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New York, one dollar shall be paid to the had erected a building at Quarantine, one Chamberlain of the city, and one half said story high and six hundred feet long, the sick sum for the use of the Marine Hospital, so increased that the Marine Hospital, the where all the sick are provided for. City Hospital, and the Almshouse were
2d. Every Master of a vessel shall entirely inadequate. They were compelled report under oath to the Mayor on his ar to lease the large building formerly used rival, the name, place of birth, last legal as a nursery on Long Island Farms. residence, age and occupation of every These were furnished and a physician immigrant passenger in his vessel, and he appointed, yet so greatly was the vicinity shall forfeit seventy-five dollars for every excited, that in a few days it was burnt to passenger in regard to whom such report the ground. Dr. Wilson's private hospital is omitted or falsely made, and for refusal at Bloomingdale, the New York Hospital, or neglect to pay such money, the owner and two large government stores, within or owners shall be subject to a penalty of Quarantine enclosure, were now added to three hundred dollars for each passenger. the apartments occupied, till the 12th of
3d. It constitutes a Commission of Emi- June, when further admission to the Almsgration, consisting of the Mayors of New house was entirely refused. The outYork and Brooklyn; President of the Irish buildings of the old Almshouse were now and German Emigrant Societies, besides fitted up for temporary use, till boats and six responsible and disinterested citizens ; carriages could be procured for the use of these six to form three classes as to time, the Board. of two, four and six years, and all vacancies afterward to be filled by the Governor “. The state of things,' said the Commission, and Senate.
had now become truly appalling—the Health 4th. The Act gives to said Commission
Officer stated that he could not receive any full power to employ all necessary agency,
more into the Hospital; admittance could not
be obtained for either sick or destitute in the to provide for the comfort and support of
Almshouse; the City Hospital and Dr. Wilall sick or those likely to become a charge son's Hospital were full, and the out-buildings to the city out of this commutation fund; of the old Almshouse were constantly occuto require bonds from the shipper for all pied by the sick daily brought in, whilst cases likely to become a permanent charge; to of ship-fever appeared in many parts of the sue and to be sued.
city. Owing to the excited state of the public 5th. The Commission shall prescribe all
mind, it became a subject of the utmost embar
rassment to know where any shelter could be rules by which indemnity for care of immi
found for the great number of persons to be grants shall be claimed in any other part immediately provided for. In this emergency of the State.
the Commissioners fortunately obtained the 6th. All penalties and forfeitures shall use of a large unoccupied stone building on be a lien on the ships or vessels bringing Ward's Island, in the East River, about six immigrants.
miles from the city. This building, originally In accordance with this law, the Board intended for a factory, is one hundred and forty of Commission was organized on the 8th of feet in length, forty feet wide and five stories
high. On the 13th June, a steamboat was May, 1847. Robert Taylor, Esq., was
sent to it loaded with bedding, provisions, &c. appointed general agent, and Hon. Wm. F. and with the immigrants who remained unproHavemayer, Ex-Mayor, President. Its first vided fur.' :: duty was to furnish large accommodations for the destitute and sick. The Quaran As early as June 4th, the Staten Island tine Hospitals were already entirely filled. ferry boats refused to carry patients to Temporary use was therefore made of all the Quarantine. The Board then charthe spare room in the Hospital and Alms-tered a boat and purchased carriages which house belonging to the city. As the fever are still kept for this special use. By the arincreased at Quarantine, the convalescent rangement at Ward's Island and the extenwere removed to the Almshouse at Belle- sion at Quarantine, they are now able to vue, till from fear of the contagion both meet all the demands upon
them. During in that institution and in the surrounding a part of the season so great was the deneighborhood, the Board of Health opposed mand for bedding and clothing for the further admittance. Notwithstanding they sick, that upwards of 200 women were
66 1844, 66 1845,
kept at work on these articles, and as early Commissioners of Emigration. Since the 5th as July 17th there had been purchased of May, about 500 have been received into and made up for the Marine Hospital and the Almshouse from the Canadas alone, Ward's Island, 10,308 articles of clothing and not one dollar has been paid on their and bedding. Since the organization of account. Besides there are a large numthe Board, now nearly a year, over 8000 ber of this class receiving out-door relief, patients have been treated for fever and and all chargeable to the city. In his opinother diseases, and there have been more ion, the law of the 5th of March has not than 1000 deaths. Justice Taylor, the entirely fulfilled the high expectation of General Agent, who was for many years its advocates, and needs amendment. But most favorably known and highly appre- whatever its defects, if it has done nothing ciated in his connection with our city af- more, to have entirely separated these fairs, and several of the physicians, became 8,000 fever patients from the city, and victims of the disease. Mr. Taylor is suc- thereby prevented the spread of ship-fever ceeded by Dr. John H. Griscom, a medi- among its citizens, and to have dispensed cal gentleman of eminence and sound prac- the best medical aid to so great a number, tical experience.
