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The loss to the revenue, through the rich, and fattens by its corn fields; why diminution of duties on imports, amount- should we, then, live poor and wretched? ing, it is said, to some eleven millions is there no way in which we too may sterling, had to be made up by the im- prosper? Our commerce is great, but it position of additional taxes. Thus, the is a commerce carried on between foreign manufacturers were relieved to the amount countries and the great West ; we benefit of eleven millions, all clear gain to them, but little by it; it rather impoverishes and loss to those who bore the compensa- than helps our country people, for they tory burthen. To say, then, that England buy foreign goods with money, and not has made the experiment of free trade, is with produce, making nothing by the exmerely false ; for the principle of the free change; the West is always too strong for trade economists is, that the nation shall them in trade; the cities grow rich by not be taxed to sustain a particular in commerce, but the country people grow terest. England has taxed her incomes poorer every day. and other sources eleven millions, to sup It is, therefore, necessary for us to susport the manufacturers. Not questioning tain our manufactures, to erect new mills, the wisdom of this policy, or denying that and make goods to exchange with these it is a vital point with England to sustain southern planters and western farmers, her manufacturers, since by them chiefly and so reap the grain ourselves that goes she has become the richest nation in the else to enrich foreigners. To bring these world; admitting, too, that this policy will | French and English goods across the accomplish its end, and save the British ocean costs much, and involves many risks manufacturers from ruin; let us now in- and losses; we will save the country this quire what policy these free trade leaders loss, and by competition we will break would pursue, acting on their present prin- down the foreigner in his prices, and make ciples, and instigated by the same motives, him give more of his own in exchange for were they Americans, with a large capital, western products; by and by we will supinvested in manufactures in New England. ply our countrymen of the South and West

First, then, at all risks they would sus with all that they now get from foreigners, tain the country, labor to preserve its and that at a less price, exchanging with acquisitions, and open for it new sources them for their corn and raw products; our of wealth. Observing that the States of wealth will then begin to overflow, and New England are composed chiefly of a we will send our products to foreign narocky and unfruitful soil, they would not tions, and bring home riches, and every entertain the hope of sustaining a dense luxury for ourselves and our countrymen; population there by agriculture. Seeing, and thus our nation will be made complete too, the rapid impoverishment of the towns and independent, with a rich interior, proand villages, by the removal of able- ducing all the fruits of the earth, a barren rebodied men, and of capital, to the new gion near the sea devoted to manufactures, lands of the West, and the ruin of the small and a coast adorned with commercial cities. farmers, by the influx of cheap provision Are not these reasonings identical in from the western lands, they would cast principle with those which actuate the about for some means of filling up the free-traders of England ? Their position loss occasioned by that emigration, and of compels them to sustain their manufacproviding new means of subsistence for tures, for by these they draw to themselves those who were thrown out of employ- a great part of the wealth which makes ment by the stagnation of agriculture. them powerful, and defends them against Every part of this new continent, they the encroachments and the bad influences would say, ought to support an active of neighboring nations. Human liberty has and wealthy population ; but how shall been upheld and defended by the industry, we make New England, or the barren as much as by the courage of England; regions of the Southern and Middle States, but that industry is drawn out by capital, do this? At present, all these regions and capital is created by manufactures. lie waste, or are thinly and poorly inhab- It would be impossible for England or ited; the people have neither means nor for any nation to acquire great power and leisure, and must soon become miserable wealth by agriculture alone ; for of all inand unimportant. The great West grows | dustrial pursuits agriculture is that which

yields the least surplus of profit to the This word “selfishness," so easily and producer. Commerce and exchange may idly employed, does not, it must be conbe reckoned the most profitable of all; but fessed, assist the argument; but it may manufactures, much more than agriculture, serve here to suggest a reflection not infurnish the material and the occasion for apt for the conclusion of this article. The commercial enterprise. They create mer- wealth of a nation, meaning by its wealth, chandise of a character like specie, that moderate surplus of means which is exchangeable and easily transportable. necessary to its freedom and power, is creCountries, therefore, like England, and the ated by at least three distinct and conbarren regions of our Eastern and Middle trasted kinds of industry: indeed, so very States, if they mean to prosper and sustain distinct and contrasted, they breed opposite a thriving population, must engage in habits and permanent differences of charmanufactures.

acter, in those who use them. These are, Mentally revolving the course that the production from mines, or from the events have taken in the political world, soil, of the raw material of industry ; the we seem to discover, indeed, no issue to manufacture of these materials into comwards which they tend more remarkable modities; and the transportation and exor more alarming than the establishment change of commodities in trade and comof new and unconstitutional powers in the merce. The hamlets, villages and open Executive—the powers of creating war, spaces of the country are occupied by those of withholding information, of taxing, and who produce the crude material; the despotically governing, conquered terri- towns near rivers, canals, and at the meettory; add to these the creation of armies ing of great roads, are chiefly occupied by for the sake, if not of patronage, then of manufacturers; while cities by the sea, new wars and of new unlooked-for uses of and on great streams, bays and lakes, are power; the formation of a false public the head-quarters of trade, and owe their opinion, the turning of the powers of the riches to commerce.

