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a pious life.
while the animal was held in a basket. I imaginative in religion must be through The learned men, while they admit the education. Here the great difficulties are folly of these things, still join in them. the language and the old custom; it will “Buddhism,” says Dr. Morrison, “ in China go hard to break down what has worked is decried by the learned, laughed at by tolerably well for so many hundreds and the profligate, yet followed by all.” The thousands of years. But the struggle must priesthood have the better judgment of the come; it is the inevitable result of the people against them, and are rather feared contact of the weak and false with the for the mischief which it is supposed strong and true. The only hope for the they can do than honored as examples of poor Chinese is their unrivalled docility
and quickness of imitation. They wish to The ceremonies at funerals vary in dif- know and pursue the right, and their referent parts of the country. In some parts ligion and philosophy have kept them at they make a hole in the roof as soon as a least pure-minded in comparison with other person dies, to let the spirit pass out. The pagan races. One cannot read without body is coffined arrayed in the richest robes pity the history of their efforts to put the family can procure; a fan is put in down opium smoking. Our teetotal socione hand and a prayer on a piece of paper eties and license laws are but faint measin the other. A coffin is made of boards ures compared with those. They tried three or four inches thick, and is rounded moral suasion in all sorts of modes; the at the top; it is called “longevity boards.” | present work gives one of a series of The body is generally laid in with lime plates representing the opium smoker's and the lid closed with mortar; the coffin downward progress, also some vigorous is then kept in or about the house many writing against it from one of their scholyears, and incense burned before it morn ars; the physicians tried medicine; finally ing and evening. The Chinese often pur- government made it penal. Though all has chase coffins in their lifetime; the price been without much avail, yet the progress varies from $5 to $500, and even thou- of the anti-opium cause, as our temsands are sometimes paid for them. perance people would phrase it, has shown
Upon a general survey of the Chinese a right spirit. The same may be seen in character, they appear to be as amiable and their adoption of many foreign inventions. sensible a family as the race has ever pro The result of the English opium war, duced. Though jealous of foreigners, they Mr. Williams's history of which we have are not so bigoted to their old usages as to not room to sketch, has opened Canton, reject what are real improvements, when Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghai to foreign they comprehend them. They take life trade, and cannot but have the effect to in a very business-like way, and make the extend foreign influence in the empire. It most of it. Whether their very vagueness will be as remarkable a fact as any conor almost entire want of a definite religious nected with their singular history, should faith will make it easier to christianize the Chinese now gradually and quietly them or not, is questionable. We should come up to the standard of western civthink their indifference quite as hard to ilization. When the influences are conovercome as a belief in some wild form of sidered that are bearing more and more superstition. The labor of a Christian upon them, their destiny appears one of missionary among them must be no slight the greatest mysteries of Providence that
time shall solve.
G. W. P. The true way to reach a people so little
JOHN BULL THE COMPASSIONATE.*
The giant of Rabelais, who devoured good pennyworth ; but we have chosen windmills, but was choked one summer's to do our own spinning, and get our own day by a pound of fresh butter, has found pay for it. Was ever any barbarian so an antitype in John Bull. That heart-of- perverse ? Page after page, and volume oak personage has not been generally after volume of compassionate advice, in supposed to stick at trifles, but it appears
this strain, have been wafted to us across from his own asseverations, that he has the water, until many very worthy people now and then a fit of compassion, and have become half persuaded that John that his eyes can drop tears as fast as the Bull, hot and glowing with the fire of phiArabian trees their medicinal gum. When lanthropy, has quite forgotten himself in John Bull is compassionate, he is a sight | his disinterested compassion for his neighto see. There is a contrast of ideas and operations in the spectacle which hardly
1, "Under this impression of John Bull's belongs to what philosophers call the universal benevolence, neighborly kind“moral fitness of things.” The butter
The butter ness, and all-absorbing love for the human sticks in his throat, while the windmills species, one is tempted to call in question are rumbling in his belly.
the common records of history, and raise The American system of protecting do an indignant doubt whether such a fairmestic industry has been the butter in this faced, sweet-spoken, tender-hearted gencase-not, alas! the butter that has but tleman, has not been shamefully belied in tered John's bread, but the identical pound
the annals of past ages.
