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funds, while they are creating a bank of can draw after it every individual citizen the worst character, founded on the issue as by a line of fate. The millions of of depreciated paper.
lines meet in the hand of the Central They contend for the Sovereignty of the Power. Along them moves taxation, the People, (which no man denies,) while they call to arms; influence, fine but sure, are engaged in destroying the sovereignty moves along them.
moves along them. The people reciproof a neighboring people, and would force cate influence with their head; but while a sister Republic to cede, not only her each one of them knows him alone and his territory, but her citizens, as political will, he knows them all, and by a superior slaves.
wisdom can rule one by the knowledge They talk of progress, and the advance he has of another—by many he can rule of liberty and enlightenment, nay, even of one, and this in a thousand ways. By Christianity ; which progress, enlighten- the artifices of the politician, the whole ment, and liberty, nay, which Christianity, nation is moved through these lines. It they are eager to force upon their neigh is the duty of the people to watch, each bors at the point of the bayonet.
man his own, and reciprocate, meeting the We are no advocates for political con worse by a better will. sistency in the abstract; as though it were Government is in its
nature aggresnot sometimes the part of a wise man to sive and usurping. So well persuaded are change his course, and in view of impend- all men of this, it has become a maxim ing ruin to his country, oppose a policy with politicians, that every great authority advocated by a party once his own, but in the State should be left open to impeachceasing to be his when they depart from ment, and where impeachment is not alprinciples upon which he has taken his lowed, the government is either despotic, stand; but when it
or it is nominal—the real power, as in the of a party in power is at variance with English Constitution, being in other hands. some principle which themselves claim, are But it is hardly possible to conceive of an we not to regard their inconsistency as a Executive Power more crescent and cumuproof that they employ their principles as lative in its character than our own; forà veil to their purposes ?
to say nothing of its being only apparentLet us never listen, then, for an in- ly subject to impeachment-a vote of twostant, to their protestations, but watch thirds of the Senate being required for their measures.
The measures of the conviction of treason, which would scarceparty now in power, are the measures of ly be obtained against a President supportunjust men: they are employing the Exe- ed by a strong party; and unless so supcutive power of the Union, in a way to give portéd, he would not venture upon violait an unnatural and despotical authority ; tions of the Constitution—a succession of they mean to give it all the vigor necessary enterprising usurpers, such as have govto carry out their designs; they care not erned this country since the election of for the Constitution, nor for the principles General Jackson, have it in their power of private and public liberty of which it is create the popularity, and the popular the sole existing charter.
opinion, upon which they rest. Can we refuse to listen to the warning Nay, it is not yet certain, whether a “Who talks of liberty now?" Aye! who? power completely efficient for the demorIt is time then to begin to talk about liberty. alization of the nation might not be created State Rights have had their defenders. within the limits of the Constitution itself. The States know very well how to de Government is not a machine ; after all fend their own rights. They know the the barriers that political science can devise limits of their own sovereignties, and will have been erected about a moral power, defend them. But who will defend the disposed to be arbitrary and usurping, it rights and sovereignties of the people ? will still, within these formal limits, con
Every member of this Republic is con- tinue to be arbitrary and usurping; it will nected by a slender thread with the Cen- still continue to be necessary THAT REALLY tral Power. This thread passes through GREAT AND TRIED MEN SHOULD BE ELECTED. and above the system of the State, scarcely The usurpation of the war power, touching it. By this the Central Power granted by the Constitution to Congress
alone, is at all times easy for an Exe-guide—he has not the power of guiding cutive supported by a war-making party. the nation, in the path of justice and honor ; It would be as easy for the present govern- he is unconscious of these principles—he ment to involve this country in a war with regards them as fragile moral formularies, Great Britain as with Mexico; the means for the better management of fools and of exciting such a war are fully within the children. A formalist in his religion, it is power of the Executive.
