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Mr. MADDEN. I feel safe in saying that 90 per cent of the Negro in the United States would be glad to go.

Mr. DYER. I am afraid you have no solid basis for that opinion.

Mr. GOODYKOONTZ. Your idea is to erect a nation to be run by the Negroes?

År. MADDEN. Yes, sir; I say that by virtue of the fact that this is a white man's country and should be conducted by the white people, and by virtue of the fact that I believe there have been enough white women and girls offered upon the bloody altar of African lust. I believe enough Negroes have died at the stake, tied there and coal oil poured upon them, with their groans going up to God and the earth swallowing up their blood as a protest of the highly civilized people. I believe that you will agree with me that the only solution is to separate the races.

The CHAIRMAN. You say you have a bill or resolution to offer? Mr. MADDEN. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Is there anyone who wishes to be heard in opposition?

STATEMENT OF MR. NEVAL H. THOMAS.

Mr. THOMAS. In the first place, I am representing the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People. Locally we have 7,000 members whom I am representing, and nationally we have 100,000 members in 310 branches, which are organized to oppose just such a recommendation as has been presented here to-day. I do not know where this man comes from

Mr. DYER. He says he comes from St. Louis. How long have you lived in St. Louis, Mr. Madden?

Mr. MADDEN. About two years; I came there from Oklahoma. Mr. DYER. I thought so. Mr. THOMAS. I am acquainted with the leaders of thought among colored people all over this country, and I never even heard of this man before. He represents nothing but himself. Beware of any Negro who comes recommending a segregation scheme to you; he is simply seeking to be head of the group if we are segregated. When Woodrow Wilson became President, there were some venal Negro politicians who asked him to segregate the colored clerks in one department, and at the same time everyone presented an application for the headship of that department; so pay no attention to them. The masses of the colored people are unalterably opposed to segregation. Civilization has been spread and prejudices softened by the contact of peoples with each other. Even President Wilson is on record as saying that you can not hate a man whom you know, although he has segregated men to keep them from knowing, so that they can hate.

We recognize, in the first place that every man is lord of his castle; complete master of his own home. We seek no association, but cooperation with the white people of this country in the up-building

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carrier, we are not seeking contact with the other people, we simply want to travel from place to place; we do not even expect another passenger to say “Good morning” to us. That is an ordinary civil right. The common carrier, like all other institutions, belongs to all of us alike. They are supported by our taxes, protected by the

police power of our State, and every one is a taxpayer because the ultimate consumer is the taxpayer. The owner of property does not pay the taxes. He charges enough rent to make a profitable return on his investment, plus the insurance, water rent, and all other expenses, and the tenant pays it. The owner of the property is simply a messenger through whom the tenant sends his taxes to

the taxgatherer. Therefore, we have equal right to all public places, - such as the common carrier, the theaters, restaurants, and hotels,

and we will never cease to clamor for our rights until we gain admis. sion. What we want the Congress to do, and also the Department

of Justice, is to enforce the thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth amendments to the Constitution. Even the thirteenth amendment, forbiding slavery and involuntary servitude, is violated in the Southern States by the infamous system of peonage. We demand the ballot, for in a Government where men vote the voter is king, and the disfranchised man is the victim of the man who does vote. We demand the abolition of the infamous “Jim-Crow” car, which was simply made to insult us. We demand admission to all public places, in fact, we demand equality of treatment everywhere, and equality before the law. Again, I say that segregation keeps men apart and is opposed to all sound principles of Government. My own experience in this country and Europe with white people has taught me how segregation works against my people. I have met

could write; that I knew history; that I knew what I was traveling for; could explain a painting or piece of sculpture or a great work of architecture. They had lived side by side with me for all these years, the segregation had kept them from knowing me. Suppose

discover their common humanity, and learn that color is the least of differences among men, and we would have no resulting friction. There are people living right in Boston who have gone over Boston

statue of Crispus Attucks, a Negro, the first to shed his blood in the American Revolution. Near by is the famous Robert Gould Shaw statute, dedicated to the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth regiments of Negroes in the Civil War, who died like men at Fort Pillow for the preservation of the Union, and yet have never looked up to find how much the colored men of this country have done for it. The system of segregation prevents that mutual interest that should exist between the races; we are all opposed to segregation. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is the largest institution among the negroes, with 700,000 members. This church issued a declaration of 14 points, the number of which is in imitation of the President's 14 points, and the strongest point in it is a declaration against segregation. This church supports 24 institutions in the South and collects from the pockets of washerwomen $350,000 every year for the education of the Negro youth, and this in addition to the expense to which colored people are put for education of their own in the South because all the people are taxpayers.

As this great church is against segregation, so are the Baptists and other denominations. The great organization for which I am talking to-day is opposed to it. We are all opposed to it, and this man is simply seeking his own personal gain. 'The gentleman from Oklahoma Mr. MADDEN. I feel safe in saying that 90 per cent of the Negroes in the United States would be glad to go.

Mr. DYER. I am afraid you have no solid basis for that opinion.

Mr. GOODYKOONTZ. Your idea is to erect a nation to be run by the Negroes?