« This fellow 's that has stuck in his capacious throat, and of exceeding honesty, and knows all qualithrown him into hysterics of mortal com ties.” Can such things have been done passion. Can words
how the com as are read of in the wars of Europe and passionate John Bull weeps for the misfor- Asia during a century past ? . Is it true tunes of his dearly beloved Brother Jona that the English bombarded Copenhagen ? than ? “ In his greenness he has made a Is Hindostan more than a fiction ? Had tariff, and in the simplicity of his heart he Clive and Hastings any substantial bodily has built up a manufacture! What shall existence ? Is not Ireland a mythe, which be done for our little Brother Jonathan in some political Strauss will by and by the day when he shall be spoken of by evolve from obscurity, and explain without political economists ?” And straightway any detriment to John Bull's character the compassionate John pulls out a quire for humanity? These windmills are flying of paper and indites a long letter of advice very awkwardly in our faces, while John on free trade.
is attempting to " butter us down
with Through multifarious channels has our the outpourings of his tender compassion. respectable and compassionate elder bro. The whim of John Bull that his Brother been pouring out his lachrymations ther Jonathan ought to do nothing for on this matter, Edinburgh and Quarterly himself, but have John to do everything Reviews, parliamentary speeches, news for him, is no new wbim.
Many years ago paper prosings, ponderous tomes of politi- this same blue-and-buff periodical on which cal economy, etc., etc.—all have wept we are now commenting, asked the ques
How could we, Americans, and tion, “Who reads an American book ?” the sons of such a mother, be so unwise and straightway discovered that the matso perverse—so blind to our true interests, ter of book-making was all right, for as to spin our own yarn! John Bull stood why should the Americans write books ready to sell us his genuine spinnings, a for themselves, when they can import outs
* Edinburgh Review, No. CLXXIV. Art. 4. Macgregor on American Corimerce.
in bales and hogsheads ?” In spite of the English for wishing to get the marsuch questions, however, and the profound kets of all the world ; but we would have maxims of political wisdom that lay hid- the world to know that the written politiden under them, the Americans have at cal wisdom of England is not half so coslength got to making not only books, but mopolitan in its sympathies as it pretends blankets and band boxes ; whereat John to be. John Bull's heart, if we take his Bull has somewhat changed his demeanor, word for it, is expansive enough to take and instead of asking questions he pulls in the whole human family ; but we may out his handkerchief and falls a-weeping rely upon it that of all his father's children from pure humanity. Brother Jonathan, he loves himself the best. John can sing he declares, will die of a tariff, and leave a variety of pathetic tunes, but they all him inconsolable!
end in “Buy a broom.” Simple noddies as we Yankees are, we However, let us hear some of John's have yet, like “the creature Dougal,” a lamentations over his suffering brother:glimmering of sense ; and by the help of that glimmering, we can see through John “ The American citizen pays from 95 to 178 Bull's blubbering philanthropy. We are per cent. for his window glass; 75 to 150 per in no puzzle to discern its genuine charaa
cont. on articles of manufactured iron ; 133 per
cent. on salt; 75 to 150 per cent. on prints and ter; it does not ring clear, but has a
calicoes. In order that he may enjoy these and decided twang of Brummagem. When similar benefits without fear of interruption by John tells us that we are smart young the smuggler, he pays for steam revenuesters, and that he loves us as he does his
cutters to cruise along the islands and sandbars eyes, but that his bowels yearn within which fringe the free Atlantic along his coast." him for the miseries which we suffer
for as certain as puddings were made to stone ? “ Lie down and be saddled with eat, and mouths to open, just so certainly wooden shoes !” says Goldsmith's patriot. were a man's ribs made to vibrate, with in- 95 per cent. on window glass, and steam tercostal accompaniments, at what is laugh- revenue-cutters into the bargain! exclaims able. We cannot stand it, when a philan- the Edinburgh Review. O unhappy Amerithropist who has just mowed down the cans! What is the small matter of being Sikhs with grape-shot, and thrust his dam- priest-ridden, king-ridden, aristocracy-ridnable opium upon the Chinese at the mouth den, or national-debt-ridden, compared to of the cannon, turns round and tells us the miseries of being steam-revenue-cutterthat his whole soul is about to dissolve in ridden? Truly, if it were not for our hupity for an American citizen who pays mane brother across the water, we should ninepence too much for a pocket-handker- never know half our misfortunes
. He has chief. The words fatal policy."