very like he delights in long prayers ; a “None but a people advanced to a very formalist in behavior, it is very like he is a high state of intellectual improvement are man of smooth and polished address. capable, in a civilized state,” says Mr. Cal. Or if his game be of a ruder sort, he is houn, “of maintaining a free government; ready for the fierce extremes--roughness, and amongst those who have had the good cruelty, and profanity of conduct. Yet, fortune, very few indeed have had the good under all disguises, the demagogue is one fortune of forming a Constitution capable and the same; a liar in his heart, a deof endurance. It is a remarkable fact in ceiver of the people, an adroit manager of the history of man, that scarcely ever have men in place, a giver of gifts, a maker of free popular institutions been formed that promises, a busy, smooth, eloquent, cauhave endured.”
tious, well-trained, place-seeking, wealthThey have lapsed first into a democratic loving, power-grasping, ape of virtue. anarchy, and then into despotism. Their By one mark we are to know himdestroyers begin with engaging the people namely : in unjust wars, by which that tender and That he earnestly professes one thing, virtuous regard for liberty is sapped and and assiduously practices another. destroyed : having become tyrants, they He professes to economize for the peoare now ready to become slaves, and need ple, and loads them with expenses. only a master. The despot is always He professes free trade, and advocates ready, under the cloak of the demagogue. an indiscriminate Tariff. He is the man who confines himself theo. He professes to be jealous of liberty, retically within the limits of the Constitu- and goes on to swell the power of the tion, until he has succeeded in destroying its Executive. ground-work in the hearts of the people— He professes a great tenderness of until he has succeeded in intoxicating them national honor, and plunges the nation with the consciousness of freedom, and in into wars of mere robbery. leading them on to the commission of na In a word, he is consistent in his contional crimes, under the names of patriot- duct with none of the principles he proism, glory, and enterprise. He is no con- fesses; and he professes those which he scious destroyer, but only a godless skep- thinks will sound best in most ears. tic, smooth and fluent in speech, active in Under favor, therefore, it seems that talent, and simply cold blooded and dis- Mr. Calhoun has not indicated the true honest when he dares be so. His tools causes of the decline of liberal institutions are, perhaps, men superior to himself in when he says that they are established, dignity of character, and in obstinacy of and must fall
, by good or evil fortune. It purpose, whose narrow understandings he would seem rather that not fortune but knows well how to darken with sophistries influence, is the cause of the rise and and flatteries. In his own opinion the decline of free institutions. Given a peodemagogue is not a bad man; he means ple wise enough to know a demagogue only to use the natural and customary from a statesman, there were no danger means toward influence and wealth. The to be apprehended, that their institutions Union to him is a kind of firm, a combina- would ever fall into anarchy. The causes tion of great powers for the purposes of of the rise of free institutions are to be defence, enrichment and aggrandizement; sought in the character, and not in the in enriching and aggrandizing himself at fortune of the people. The Athenians, a the expense of this corporation he seems tribe of forty thousand luxurious democrats, to commit no sin. The Supernal Powers governing half a million of slaves, gradhave denied him the knowledge of the true ually wrested power from the hands of the glory of humanity; he does not care to few, and as gradually lost it when their
manners became corrupt. The Romans, , sluggish, or knavish, the machine of governa clan of ambitious gentlemen, ruling ment will always work badly; it is a moral, with difficulty a rude but valiant popu- not a mechanical power; its springs are lace, regarded their state as an engine of in the hearts and minds of those who conquest, and themselves the predestined move it; their integrity or dishonesty, governors of the world. They gradually makes the nation fortunate or unfortunate; dwindled, and were dissolved and lost in their wisdom and moderation saves it; the multitude of their subjects, and the their honor keeps it pure and respectable. power they had organized passed into the Let us, therefore, the people, in selecting hands of men of other nations, trained our CANDIDATE, ask ourselves, with Jefin the Roman discipline.