We need no argugeneral government upon enterprises con ment to show that a nation without comfessedly calculated for the aid of an merce can never rise to the first importexorbitant ambition. These things, in- ance, and in all ages statesmen and rulers deed, excite an alarm most reasonable, have become celebrated and respected and that should lead to the most decisive more by their encouragement of roads, action among conscientious men. It is dis- canals, shipping, and all the enterprise of covered that the limitation of the Presi- commerce, from the protection of caradential term to a short period, is not a vans to the founding of commercial cities, sufficient safeguard to liberty ; erroneous

than for their successful wars. precedents, party precedents, grow gradu Nor is a nation capable of sustaining ally into law, and the accumulated mass itself long without a constant attention to of them are handed from one term to agriculture. Egypt, Grece, Rome, China, another, like the traditional usurpations of India, interior Germany, and above all, a hierarchy, until in a course of ages, every England, have made agriculture the right feature of the original Constitution is buried arm of the public industry. But what and forgotten. Though these just fears great nation, that has a sufficient respect may, indeed, image forth the head of our for itself, does not desire to complete the FUTURE POLICY, we are not, therefore, to circle of its industry, and add manufactures forget other things,—to be so occupied to agriculture and commerce? Why should with the head and front of the offence as we stupidly insist upon producing and to forget the vile and corrupting body. It transporting our raw material to other is a matter of some importance to the na more cunning and ingenious nations ? Why tion that its sources of wealth and power must a bale of flax grown in Ohio, be lugshould be kept open, and that the chinks ged across the scornful billows of the Atand scuttles, through which its riches are lantic, to be worked up in England ? Why flowing away like water, should be stopped ; should not our faithful brothers and counin a word, that it should not be left a prey to trymen do that for us at home? Patience foreign enterprise, and have one great third is exhausted in such an argument; the of its productive power sacrificed to the uni- good sense of the nation is insulted by it. ted selfishness of the remaining two-thirds.


The memory of Allston, which time is , interesting conversation, and refined manyear by year ripening into the immortal ners. fame of a great and good artist, must be a

Of this sort is Monaldi. Though it apsufficient warrant for recalling the atten-peared long ago, and came from the pen tion of the public to a story by him, al- of our first artist, it scarcely attracted a ready several years before it. Or, if it is passing attention; in a few months it was necessary to apologize for making a book, unwritten of and unspoken of; we doubt published seven years ago, the subject of if many of our distant readers do not here an article, we may acknowledge a higher see the very name for the first time, out of motive than reverence for its author—a the poems of Rogers. Yet this is not bedesire to turn the eyes of readers to what cause the book deserves, or is destined, to they ought not willingly to let die. slip away thus quietly into oblivion ; but

It is as much the duty of criticism in simply, as we shall endeavor to show, beliterature and art to teach the pure faith cause it is one of those exquisite works of directly, as well as indirectly, by pointing art which never make an extensive acout and inveighing against heresies. Not quaintance with the world, and only beonly must we pluck up and lop off the come known even to the refined and disnoxious weeds and unhealthy shoots in the criminating, by slow degrees during the garden where we are called to labor, but lapse of years. we must water the flowering shrubs and It was ready for the press, the author young fruit trees; we must dig about them informs us, as long ago as 1822, and was repeatedly, at such time as the dew of finally given to the public in a thin volume heaven shall fall most genially upon the of two hundred and fifty pages, “not,” he upturned clods ; yea, we must fertilize says, “ with the pretensions of a Novel, the soil wherein they are set, even with but simply as a Tale.” How much such harmless composition as forms the thought, and study, and artistic skill he substance of articles and essays. In fine, felt it becoming to speak thus modestly of, it is our vocation to call attention to what we shall discover in tracing the course of is to be admired as well as what is to be the story. avoided, to analyze merit as well as de A delightful old novel feeling is inspired merit, to keep good books alive as well as by the opening paragraph of the introducto put bad ones out of their pain.

