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The Government of the United States of America, the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States, resolved to:

STRENGTHEN the special bonds of friendship and cooperation among their

CONTRIBUTE to the harmonious development and expansion of world trade and provide a catalyst to broader international cooperation;

CREATE an expanded and secure market for the goods and services produced in their territories;

REDUCE distortions to trade;

ESTABLISH clear and mutually advantageous rules governing their trade;

ENSURE a predictable commercial framework for business planning and

BUILD on their respective rights and obligations under the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade and other multilateral and bilateral instruments of cooperation;

ENHANCE the competitiveness of their firms in global markets;

FOSTER creativity and innovation, and promote trade in goods and services that are the subject of intellectual property rights;

CREATE new employment opportunities and improve working conditions and living standards in their respective territories;

UNDERTAKE each of the preceding in a manner consistent with environmental protection and conservation;

PRESERVE their flexibility to safeguard the public welfare;

PROMOTE sustainable development;

STRENGTHEN the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations; and

PROTECT, enhance and enforce basic workers' rights;

HAVE AGREED as follows:


Chapter One


Article 101: Establishment of the Free Trade Area

The Parties to this Agreement, consistent with Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, hereby establish a free trade area.

Article 102: Objectives

1. The objectives of this Agreement, as elaborated more specifically through its principles and rules, including national treatment, most-favored-nation treatment and transparency, are to:


eliminate barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of, goods and services between the territories of the Parties;


promote conditions of fair competition in the free trade area;


increase substantially investment opportunities in the territories of the Parties;


provide adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights in each Party's territory;


create effective procedures for the implementation and application of this Agreement, for its joint administration and for the resolution of disputes; and


establish a framework for further trilateral, regional and multilateral
cooperation to expand and enhance the benefits of this Agreement.

2. The Parties shall interpret and apply the provisions of this Agreement in the light of its objectives set out in paragraph 1 and in accordance with applicable rules of international law.

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