ferson, is he capable, is he honest ? Is he The Greek and Roman republics cher a man of grand ability, of tried honesty, of ished in their laws none of those sacred unquestionable courage; open of heart and principles which can alone give duration to hand ; of a great reputation; able to rule, republics. They never dreamed of educa- faithful to his trust? Above all, does he ting the people of securing every man scorn intrigues and private schemes ? If his perfect liberty—of the freedom of he is all this, and no man more so, then is political opinion, freedom of religion, inter- he our CANDIDATE ; and if we, the citizens, national equity.
who profess Whig principles, will unite In a word, the safety of the Com- upon him, laying aside all small fears and monwealth is in the election of such men trifling doubts, who doubts our ability to as represent its principles in their char-elect him? acters: if these are weak, false, narrow,
Now Melancholy with pale Sorrow sits,
gasps the sick man on the bed of death,
The first of the works whose titles Hai, i. e. [all within the Four Seas. Tang are appended, is in two thick volumes of Shan, or the Hills of Tang, also denotes six hundred pages each, and contains the whole country. For the people, Li the result of the author's personal obser- Min, or Black-Haired Race, is a common vations, together with frequent extracts appellation ; the expressions Hwa Yen, from the best works hitherto written on the Flowery Language, and Chung Hwa China; making in the whole by far the Kwoh, the Middle Flowery Kingdom, are fullest compendium of information respect- also frequently used for the written laning that great Empire of the East which guage and the country—the sense of Hwa our Western World has ever yet pos- being that they are the most polished and sessed. Mr. Williams went to China as civilized of all nations. The term
“ CePrinter to the American Board of Foreign lestials,” which would be an extremely awkMissions, and resided twelve years at Can-ward phrase in their language, comes from ton and Macao, “ in daily and familiar con Tie Chau, i. e. Heavenly Dynasty, one of tact with the people, speaking their lan- | the titles of the present dynasty of Tsing. guage
and studying their books.” He is Our author gives a full account of the evidently an able philologist, and a well- | topography of the eighteen provinces, informed, sensible observer. The work is and the entire empire—its mountains and one of the most interesting that has lately rivers, the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, appeared, and we cannot do our readers a the public roads, and the appearances more acceptable service than to run it over which the landscapes usually present to and string together some of the novelties the eye. The general aspect of the counwhich it adds to the general stock of try is as much modified by cultivation as knowledge.
that of England, but there are no fences The narrative of Mr. Smith, who went or hedges. Temples and pagodas, wbich out in 1844, as agent of the English are used for inns and theatres as well as Church Mission to the cities where there idols, sometimes occupy commanding situare British Consuls, is quoted by Mr. Wilations. The acclivities of hills under terliams, so that it does not require a sepa race cultivation are often very beautiful. rate notice. It is interesting, but the style But distant views of cities are tame, from is very diffuse.
the absence of spires and towers to relieve Chung Kwoh, “the Mid-kingdom," is the dead level of tiled roofs. the most common name for their coun Along the sea-coast of southern China try among the Chinese. The name China the tyfoons (from ta-func, i. e. a great wind) is never used among them, and is sup are much dreaded.
The people have posed to have been taken by foreigners another name for them, which signifies from Tsin or Chin, a famous mon- | iron whirlwind. arch, who flourished B. C. 770. The The names given to streets and halls author
suggests that it may be the “land are very curious. Thus the Emperor's of Sinim,” referred to in Isaiah xlix. 12. Council at Peking is held in the Kien The natives have many other names for Tsing Tung, or Tranquil Palace of Heaven; their country: sometimes it is called Sz? | the Empress resides in the Palace of the
* The Middle Kingdom ; a Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, elc., of the Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants. By S. WELLS WILLIAMS, author of "Easy Lessons in Chinese,” “ English and Chinese Vocabulary,” &c. In two volumes. New York and London : Wiley and Puinam, 1818.