is a work which infinitely transcends, in The following is the number of immi- importance, any amount which it might grant arrivals at the port of New York, have cost. in the last five years :
There are other evils connected with
the condition of the immigrant which add In 1843,
to the expense of the city. By an order 59,838
of the House of Assembly of the 11th of 78,789
October last, we have before us a pamphlet 1846,
112,479 6 the first four months of 1847
of 156 pages, 12mo. the result of a searchto 1st May,
- 100,000 ing and faithful investigation of a committee
of that body into frauds upon immigrants. From the 5th of May, 1847, to January, These are of the most gross and flagrant 1848, 129,062. The number treated for nature, committed by boarding-house keepfevers and other diseases in the last period ers, runners and forwarding agents. Many is 8,354; the number of deaths 1,066, and of the agents, by deceiving, by spurious the total number for whose relief money and artfully worded tickets, make a profit was expended by the Commission, 10,066. of from $3 to $6 out of each passenger. By For commutation fees and Hospital fund, this testimony it appeared that the gross rethe receipts of the Commission on these ceipts of one forwarding house in New York 129,062 arrivals were $176,000; their ex in 1847, were about $125,000. This compenditure, $125,000. One half of the ar mittee reported a bill which is now before rivals of the current year are Germans, the House, giving the Board of Emigration few of whom have been a charge to the full power to purchase or lease docks, with board.
enclosures where all immigrants shall be The number which reached the province landed; requiring a license from runners of Canada in 1845 was 25,575 ; in 1846, and agents, and imposing a severe penalty 32,755 ; in 1847 to November 1st, 92,000. for the violation of law. The Board of The total of deaths in 1845–6 on the voy- Emigration urge its passage ; for the sake age and at Quarantine was 272, whereas of humanity and justice, if not for the in 1847 the deaths reached the alarming credit of our Legislature, it should immedinumber of 10,000, besides large numbers ately become law. By the testimony bethat died on their way to Upper Canada. fore this committee it appears that the 150 These were almost exclusively Irish. poor Hollanders who found their
grave In addition to the number reported by the lake by the loss of the Phønix, were the Board of Emigration, it is estimated that not only defrauded, but kept two days on more than 25,000 have during 1847 passed board that propeller at Buffalo, when that into the United States from Canada. From vessel was already overloaded, and they this source, says the Almshouse Commis- had a clear right to a higher class steamer. sioner, the city are now supporting more This pamphlet is filled with startling facts. than one-half as many as are aided by the For the further protection of the immi
grant, the Hon. Mr. Grinnell
, from the manner, urgent; for, although the current Committee of Commerce, has lately re of benevolence has flowed bounteously and ported to Congress a most important bill. freely, there has, at no period, been a It provides that all vessels of the United greater want of funds ; in none have the States, or of other countries, if employed applications been so numerous beyond the in the transportation of passengers be- ability to meet them. The numerous local tween Europe and the United States, shall | associations we have described still exist. be thoroughly ventilated by companion If, at a fair estimate, we sum up their anways and venteducts ; if carrying over two nual charity, with that of the city organhundred passengers, shall have two cook- ization of a later date, at $200,000; if for ing ranges; if over four hundred, four the Almshouse and the Board of Emigraranges; it requires provision, for each tion we add $600,000, in accordance with passenger on leaving port, of 35 lbs. their reports, a true account; and then navy bread, 10 lbs. each of rice, oat meal, add that which never comes to the eye
of wheat flour and corn meal, 35 lbs. of po- the public, but finds its way through pritatoes, 30 lbs. of pork, one gallon vinegar, | vate and diversified channels, the total and 60 gallons of fresh water; that, if not amount of our disbursement for the year so provided, and passengers are put on just closed, can fall but little short of one short allowance, each may recover by law million of dollars—an extraordinary sum three dollars for every day so kept; that indeed, if it were all expended to alleviate the Captain shall post up regulations for the misfortunes of only 400,000 people, the health and cleanliness of his ship, and and these, too, forming the first commershall have full power to maintain a corres cial city in America. But the analysis of ponding discipline; and that, for every this sum explains the cause of its demand; violation of the provisions of the Act, the it shows the external pressure. We are owner or owners shall pay two hundred literally the gate-way for the entrance of dollars.
the oppressed of the earth into (to them) In reviewing these facts, we find, that the land of better promise. It is their there has been a most extraordinary de- resting-place, in which to die, from the mand upon the legal charity of the city exhaustion of a previously hard, toilsome during the past two years. Nothing has existence and famishing voyage, or from heretofore equalled it, in the history of which to survey the land and to seek out these institutions. The demand on its some spot whereon the battle of life shall voluntary charity also has been, in like be less hopeless and severe.
