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New York City........
Syracuse..... Pennsylvania: Philadelphia. South Carolina: Charleston... Tennessee:
Port Arthur.. Virginia: Norfolk...
Nov. 3.... July 23.
June 27 July 11.... Oct. 2.. Sept. 28.
Aug. 21. July 31. July 7. May 10..
July 10.. July 15. July 21..
4 Or more.
Lynchings, 1919. Seventy-four negroes, six white men lynched, from January 1 to December 31, 1919.
Lynching in the United States in the year ending Dec. 31, 1919, by States.
1 One white.
378 colored; 6 whites.
The manner of lynching was as follows:
Shot to death......
SUPPLEMENTARY MEMORANDUM ON WHY CONGRESS SHOULD INVESTIGATE RACE RIOTS
(Submitted by the National Association for the Advancement Colored People. Headquarters: 70 Fifth
Avenue, New York, January, 1920.) Supplementary to data previously submitted as to why Congress should investigate race riots and lynchings the following is submitted:
1. Increase in cruelty and ferocity of lynchings. Number of Negroes burned at the stake: 1918, before death, 2; after death, 4; 1919, before death, 11; after death, 3.
2. Local sheriffs and peace officers have allowed prisoners to be taken from them without bona fide efforts being made to protect prisoners and to hold them for legal trial: 1918, 13; 1919, 34.
In the year 1918:
Alabama, 2. November 10, William Bird, taken from jail at Sheffield; November 12, George Whiteside, taken from Colbert County jail at Tuscumbia.
Arkansas, 1. December 17, Willie Jones, taken from jail at Newport. Georgia, 4. March 26, Spencer Evans, taken from Taliaferro County jail, Crawfordsville, Ga.; May 23, James Cobb, taken from jail at Cordele; August 11, Ike Radney, taken from sheriff and two deputies at Colquitt; September 3, John Gilham, taken from sheriff and deputy near Gray, Jones County.
Illinois, 1. April 5, Robert F. Praeger, taken from four policemen at Collinsville.
Louisiana, 2. April 22, Clyde Williams, taken from deputy sheriff near Monroe; August 8, Bubber Hall, taken from sheriff at Bastrop. Mississippi, 1. April 18, Claud Singleton, taken from county jail at Poplarville.
North Carolina, 1. November 5, George Taylor, taken from "deputized citizen” at Rolesville.
111 before death; 3 aster,
South Carolina, 1. February 23, Walter Best, taken from sheriff and two deputies at Fairfax, Barnwell County.
In the year 1919:
Alabama, 3. June 22, Frank Foukal, taken from sheriff in county jail at Bay Minette; September 29, Robert Croskey, taken from county officials near Montgomery; September 29, Miles Phifer, taken from county officials near Montgomery.
Arkansas, 2. April 23, Sam McIntyre, taken from county jail at Forest City; November 11, Jordan Jameson, taken from officials at Magnolia.
Colorado, 2. September 13, Salvador Ortez, taken from jail at Pueblo; September 13. Jose Gonzales, taken from jail at Pueblo.
Florida, 4. March 13, Joe Walker, taken from officers at Greenville; March 14, Bud Johnson, taken from officers near Castlebury; September 8, Bowman Cook, taken from jail at Jacksonville; September 8, John Morine, taken from jail at Jacksonville.
Georgia, 5. April 14, unknown Negro taken from jail at Millen; May 24, Berry Washington, taken from jail at Millen; August 5, unidentified Negro taken from city harracks at Cochran; November 3, Paul Jones, taken from 2 deputy sheriffs at Macon; December 21, Charles West, taken from officers on train going from Jacksonville, Fla., to Americus, Ga.
Louisiana, 3. January 30, Sampson Smith, taken from sheriff near Monroe; September 6, unidentified Negro, taken from sheriff at Morehouse Parish; October 23, Gus Jackson, taken from police or sheriff at Shreveport.
Mississippi, 3. June 28, unidentified Negro, taken from marshal near Richton; November 8, Robert Motley, taken from jail at Lambert; November 28, Neville Foxworth, taken from officers at Foxworth.
Missouri, 2. May 28, Jay Lynch, taken from officers in court at Lamar; November 16, Halley Richardson, taken from Macon County jail.
Nebraska, 1. September 28, Will Brown, taken from jail at Omaha.
Tennessee, 1. October 26, Henry Booth, taken from jail at Humboldt.
Texas, 3. January 20, Bragg Williams, taken from jail at Hillsboro; June 17, Lemuel Walters, taken from jail at Longview; July 24, Chilton Jennings, taken from jail at Gilmer.
Washington, 1. November 11, Britt Smith, taken from jail at Centralia. West Virginia, 2. December 15, E. D. Whitfield, taken from sheriff and deputies while being taken from Chapmanville to Huntington; December 15, Earl Whitney, taken from sheriff and deputies while being taken from Chapmanville to Huntington.
3. Convictions noted in only two cases in 1918 and 1919:
The only convictions noted were those of 15 men sentenced to from 14 months to 6 years for attempting to break into the jail at Winston-Salem, N. C., for the purpose of lynching Russell High, a Negro; and the fining of 12 men who pleaded guilty in court to the lynching of Frank Foukal, a white man, at Bay Minette, Ala. The men pleaded guilty by agreement and the fines ranged from $100 to $300.
REWARDS OFFERED FAIL TO PRODUCE RESULTS.
The publishers of the San Antonio (Tex.) Express, who established a fund of $100,000 to be used as rewards for bringing about conviction of lynchers, telegraphed on January 10, 1920, that since the establishment of the fund, on August 4, 1918, No claims for reward have neen presented.”
In addition to the San Antonio Express reward fund, liberal rewards have been offered in three instances for the apprehension of participants in lynching mobs. In the case of the lynching of Berry Washington, at Milan, Ga., $1,500 reward was offered, $1,000 of which was offered by Gov. Dorsey; $750 of a $1,300 reward was offered by Gov. Dorsey for the apprehension of the lynchers of Eli Cooper at Ocmulgee, Ga.; and Gov. Bickett, of North Carolina, has offered rewards of $400 each for the arrest and conviction of members of the mob which lynched a negro at Franklinton, N. C., on December 27.
In many instances special grand juries were called, but their reports have generally been that they were “unable to find information as to the identity of any of the lynchers."
These convictions were in 1919.
In addition to the fact that convictions are rare and that local authorities do not protect prisoners from lynching mobs, governors have confessed themselves powerless