Some books come into life stout and vigorous ; they make a general acquaint-blance between the autumnal sky of Italy and

“ There is sometimes so striking a resemance all at once, and, to hear how they that of New England at the same season, that are spoken of, one would suppose that

when the peculiar features of the scenery are they were going to live forever, and be obscured by twilight, it needs but little aid of known all over the world; yet it is marvel- the imagination in the American traveller to lous how many of these die off in a short fancy himself in his own country: the time, and are never thought of afterward. bright orange of the horizon, fading into a low Others there are of a more delicate consti- yellow, and here and there broken by a slender tution, and of extremely retired habits, bar of molten gold, with the broad mass of pale who hardly venture beyond the book | apple-green blending above, and the sheet of shelves and centre-tables of a few choice deep azure over these, gradually darkening to

the zenith-all carry him back to his dearer friends, but in time come to be reverenced home. It was at such a time as this, and beand respected for their learning, or their I neath such a sky, that in the year 17–) while


* Monaldi; a Tale. By WASHINGTON ALLSTON. Boston: Little & Brown. 1841. VOL. I. NO. IV. NEW SERIES.


my vettura was slowly toiling up one of the the fearful vision is even now before me - 1 mountains of the Abruzzo, I had thrown my seemed to be standing before an abyss in self back in the carriage, to enjoy one of those space, boundless and black. In the midst of mental illusions which the resemblance be- this permeable pitch stood a colossal mass of tween past and present objects is wont to call gold, in shape like an altar, and girdled about forth. Italy seemed for the time forgotten; I by a huge serpent, gorgeous and terrible; his was journeying homeward, and a vision of body flecked with diamonds, and his head, an beaming, affectionate faces passed before me; enormous carbuncle, floating like a meteor in I crossed the threshold, and heard-oh, the air above. Such was the throne. But how touching is that soundless voice of wel no words can describe the gigantic being that coming in a day-dream of home-I heard the sat thereon-the grace, the majesty, its transjoyful cry of recognition, and a painful full-cendent form; and yet I shuddered as I looked, ness in my throat made me struggle for words for its superhuman countenance seemed, as it -when, at a sudden turn of the road, my car were, to radiate falsehood; every feature was riage was brought to the ground.”

in contradiction-the eye, the mouth, even to

the nostril—whilst the expression of the whole This is not an imitation, but a conden was of that unnatural softness which can only sation, and reproduction, of the tone and be conceived of malignant blandishment. It coloring of an old novel-we say old, in

was the appalling beauty of the King of Hell. the sense that the stories read, and the whole frame, and I turned for relief to the

The frightful discord vibrated through my impressions produced in childhood, bear figure below for at his feet knelt one who apan air of antiquity-we mean that it takes peared to belong to our race of earth. But I hold of the fancy like a story read in had turned from the first only to witness in youth ; while, at the same time, the ma this second object its withering fascination. ture artist is apparent in the delicate It was a man apparently in the prime of life, purity of the style, and in the beauty of but pale and emaciated, as if prematurely the sentiment. We may be misled by with outstretched hånds, and eyes upraised to

wasted by his unholy devotion, yet still devoted, the impression of the whole work, yet it their idol, fixed with a vehemence that seemed seems that this single paragraph exhibits almost to start them from their sockets. The very plainly these characteristics. It re

agony of his eye, contrasting with the prostrate, calls the feelings of boyhood, while, at the reckless worship of his attitude, but too well

told his tale: I beheld the mortal conflict besame time, it gives promise that we are about to enter on no meagre child-tale, tween the conscience and the will—the visible but one of character, thought and pas- look no longer.”

struggle of a soul in the toils of sin. I could sion.

The breaking of the carriage, and the manner of the driver, induce the travel He naturally wishes to know the history ler to suspect him of being leagued with of this extraordinary picture, and its banditti : presently a whistle is heard be author; and the prior accordingly gives low which confirms the suspicion, and he him a manuscript whic says,

will gratcompels the fellow to go before him up ify his curiosity. This is the story. the mountain. After some time they The opening chapter then introduces come to a small plain, or heath, where two principal personages of the tale, Mothere is a hovel, before which sits a wretched naldi and Maldura, young students and intiobject, a miserable maniac, worn almost to mate friends at a seminary at Bologna. death ; an old woman then comes from We wish a few sentences could give an the hovel, who directs the traveller to a idea of the depth of reflection, the phiconvent hard by, where he is received and losophy, the exquisite discrimination in the hospitably entertained by a venerable drawing of character, and

pure, simple prior. Next morning, the prior shows elegance of the style. There is a greathim the pictures in the chapel, and is ness of thought and an elevation in tone about to show him one, which he says is which takes the imagination far into the worth all the rest, when he is called out, poetic region, and yet the art is so thorand the traveller, opening a wrong door, oughly hidden that superficial readers, comes unawares into the apartment where who are accustomed to see the artist it is placed.

through a coarser veil or not at all, must

of course skim it over easily and fancy it « I put up my hand to shade my eyes, when cold and common.

