavy eyelids chanced to fall,
This volume contains a great many new and obtain permit of residence. This and interesting facts about Russia, com- permit is good only for the city and vicinmunicated in a very sensible manner. It ity, and if he wishes to proceed further will be doing it a courtesy, and at the same there are new forms to be gone through. time convey the best idea of its character, The exactness with which all this is manand make, we hope, an entertaining article, aged is perfect. It is said there has probto skim it over and give the cream of it. ably not a foreigner visited Russia in time
The first hundred pages are occupied of peace, in this century, whose name and with the author's journey from Copenha- movements were not perfectly known to the gen to Christiana, and thence overland in police. Mr. Maxwell states that an AmerNorway and Sweden to Stockholm : these ican gentleman was at St. Petersburg in we will pass by. At Stockholm he takes | 1820 and afterwards in 1843; the last steamer for St. Petersburg, and readers time he was surprised to hear the officer who will take the slight trouble to trans- remind him that he had been in Russia port themselves to the gulf of Finland, twenty-three years before. On departing, may join him there without difficulty. every foreigner must publish his intention
The eastern extremity of the gulf is in three consecutive numbers of the Gathe bay of Cronstadt and the mouth of the zette of the Academy, a proceeding which Neva. The bay is not navigable for ves takes a week or ten days; the object of sels drawing over eight feet water, and this is to protect creditors. With Russian hence the large merchantmen are obliged subjects, the difficulties are very much to discharge at Cronstadt and send their greater, and, wherever he may be, every cargoes up to St. Petersburg in lighters. | Russian subject must return at the citation Immense granite fortifications guard the of the police, or his property is confismouth of the Neva, there about eight cated. hundred yards wide, and with the natural At a first view St. Petersburg appears difficulties of navigation render the ap- the most magnificent of all the great Euproach of a hostile fleet: impossible. No ropean capitals. It is built on a marsh on traveller is permitted to enter the empire the southern side of the Neva, and extends without a passport, and the delay and in over several islands in its channel. The convenience to those who arrive at Cron- windings of the stream intersect it, and it stadt unprovided are very great. Not long is also divided by various canals originally ago a young Boston lady, a relative of made for drainage. The banks of the some of the first merchants in St. Peters- i river and canals are faced with hewn granburg, was detained here alone under guard ite, and form delightful promenades. until one could be procured through the Ascending the river, the first object on American minister: she bore it very bravely, the southern side is the great naval dockhowever, and paid visits, attended by a yard, where ships of war are built and floatfile of soldiers, to the principal ladies of the ed down to Cronstadt at a great expense city, till she became quite a heroine. upon canals. Then appear the rich houses.
Arrived in St. Petersburg, the travel- of wealthy bankers and merchants, extendler's first business after taking lodgings ing along the Quai Anglais to the palace in some hotel, of which the only decently of the Senate, near which is the great caclean ones are a few kept by foreigners, is thedral of St. Isaac, with domes of burto go to the police office in Pantelemon- nished gilt and columns of porphyry and skaia street, give his name, occupation, etc., I jasper. Beyond this are the Admiralty
The Çzar, his Court and People : including a Tour in Norway and Sweden. By John S. MAXWELL. New York : Baker & Scribner. 1818.
buildings reaching nearly half a mile along | example of growth than any of our western the river's bank; then the lofty winter cities. Peter the Great, like Mammon in palace, the Hermitage, the marble palace Milton, led the way, and the huge fabric built by Catherine for Gregory Orloff, the
“ like an exhalation.” In 1700 he monument of Souwaroff, the Summer Gar-wrested from Charles the Twelfth, of Swedens, the beautiful bridge over the Fon- den, the province of Ingria, which comtanka canal, the hotels of the foreign em- prises the low swampy country between bassies, the long line of palaces upon the Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland ; Russian Quai, and finally the eastern sub- and, to secure his possession and establish urbs abounding in arsenals, churches, and a naval dépôt, he determined to found a monasteries.
city on the islands of the Neva. In The islands in the river are covered with 1703 he laid there in the midst of the piles and parapets of granite and sumptu- forest the foundation of a fortress; and ous buildings. On that of Vassili Ostroff such was his energy, that though for want are the immense buildings of the mining of implements the immense crowd he had corps, the barracks of cadets, Academy of collected to the work were obliged to dig the Fine Arts, ornamented in front with the soil with their hands and carry it sphinxes brought from Egypt, Academy away in bags made of their clothing, and of Sciences, and the Exchange and Custom a pestilence swept off a hundred thousand house. On another rises the gilded spire of them, yet the work was finished within of St. Peter's, and close by it is the Apte- five months. He then began to build the karskoi island on which were laid the first city. At the end of 1703 the capital confoundations of the city. There are also sisted of his own house, a small wooden others : Petrosky, the delight of Peter; building containing two chambers and a Krestovsky, the summer residence of the kitchen, one or two others like it, and the Princess Belosselsky Belozersky; the miserable hovels of thousands of serfs. In Cammenoi Ostroff, the domain of the Grand 1714 three hundred and fifty noble famiDuke Michael ; and Yelaguine, belonging lies were ordered to establish themselves to the Empress. These are all connected there; the use of stone was for a while with bridges, and are laid out like gardens prohibited in every other city in the emand covered with chateaux and palaces ; pire, and every ship arriving in the harbor in summer they are the resort of all the was obliged to bring a certain quantity of refined society of the city.