A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to the Consular Cities of China, and to the Islands of Hong Kong
Earth's Repose ; near by is the Hall of | ton are almost all for foreign trade. The Intense Thought, where sacrifices are pre city contains 50,000 persons employed in sented to Confucius and other sages, and weaving and embroidering cloth ; there also the Hall of the Literary Abyss, or are also 7000 barbers, and 4200 shoeLibrary. In reading these queer titles, one makers.
The contempt for the few cannot help fancying, what if we had such foreigners residing there, renders their buildings here, and who would be the fit-position very irksome and confined. None test persons to occupy them ? whether of them have ever adopted the native , our transcendental cotemporaries should costume, the English clerks probably rather be made to officiate as high priests objecting to the shaven poll and indispenin a Hall of Intense Thought, or follow sable pigtail. The foreign shipping lies their readers into a Literary Abyss ? To at Whampoa, (pronounced Wompoo, i. e. pursue such suggestions would how- Yellow Anchorage. In the mountainous ever interfere with our present purpose, parts of Kwangtung, there are many which is merely to give a diminished pic- tribes who resist erery attempt on the ture of an entertaining volume.
part of the lowlanders, to penetrate into The celebrated porcelain manufactories the fastnesses. They occasionally come are in the department of Jauchau in Fau- down to Canton to trade, and the Cantonlang hien, and, it is stated, give employment ese firmly believe that they possess tails to a million of workmen. They were es like monkeys. tablished A. D. 1004. Near them is the The last census of China, taken in 1812, vale of the White Deer, where Chu Hi, makes the entire population of the eighteen the great disciple of Confucius, lived and provinces amount to 362,447,183. The taught in the 12th century. It is a place means and intention of the government to of frequent pilgrimage for the Chinese lit- estimate the number of the people accuerati, and its beauty and sublimity a con- rately are not questioned; yet the result stant theme of the poets.
is so enormous that our author very sensiThe capital of the province Hupel, bly considers the subject still open, Wuchang fu, on the river Yangtsz' Kiang, until further statistics are obtained. The is said to be one of the largest assembla- averages of 850, 705 and 671 to the ges
of houses and vessels, inhabitants and square mile, in the provinces of Kiangsu, sailors, in the world ; London and Yedo Nganhwui, and Chehkiang, are too great can alone compete with it. Indeed, in to be credited without minute circumstanthe accounts of several other great cities tial evidence. No one can doubt, however, whose names are alike strange and eupho- that the population is exceedingly great, nious, one is constantly astonished at the and constitutes by far the largest assemimmensity of the population. Any place blage of human beings using one speech, in China under a half million would seem
ever congregated under one monarch. to be a mere village.
The revenues of the empire are, as might The true name of Canton is Kwangting be supposed, still more difficult to ascerSáng Ching, i. e. the capital of the prov- tain than the population. The government ince of Kwangtung. The names of the Red Book for 1840, places the total at city gates remind one of the Pilgrim's 58,007,007 taels of $1,33 each, but this Progress: thus we have Great-Peace gate, is probably only the surplussage sent from Eternal-Rest gate, Five-Genii gate, Bam- each province, for the support of the bog-Wicket gate, &c. Among the names emperor and his court. The revenue from of the six hundred streets, are Dragon Canton alone, in 1842, is given in the Red street, Martial Dragon street, Pearl street, Book at 43,750 taels, whereas it is well (what city was ever without one ?) Golden known that the collector of customs there Flower street, New Green Pea street, was obliged to remit from 800,000 to Physic street, Spectacle street, &c. These 1,500,000 taels, and his gross receipts were streets are very narrow, being never used not far from 3,000,000. The expenditures for carriages, and for uncleanliness, are of the government almost always exceed probably, if such a state of things can be the receipts, but in what way the deficit imagined, much in advance of the dirtiest is made up does not appear. The salaries in New-York. The manufactories of Can- | of the government officers are not high,