For the sake of preserving uniformity in ar- | the face and head, and the air-tubes of the rangement, for the convenience of our readers lungs. The country districts do not appear to we shall first dispose of the less exciting topics have been affected to any extent, a fact which which refer to Great Britain. The Parliament shows how much the purity of the air has to met on the 3d February. A bill to establish do with epidemic diseases. Dr. Howley, late diplomatic relations with the Court of Rome Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all Engwas introduced into the House of Lords, and land, died at Lambeth Palace, on the 11th passed through all stages but the final reading. February, aged 83. He was educated at Winİn the House of Commons, a bill for the relief chester and Oxford ; in 1809, he was Regius of Roman Catholics, from the legal disabilities Professor of Divinity in that University, afterto which they are subject, has been twice read, wards Bishop of London, and for the last and is referred to a Committee of the Whole fifteen years, Archbishop of Canterbury. His House. On the 17th February, Lord John successor is Dr. Sumner, Bishop of Chester, Russell brought forward the annual Financial in the case of Dr. Hampden, mentioned in our Statement. The expenditures for the ensuing last, no decision has been given, the Judges of financial year, he stated as follows: Funded the Court of Queen's Bench being equally dividebt, £27,788,000; the unfunded debt, £752,- ded. Lord Denman and Justice Earle deliv600; the consolidated fund, £2,750,000; the ered opinions sustaining the prerogative of the expenses of the Kaffir war, £1,100,000; the Crown, and the other two Judges were in favor excess of navy expenditures, £1,100,000; the of the application ; the result is, that the Court navy estimates, £7,726,610; the army estimates, will not interfere, and the Bishop takes his £7,162,996 ; the ordnance, £2,974,835; the office. The members of the Metropolitan Sanmiscellaneous estimates, £400,600; the militia, atory Commission have lately made a report, in £150,000; making a total of £54,596,500. which they state, that having received much The income being estimated at £51,250,000, additional information, as to the progress of the there would be a deficiency which must be met cholera towards Europe, as to the means of by reduction of the military and naval estimates, ils prevention, they find that the disease, as it or by increased taxation. Looking at the great has lately appeared, in Persia, Trebizonde and increase of the French navy, although not Russia, is unchanged in its general character. apprehending any collision, the ministry could That the more recent experience in Russia, has not recommend reduction, and therefore pro led to the general abandonment of the theory posed to continue the income tax for five years, of its propagation by contagion; a conclusion and to increase it from three to five per cent. in which, after a full consideration of the evifor the next two years, which would leave a dence presented to them, the Commissioners surplus of £113,000. This proposition will
That the views adopted by them of undoubtedly meet with a most decided opposi the inexpediency of special Cholera Hospitals, tion in Parliament, and throughout the country: except in cases of peculiar necessity, have immediately upon its announcement, meetings been confirmed by coincident adoption of the were held in the metropolis, and at other places, same conclusions in Russia. That they have and resolutions passed condemning the scheme. received much information tending to establish The post office revenue is estimated at £923, the conclusion, that cholera is not the sudden 000. The returns of the mortality in 117 dis disease which has hitherto been supposed; that tricts in England, for the quarter ending De- the commonly known form of the malady is, cember, 1847, have been published, and present in reality, its second stage; and that its first several curious particulars, relative to the late stage is manifested by the premonilory symptom epidemic. The mortality in childhood was of diarrhea, which is commonly unattended to; raised 83 per cent. ; in manhood 104 per cent.; but which, if met by the strict observance of in old age 247 per cent. From the age of four proper regimen, and by appropriate medicine, to twenty-five, the mortality was, comparatively, may
may be arrested, before passing into the more vionot much increased; at the age of ten to lent and fatal stage of the disease. They recfifteen, the healthiest period in life, it was ommend, as one of the most important measscarcely increased at all-in girls. In cases ures of alleviation, the establishment of local of old age, and where chronic diseases existed, dispensaries, where persons affected with the the influenza was generally fatal. The poison first stage of the disease, as manifested by the permeating the whole system, fastens chiefly on premonitory symptoms, may be immediately the mucous membrane, lining the sinuses of placed under the proper treatment, for arresting
its farther progress. On the 26th February, further view to the same object, a meeting of the amount of notes issued by the Bank of above a hundred Deputies of the Opposition England was £27,890,705; the active circula was held on Sunday, the 13th February, at tion £18,084,695; the bullion in both depart which a public manifesto was agreed on, statments is £14,569,649. The money marketing that “they have recognized that the adwas in rather a feverish state, in consequence dress, as it has been voted, constitutes on the part of the news from Paris. On the 25th February, of the majority, a flagrant and audacious violaconsols opened at 884 and fell to 874, but ral- tion of the rights of the minority ; and that the lied to 88.