stone, according to her tonnage. Artisans The great square of the Admiralty, for and engineers were invited from every the extent and magnitude of the buildings quarter. In 1724, thirty-two ships arrived surrounding it, is probably unequalled by from various countries. In 1750, the popany other in the world. A linden walk ulation was eighty thousand, and in 1840, extends around it, and between the Winter four hundred and fifty thousand. Palace and the Etat Major stands the col The first humble residence of Peter and umn of Alexander—a single block of pol- Catherine still stands where it was erected, ished red granite measuring one hundred in the dreary morass, now covered with and fifty-four feet from the base to the stately palaces. The soil of the city is so сар. . The Nevsky perspective, which wet and yielding that all foundations are branches off from the Admiralty, is the obliged to be laid on piles. The governBroadway of the capital, and one of the ment has officers to see that this is done grandest avenues in Europe. It is bor- with care, and to inspect the plans of all dered with handsome houses, fashionable buildings. Brick is generally used for the stores, palaces, and churches, and gener- walls. They are usually covered with ally filled with carriages of all descriptions, plaster painted in gaudy colors, and freand its broad walks thronged with ladies, quently ornamented with stucco, which lackeys, officers in all uniforms, Circassians makes them very sensitive to the ravages and Cossacks, civilians, Russian merchants of the long winter, and gives employment and serfs—a strange mixture of tongues to seventy or eighty thousand serfs who and costumes.
come from the interior every summer to The history of St. Petersburg, as school- repaint and repair them. books teach, presents a more miraculous Our author glances rapidly over the va
rious objects in the capital interesting to | Mr. Maxwell found there an American, sight-seers. The Hermitage contains a who could speak only English, and was gallery of two thousand pictures, and therefore obliged to converse with those abounds in the best productions of the about him by signs. He was a tall
, thin, Flemish school. It also possesses the pri- thoughtful looking Yankee, who had vate libraries of Voltaire and many other brought over some contrivances for the distinguished writers. Within its limits market. He found the natives reaping are the winter gardens, the scenes of the only with the old sickle, mowing with a banquets of Catherine. The Imperial Li- short scythe having a loug handle, and brary has five hundred thousand volumes ploughing “in every way but the right and manuscripts, most of which are a part one.' The advantages of his long straight of the spoils of Poland. The museum of furrows, his light scythe and crooked snath the Academy of Sciences has a vast col- and his wonderful cradle were at once perlection of Japanese, Mongol, and Thibetian ceived. But his winnowing machine was manuscripts. In the academy of the naval irresistible, and procured him, it was said, cadets there is a large model of the old through the Minister of the Interior, the American frigate President, which is annu- offer of a professorship. Not wishing to ally taken apart and rebuilt by the stu- remain in the country, however, he could dents. There are Imperial lyceums, gym- only be made an honorary member of the nasiums, universities, schools of law, med- Imperial Society for the Improvement of icine, pharmacy, schools for the education Agriculture. of young ladies the daughters of nobles, The accounts of the railway to Moscow, others for the daughters of officers of rank, commenced under the superintendence of foundling hospitals that receive six thou- an American engineer, Mr. George W. sand infants per annum, institutions for the Whistler, in 1840, have reached us from deaf, dumb, and blind, etc.-all which de- time to time through the newspapers. It pend on the munificence of the Emperor was completed when Mr. Maxwell was and rich persons who feel disposed to im- there, as far as Colperno, and is to be finitate his example. There are two hundred | ished in 1849. The contract for the locochurches and chapels in St. Petersburg, motives, cars, wagons and carts, was given most of which sustain several golden cupo- to Messrs. Harrison and Eastwick of Phillas, and are within profusely ornamented. adelphia, and Mr. Winants of Baltimore ; In the vicinity of the city are many splen- and it shows the estimation in which Amerdid palaces and residences. Tsarskoe-celo, ican workmanship is held that the prothe village of the Czar, is reached in half posals of these young mechanics were an hour by railroad--the first ever built accepted over those of many from England, in Russia. An accident by which several France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany, lives were lost rendered this road soon after offering to take the job at lower rates. it went into operation so much dreaded Many other American artisans have been that none would venture to travel on it. employed by the Russian government in Nothing shocks the Russian people more preference to those of other nations, and it than accidents attended with loss of life: began to be reported here that the Emperor when Carter went to St. Petersburg with was particularly partial to our enterprishis lions, he was on this account not per- ing countrymen. Accordingly the Impemitted to enter the cages. To bring the rial court soon began to be deluged with railroad again into use the Emperor was all sorts of presents. Persons in the far obliged to send for the engineer and make west wrote to his Majesty for employment the first trip with him himself. This pro- in the Army or Navy. The American ceeding at once restored confidence. minister received with every arrival pack
In the vicinity of the capital is the Im- ages marked, “ This side up with care,” to perial farming institution, where two hun- be delivered with all haste to the Emperor. dred peasants selected from the different “There were daguerreotype views, models provinces are instructed in agriculture. It of bridges and floating docks, and plans has under cultivation a model farm of and specifications for building ships and seven hundred acres, and its school has a steamers. One person was ready to supmuseum of all sorts of farming implements. ply any demand for excellent clocks; an