no steam revenue-cutters—lucky dog! nor wise legislation ”—“blind fatality”—“ big- ever heard of a preventive service. There oted perverseness”—“false position is no such thing in England as being ex“ illiberal principles," etc., are all lost up- chequered.” However, let John dry up on us;-"Sparrow-shot,” said my uncle his tears; we think, with God's help and Toby, “fired against a bastion."
some patience, we shall survive the horrid We have done, in a great measure, with infliction of steam revenue-cutters ; the importing John's political ideas and doc- country has many things to forget before trines • by the bale and hogshead,” it will take up that topic as a grievance. more especially such as are not suited to John Bull is a knowing fellow, but we our wants. In plain English, all the world counsel him, as he values his reputation knows that these philanthropic professions for shrewdness, to say no more about our of British economists are mere moonshine. steam revenue-cutters. They are puffs of their own wares, exe As to the 95 per cent. upon glass, and cuted to order for the markets of Birming- all that, a man with half an eye may see ham and Manchester. The pedler as- through it. Not to mention that our glass sumes the garb of the philosopher, and is better than his, we certainly shall claim sends out his magazine instead of a news the privilege of employing our own arithpaper advertisement. We do not blame metic in estimating the profit and loss of
pay for it.
our dealings with so sharp a customer. as the case stands, it is quite natural that Like Autolycus, John is always crying, such advice should be looked on with dis“ Come buy, come buy!” and like Au trust. His theories of free trade are very tolycus, he is sure to pick your pocket. fine things on paper, but the perverse He has the multiplication table at his fin- obstinacy of real events is such as to render gers' ends, while
free trade” is ever on them utterly worthless. Facts, naked the edge of his tongue.—95 to 178 per facts, are the things we want : throw cent. forsooth! No, brother, that will not theories to the dogs. What stuff is this do. Did you never hear of a fallacy lurk- about taxed iron and calico ? There ought ing under figures of arithmetic as well as to be no such thing as iron or calico in the under figures of rhetoric! Did it never United States, if the English theories of enter your noddle that American glass free trade have a particle of truth in them. will serve two purposes to your one? It The protective system should have raised keeps the cold out of the house and keeps the price of these articles above the reach the money in, which yours can never do, of any farmer in the Union : nobody would because we must send the money out to have manufactured them, for nobody would
As to the 150 per cent. on have been rich enough to buy them : calicoes, you may score down as many where there is no demand there will be no figures as you please, but we are old supply. Now what has been the fact ? enough to remember seeing British cali- We had no protective system, and we paid coes sold among us at 62 cents a yard, England enormously high prices for iron before the protective system had an exist- and calico. We adopted a protective sysence, which would be high in the market tem, and now we have iron and calico of now at a shilling. That is a fixed fact, our own dog-cheap! Is there a farmer which cannot be got over.
“ Human ex
in the country who wishes to go back to perience, which is the only test of truth," the days of untaxed iron and calico? says Dr. Johnson, "is perpetually con Alas for John Bull's theory of free trade ! tradicting theory.” But let us hear John And here we are compelled to ask a Bull again : he will 'condole in some question :-Does the writer in the Edinmeasure," like his friend Nick Bottom : burgh really believe that all these horrors
of taxed iron and calico and steam revenue"So long as the American farmer chooses
cutters are patiently endured by the people to feed himself and his cattle on taxed salt; to of the United States, merely that the work his land with taxeu iron; to dress his world may admire the factory girls of wife and daughters in taxed calicoes-not to preserve the national honor, to plant the rapa
Lowell? Does he in good sooth persuade cious eagle on the towers of Cortez, or to hum- himself that the merchants of New York, ble the obstinate · Britishers,' but simply that the sugar-planters of Louisiana, and the the world may admire the factory girls of farmers of Ohio, sit down calmly under Lowell, and that a few Yankee speculators grinding taxation, in their strong desire to may get rich in the towns of New England- enrich only a few Yankee speculators in so long these statesmen may enjoy a poorly the towns of New England ? Does he, we acquired popularity; but the dispelling of that delusion will place them at the feet of their ask, seriously believe this? We should enemies, unless they extricate themselves from like to put him to bis corporal oath upon the false position which they now occupy.” it. If he does believe so, we would give