Ministers have, by drawing their party into so The Pope has caused a rescript to be ad- exorbitant an act, at once infringed one of the dressed to the Roman Catholic prelates in Ire most sacred principles of the constitution, violaland, demanding an explanation of the charges ted, in the persons of their representatives, one preferred against certain of the clergy, of fo- of the essential rights of the citizens, and, by a menting crime by the practice of denouncing measure of ministerial safety, thrown over ihe from the altar, and admonishing the clergy to country the most pernicious seeds of division abstain from political agitation, and in future and disorder. to confine their labors to spiritual instruction of “In such circumstances, they have found the people.
that their duties acquired a gra
a more imThe intelligence from the continent of Eu perious character, and that in the midst of those rope is of a most important character.
events which now agitate Europe, and pre-ocThe discussion in the Chamber of Depu- cupy France, they could no longer abandon for a ties, on the address, in reply to the King's single instant the guardianship and the defence speech on the opening of the Parliament, has of the interests of the nation. been stormy and protracted. It was brought “ As to the right of meeting of the citizens, to a close on the 12th February. M. Guizot a right which the Ministers seem willing to having declared that he would make no conces subordinate to their good pleasure, and confission, the Chamber divided on the last amend cate to their profit, the meeting, unanimously ment which had been proposed to the para- convinced that this right, inherent in every free graph respecting Reform, when the members constitution, is, moreover, formally established were 189 for the amendment and 222 against by our laws, have determined upon resorting to it; giving a ministerial majority of 33. The every legal and constitutional means of mainaddress was then carried ; the Opposition, in a taining it intact, and of consecrating it." body, refusing to vote. At this time, all minds The resolution to hold the banquet was in Paris appeared to be occupied with the prob- adopted by all the Deputies present, and invitaable result of the situation of political parties. tions were given to, and accepted by six memThe ministry, moved by the manifestations bers of the Chamber of Peers. It is stated within the Chamber, and the excitement that the Government experiencing much unthroughout the capital, appear at this time to easiness at these proceedings, General Jacquehave resolved to yield to the pressure, and M. minot called together the colonels of the NaGuizot, at the close of the debate, delivered an tional Guard of Paris, and interrogated them address, which his organ, the Journal des Dé. as to the dispositions of their respective legions, bats, interpreted as å distinct pledge of the and received answers no way calculated to asgovernment, at a convenient time, to bring for sure a Cabinet which contemplated an armed ward to the present (late) Chainber a measure repression. It is also said that General Sebasof Parliamentary Reform.
tian made similar inquiries of the superior Meanwhile another question had arisen out officers of the garrison of the capital, who gave of the incidents of the debate. The menaces of no assurance, but that the troops of the line the Government had assailed the right of public would support the National Guard, and that meeting, an imprescriptible public right of the their independent action could not be relied on, people of all constitutional states. The Oppo- in case of a popular movement. sition, putting aside for the moment the Reform The banquet was originally proposed to be question, determined boldly to oppose this pre- held on Sunday, the 19th February, but was tension of the Cabinet, which they pronounced postponed till Tuesday, that the population, monstrous. They therefore determined at once being engaged in work, might not congregate to brave the threat, and to hold, in the very in such numbers as would give an appearance heart of the capital, one of those meetings which of menace, and afford an excuse for interferthe Government denounced, but to accompany ence, by force, on the part of the authorities. it with every constitutional precaution which In the mean time, addresses of support were could tend to throw the Governmentinthe wrong, continually arriving from the provinces, to the and cover with odium any attempt to suppress members of the Opposition. The Government, it. A Committee of Opposition Deputies was on Sunday, after consultation, resolved to allow appointed to concert with the Central Reform the banquet to take place, and then to proseCommittee of the Seine, as to the management cute, in the civil tribunals, the persons who of the projected Reform banquet. With the should be prominent in it. On Monday morn