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(c) INTERIM REPORTS.-At the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act and at the end of the 12month period beginning on such date of enactment, the Secretary of the Treasury shall submit a report on the progress being made on the study or in discussions described in subsection (a) to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and shall consult with such committees after submitting each such report.

(d) FINAL REPORT.-On the conclusion of the study or of discussions described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall transmit a report containing a detailed description thereof to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, together with such recommendations for legislation which the Secretary may determine to be necessary or appropriate for the establishment of the International Debt Management Authority. SEC. 3112.82 ACTIONS TO FACILITATE CREATION OF THE AUTHORITY.

(a) IN GENERAL.-No funds, appropriations, contributions, callable capital, financial guarantee, or any other financial support or obligation or contingent support or obligation on the part of the United States Government may be used for the creation, operation, or support of the International Debt Management Authority specified in section 3111, without the express approval of the Congress through subsequent law, nor shall any expenses associated with such authority, either directly or indirectly, accrue to any United States person without the consent of such person. Except as restricted in the preceding sentence, the Secretary of the Treasury shall review all potential resources available to the multilateral financial institutions which could be used to support the creation of the International Debt Management Authority. In the course of this review, the Secretary shall direct

(1) the United States Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund to determine the amount of, and alternative methods by which, gold stock of the Fund which, subject to action by its Board of Governors, could be pledged as collateral to obtain financing for the activities of the authority specified in section 3111; and

(2) the United States Executive Director to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to determine the amount of, and alternative methods by which, liquid assets controlled by such Bank and not currently committed to any loan program which, subject to action by its Board of Gover. nors, could be pledged as collateral for obtaining financing for

the activities of the authority specified in section 3111. The Secretary of the Treasury shall include a report on the results of the review in the first report submitted under section 3111(c).

(b) CONSTRUCTION OF SECTION.–Subsection (a) shall not be construed to affect any provision of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund or of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or any agreement entered into under either of such Agreements. SEC. 3113.83 IMF-WORLD BANK REVIEW.

82 22 U.S.C. 5332.

(a) IMF REVIEW. - The United States Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund shall request the management of the International Monetary Fund to prepare a review and analysis of the debt burden of the developing countries, with particular attention to alternatives for dealing with the debt problem including new lending instruments, rescheduling and refinancing of existing debt, securitization and debt conversion techniques, discounted debt repurchases, and the International Debt Management Authority described in section 3111 no later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act.

(b) WORLD BANK REVIEW.-The United States Executive Director to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development shall request the management of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to prepare a review and analysis of the debt burden of the developing countries, with particular attention to alternatives for dealing with the debt problem including new lending instruments, rescheduling and refinancing of existing debt, securitization and debt conversion techniques, discounted debt repurchases, and the International Debt Management Authority described in section 3111 no later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act.

PART III-REGULATORY PROVISIONS AFFECTING

INTERNATIONAL DEBT

SEC. 3121. PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE REGULATION OF DEPOSITORY

INSTITUTIONS. (a) REGULATORY OBJECTIVES.—It is the sense of the Congress that regulations prescribed by Federal banking regulatory agencies which affect the international assets of United States commercial banks should grant the widest possible latitude to the banks for negotiating principal and interest reductions with respect to obligations of heavily indebted sovereign borrowers.

(b) FLEXIBILITY IN DEBT RESTRUCTURING.—It is the intent of the Congress that, in applying generally accepted accounting standards, Federal agencies which regulate and oversee the operations of depository institutions (within the meaning given to such term by clauses (i) through (vi) of section 19(b)(1)(A) of the Federal Reserve Act) apply to such institutions maximum flexibility in determining the asset value of restructured loans to heavily indebted sovereign borrowers and in accounting for the effects of such restructuring prospectively.

(c) RECAPITALIZATION.-It is the intent of the Congress that Federal agencies which regulate and oversee the operations of depository institutions (within the meaning given to such term by clauses (i) through (vi) of section 19(b)(1)(A) of the Federal Reserve Act) should require depository institutions with substantial amounts of loans to heavily indebted sovereign borrowers to seek, as appropriate, expanded recapitalization through equity financing to ensure that prudent institutional capital-to-total asset ratios are established and maintained.

83 22 U.S.C. 5333.

(d) RESERVES FOR LOAN LOSSES. - It is the intent of the Congress that Federal agencies which regulate and oversee the operations of depository institutions (within the meaning given to such term by clauses (i) through (vi) of section 19(b)(1)(A) of the Federal Reserve Act) should seek to ensure that appropriate levels of reserves be established by depository institutions engaged in substantial lending to heavily indebted sovereign borrowers in accordance with both the credit and country risks associated with such lending.

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(e) 84 *

SEC. 3122. STUDIES RELATING TO THE REGULATION OF DEPOSITORY IN.

STITUTIONS. (a) REGULATORY STUDY REQUIRED.—The Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation shall conduct a study to determine the extent of any regulatory obstacle to negotiated re ductions in the debt service obligations associated with foreign debt.

(b) SPECIFIC FACTORS TO BE STUDIED.—The study required by sub section (a) shall include an analysis of regulatory and accounting obstacles to various forms of debt restructuring, including negotiated interest reduction, the amortization of loan losses, securitization and debt conversion techniques, and discounted debt repurchases, as well as an analysis of the profitability of commercial bank lending to developing countries during the 10-year period ending on De cember 31, 1986. The analysis should include an assessment of the impact of the various forms of debt restructuring on the development of a secondary market in developing country debt and on the safety and soundness of the United States banking system.