a trifle to see the face and eyes of a man Now, if the American farmer chooses capable of such asinine credulity! By to feed himself and his cattle, and dress what sort of hocus-pocus does he suppose himself and his family, according to his the American people—a people whose own notions of thrift and economy, as he wits in money matters, according to the certainly does, why need John Bull go universal belief in England, are as sharp into fits about it? But he is a compas as a two-edged sword—by what sort of sionate soul, and has pangs of grief to see hocus-pocus does he believe these people his neighbors pay too much for their to have become in an instant so enamored calico. If John had no calico of his own of the Lowell factory girls as to suffer to sell, we might possibly lend an ear to taxation and tariffs, and steam revenuehis neighborly advice in this matter; but cutters into the bargain, for the mere
pleasure of knowing that the aforesaid | the rock on which the Eddystone lightfactory girls enjoyed the world's admira- house is built is the only spot that reaps tion? By what charm, what conjurations, any benefit from that lighthouse. Does and what mighty magic—for such pro- this writer suppose, that because the ceedings they are charged withal-have springs of the Nile are in Abyssinia, these half a dozen Yankee speculators in the land of Egypt can get no water from Boston so wormed themselves into the it? Has he never heard of railroads, affections of the universal Yankee nation, canals, and ships of mighty burthen, that that everybody else is willing to remain unite Lowell with Baltimore, and Charlespoor that this favorite half dozen may ton, and New Orleans, and Cincinnati ? become rich? Yet such presumed facts Have we to tell him of the hundreds of are taken for granted as the basis of an thousands of barrels of flour that trundle argument in a grave treatise on political upon cars from Lake Erie, or the hundreds economy in the Edinburgh Review! But of thousands of bales of cotton that float let us see what ineffable nonsense this in ships from the “ tributary States” of writer can put forth while laboring under the South to that of Massachusetts ? Have such a hallucination:-
we to tell this profound political econo
mist of the interchange of millions of dol“ The six States of New England, contain- lars' worth of valuable products annually ing one-eighth of the population of the whole between the “ tributaries” of the Mississippi republic, produce two-thirds of its cotton factories, three-fifths of its woollens, nearly half its valley and the “ tributaries” of New Engleather, and other articles in almost the same
land; and that this interchange, reaching proportion. The single State of Massachusetts every spot and connecting every spot in owns one-sixth of the manufacturing capital the Union, is fed and quickened at every of the nation. As far, therefore, as protection moment of its ebb and flow by the manucan confer benefit on the producer of the mo- facturing capital of the country? Massanopolized articles, they, and they alone, have chusetts the only State that feels the reaped it. The remaining eighteen millions of the proudest and most irritable nation upon
benefit of her manufactures ! Why, there earth-men to whom a dollar paid by way of is not a plantation on the Mississippi, nor salary to a priest, or civil list to a king, appears a trading house in the remotest corner of an oppression to be resisted to the last drop of the great lakes, that does not feel it. With blood-are content to disburse for the benefit this writer's representation before him, a of their Yankee brethren a tribute which, in all reader would imagine that the Old Bay probability, would defray the civil expenditure State was something like the happy valley ot' half a dozen small European monarchies. Nay, they have pressed and compelled the
of Rasselas, or Jericho besieged, that “none modest and reluctant Yankees
went out and none came in ;” that she kept The burthen has been usually borne by the all her cash and all her calico to herself. tributary States with that stolid patience, or Does he really suppose that the States of rather that exulting and applauding self-denial, the American Union are separated by Alps with which large bodies of mankind are in the and Pyrenees, and Chinese walls ? and habit of offering up their contributions to the that the terrible squadron of steam revenuecunning few!"
cutters, which his alarmed imagination We suppose it would be difficult to has conjured up, have hermetically sealed crowd into an equally narrow space a the ports of the “free Atlantic ?” greater number of absurdities; but what To relieve him from the astounding better could be expected of a man who puzzle into which he has been thrown by writes about a people whom he believes the spectacle of eighteen millions of the to be compounded of contradictions the proudest and most irritable of all flesh most impossible in nature ?—irritable and starving themselves, with their wives and patient, haughty and servile, shrewd and little ones, just for the pleasure of admirstolid, “no ass so meek, no ass so obstinate?" ing factory girls and rich Bostonians, we What says he, forsooth? Massachusetts, will drop a word in his ear :-Good Sir, having most of the manufacturing capital, they do no such thing, the eighteen million is, therefore, almost the only State that irritables that you wot of. They neither reaps any benefit from the protective sys starve themselves, nor do they worship tem! Why, he might as well say, that | Lowell operatives or live Yankees in any