“ The character of Maldura, the eldest, was feeling and lofty imagination which characterbold, grasping, and ostentatious; while that ofized Monaldi. The composition consisted of Monaldi, timid and gentle, seemed to shrink the patriarch and his family, at the altar, which from observation. The one, proud and impa- occupied the foreground; a distant view of tient, was ever laboring for distinction; the Mount Ararat, with the ark resting on its peak; world, palpable, visible, audible, was his idol ; and the intermediate vale. These were scanty he lived only in externals, and could neither materials for a picture ; but the fullness with act nor feel but for effect ; even his secret rev which they seemed to distend the spectator's eries having an outward direction, as if he mind, left no room for this thought. There could not think without a view to praise, and was no dramatic variety in the kneeling father anxiously referring to the opinion of others; and his kneeling children; they expressed but in short, his nightly and daily dreams had but one sentiment-adoration ; and it seemed to one subject--the talk and eye of the crowd. go up as with a single voice. This gave the The other, silent and meditative, seldom looked soul which the spectator felt; but it was one out of himself, either for applause or enjoy- that could not have gone forth under common ment; if he ever did so, it was only that he daylight, nor ever have pervaded with such might add to, or sympathize in the triumph of emphatic life, other than the shadowy valley, another: this done, he retired again, as it were, the misty mountain, the mysterious ark, again to a world of his own, where thoughts and feel. | floating, as it were, on a sea of clouds, and the ings, filling the place of men and things, could lurid, deep-toned sky, dark yet bright, which always supply him with occupation and amuse- spoke to the imagination of a lost and recovment.

ered world-once dead, now alive, and pouring -“ But the honors of a school are for things out her first song of praise even from under the and purposes far different from those demanded pall of death." and looked for by the world. Maldura unfortunately did not make the distinction. His Monaldi was fortunate, on the first exhibivarious knowledge, though ingeniously brought tion of this picture, in having for his leadtogether

, and skilfully set anew, was still the ing critic the cavalier S—, a philosoas in a new birth, from the modifying influence pher and a poet, “though he had never of his own nature. His mind was hence like a

written a line as either." thing of many parts, yet wanting a whole—that “I want no surer evidence of genius realizing quality which the world must feel than this,” said he, addressing Monaldi: before it will reverence.

“ you are master of the chiar' oscuro and -“ The powers of Monaldi, however, were yet to be called forth. And it was not surprising ments, I will not say of Art

, but of Na

color, two of the most powerful instruthat to his youthful companions, he should then have appeared inefficient, there being a singu- ture, for they were hers from birth, though lar kind of passiveness about him easily mis- few of our painters since the time of the taken for vacancy. But his was like the pas. Caracci appear to have known it.

If I siveness of some uncultured spot lying unno- do not place your form and expression ticed within its nook of rocks, and silently first, 'tis not that I undervalue them; they drinking in the light, and the heat, and the

are both true and elevated; yet with all showers of heaven, that nourish the seeds of a thousand nameless flowers, destined one day

their grandeur and power, I should still to bloom and to mingle their fragrance with the hold you wanting in one essential, had

you breath of nature."

not thus infused the human emotion into

the surrounding elements. This is the These two friends, the one taking a gen- poetry of the art ; the highest nature. erous pride in the successes of the other, There are hours when Nature may be said and the other proud to be admired by him, to hold intercourse with man, modifying leave the seminary and pass into the world. his thoughts and feelings: when man Monaldi chooses painting for his profession, re-acts, and in his turn bends her to his and after a few years of persevering study will, whether by words or colors, he is universally acknowledged to be the first becomes a poet. A vulgar painter may painter in Italy. One of his pictures is perhaps think your work unnatural; and it thus described at length :

must be so to him who sees only with his "The subject of the picture was the first eyes. But another kind of critic is required sacrifice of Noah after the subsiding of the to understand our rapt Correggio, or even, waters; a subject of little promise from an

in spite of his abortive forms, the Dutch ordinary hand, but of all others, perhaps, the Rembrant.” best suited to exhibit that rare union of intense The cavalier assists Monaldi with that

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