(c) REPORT REQUIRED.-Within 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation shall transmit to the Congress a report containing the findings and conclusions of such agencies with respect to the study required under subsection (a), together with any recommendations concerning legislation which such agencies determine to be necessary or appropriate to remove regulatory obstacles to negotiated reductions in the debt service obligations associated with sovereign debt. SEC. 3123. LIMITED PURPOSE SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS FOR THE

POOREST HEAVILY INDEBTED COUNTRIES. (a) STUDY REQUIRED.

(1) IN GENERAL.- The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the directors and staff of the International Monetary Fund and such other interested parties as the Secretary may determine to be appropriate, shall conduct a study of the feasibility and the efficacy of reducing the international debt of the poorest of the heavily indebted countries through a one-time allocation by the International Monetary Fund of limited purpose Special Drawing Rights to such countries in accordance with a plan which provides that,

84 Subsec. (e) amended sec. 913 of the International Lending Supervision Act of 1983. For test. see page 201.

(A) the allocation be made without regard to the quota established for any such country under the Articles of Agreement of the Fund;

(B) limited purpose Special Drawing Rights be used only to repay official debt of any such country;

(C) the allocation of limited purpose Special Drawing Rights to any such country not be treated as an allocation on which such country must pay interest to the Fund; and

(D) the use of limited purpose Special Drawing Rights by any such country to repay official debt shall be treated as an allocation of regular Special Drawing Rights to the

creditor. (2) ADDITIONAL FACTORS TO BE STUDIED.-The study required under paragraph (1) shall include the foilowing:

(A) To the extent the creation and allocation of the limited purpose Special Drawing Rights described in paragraph (1) would require an amendment of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, an assessment of the period of time within which such amendment could be ratified by the member nations, based on discussions with the major members of the Fund.

(B) An assessment of other means for achieving the objectives of principal and interest reduction on official debt of the poorest heavily indebted countries through the use of Special Drawing Rights.

(C) A comparative evaluation of proposals of other members of the International Monetary Fund, the directors and staff of the Fund, and other interested parties.

(D) An analysis of the effect the implementation of the provisions in paragraph (1) would have on bilateral and multilateral lenders, the international monetary system, and such other provisions of this Act as may be appropriate.

(E) A comparative analysis of the available alternatives

identified under subparagraph (B) or (C). (b) REPORT REQUIRED.-Within 3 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury shall submit a report to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate containing the findings and conclusions of the Secretary pursuant to the study required under subsection (a), together with

(1) the recommendation of the Secretary as to which, of all the alternatives for providing relief for the poorest of the heavily indebted countries which were assessed in connection with such study, represents the best available option; and

(2) recommendations for such legislation and administrative action as the Secretary determines to be necessary and appropriate to implement such option.

SUBTITLE C-MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS 85

SUBTITLE D-EXPORT-IMPORT BANK AND TIED AID CREDIT

AMENDMENTS

86

SUBTITLE F-PRIMARY DEALERS

SEC. 3501.87 SHORT TITLE.

This subtitle may be cited as the “Primary Dealers Act of 1988”. SEC. 3502.88 REQUIREMENT OF NATIONAL TREATMENT IN UNDERWRIT.

ING GOVERNMENT DEBT INSTRUMENTS. (a) FINDINGS.-The Congress finds that

(1) United States companies can successfully compete in foreign markets if they are given fair access to such markets;

(2) a trade surplus in services could offset the deficit in manufactured goods and help lower the overall trade deficit significantly;

(3) in contrast to the barriers faced by United States firms in Japan, Japanese firms generally have enjoyed access to United States financial markets on the same terms as United States firms; and

(4) United States firms seeking to compete in Japan face or have faced a variety of discriminatory barriers effectively pre cluding such firms from fairly competing for Japanese business, including

(A) limitations on membership on the Tokyo Stock Exchange;

(B) high fixed commission rates (ranging as high as 80 percent) which must be paid to members of the exchange by nonmembers for executing trades;

(C) unequal opportunities to participate in and act as lead manager for equity and bond underwritings;

(D) restrictions on access to automated teller machines;

(E) arbitrarily applied employment requirements for opening branch offices;

(F) long delays in processing applications and granting approvals for licenses to operate; and

(G) restrictions on foreign institutions' participation in

Ministry of Finance policy advisory councils. (b) DESIGNATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS AS PRIMARY DEALERS PROHIBITED.

(1) GENERAL RULE. -Neither the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System nor the Federal Reserve Bank of New York may designate, or permit the continuation of any prior designation of, any person of a foreign country as a primary

85 Subtitle C, “Multilateral Development Banks Procurement Act of 1988”, was transferred to the International Financial Institutions Act by sec. 541(bX1) of the International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240; 103 Stat. 2517), redesignated as sec. 1801 and re codified as 22 U.S.C. 262q. See page 190.

86 Subtitle D, cited as the "Export-Import Bank and Tied Aid Credit Amendments Act of 1988”, can be found at page 36.

87 22 U.S.C. 5341. 88 22 U.S.C. 5342.

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