År. MADDEN. Yes, sir; I say that by virtue of the fact that this is a white man's country and should be conducted by the white people, and by virtue of the fact that I believe there have been enough white women and girls offered upon the bloody altar of African lust. I believe enough Negroes have died at the stake, tied there and coal

earth swallowing up their blood as a protest of the highly civilized people. I believe that you will agree with me that the only solution is to separate the races.

The CHAIRMAN. You say you have a bill or resolution to offer? Mr. MADDEN. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Is there anyone who wishes to be heard in opposition?

STATEMENT OF MR. NEVAL H. THOMAS. Mr. THOMAS. In the first place, I am representing the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People. Locally we have 7,000 members whom I am representing, and nationally we have 100,000 members in 310 branches, which are organized to oppose just such a recommendation as has been presented here to-day. I do not know where this man comes from

Mr. DYER. He says he comes from St. Louis. How long have you lived in St. Louis, Mr. Madden ?

Mr. MADDEN. Ábout two years; I came there from Oklahoma.
Mr. DYER. I thought so.

Mr. THOMAS. I am acquainted with the leaders of thought among colored people all over this country, and I never even heard of this man before. He represents nothing but himself. Beware of any Negro who comes recommending a segregation scheme to you; he is simply seeking to be head of the group if we are segregated. When Woodrow Wilson became President, there were some venal Negro politicians who asked him to segregate the colored clerks in one department, and at the same time everyone presented an application

now where. He says. Maddeners; I cam

The masses of the colored people are unalterably opposed to segregation. Civilization has been spread and prejudices softened by the contact of peoples with each other. Even President Wilson is on record as saying that you can not hate a man whom you know, although he has segregated men to keep them from knowing, so that

We recognize, in the first place that every man is lord of his castle; complete master of his own home. We seek no association, but cooperation with the white people of this country in the up-building of the things which belong to us all. When we go upon a common carrier, we are not seeking contact with the other people, we simply want to travel from place to place; we do not even expect another passenger to say “Good morning” to us. That is an ordinary civil right. The common carrier, like all other institutions, belongs to all of us alike. They are supported by our taxes, protected by the

police power of our State, and every one is a taxpayer because the ultimate consumer is the taxpayer. The owner of property does

return on his investment, plus the insurance, water rent, and all other expenses, and the tenant pays it. The owner of the property is simply a messenger through whom the tenant sends his taxes to the taxgatherer. Therefore, we have equal right to all public places, such as the common carrier, the theaters, restaurants, and hotels, and we will never cease to clamor for our rights until we gain admission. What we want the Congress to do, and also the Department of Justice, is to enforce the thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth amendments to the Constitution. Even the thirteenth amendment, forbiding slavery and involuntary servitude, is violated in the Southern States by the infamous system of peonage. We demand the ballot, for in a Government where men vote the voter is king, and the disfranchised man is the victim of the man who does vote. We demand the abolition of the infamous “Jim-Crow” car, which was simply made to insult us. We demand admission to all public places, in fact, we demand equality of treatment everywhere, and equality before the law. Again, I say that segregation keeps men apart and is opposed to all sound principles of Government. My own experience in this country and Europe with white people has taught me how segregation works against my people. I have met people in this country and in Europe who were surprised that I could write; that I knew history; that I knew what I was traveling for; could explain a painting or piece of sculpture or a great work of architecture. They had lived side by side with me for all these years, the segregation had kept them from knowing me. Suppose there were no prejudices in this country, the races would mingle and discover their common humanity, and learn that color is the least of differences among men, and we would have no resulting friction. There are people living right in Boston who have gone over Boston

statue of Crispus Attucks, a Negro, the first to shed his blood in the American Revolution. Near by is the famous Robert Gould Shaw statute, dedicated to the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth regiments of Negroes in the Civil War, who died like men at Fort Pillow for the preservation of the Union, and yet have never looked up to find how much the colored men of this country have done for it. The system of segregation prevents that mutual interest that should exist between the races; we are all opposed to segregation. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is the largest institution among the negroes, with 700,000 members. This church issued a declaration of 14 points, the number of which is in imitation of the President's 14 points, and the strongest point in it is a declaration against segregation. This church supports 24 institutions in the South and collects from the pockets of washerwomen $350,000 every year for the education of the Negro youth, and this in addition to the expense to which colored people are put for education of their own in the South because all the people are taxpayers.

As this great church is against segregation, so are the Baptists and other denominations. The great organization for which I am talking to-day is opposed to it. We are all opposed to it, and this man is simply seeking his own personal gain. 'sħe gentleman from Oklahoma

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e ss : bere in our own land. We have a mat engirinin IIT. What we want is enforcement of the law. We bare a Constitition with 19 amendments, and wilissingefertis.is be greatest political document that lian ever come from tre band of man. What we want Congress to do is to enforce it. Tsk of it: even the House of Representativo has closed its public restaurant to Segroes, where we have been going for 30 years without friction. This was done at the very time that brave black boys were dsing in the trenches in France. This is a new reward to give the returning black soldier for his heroic sacrificos in every part of far-off France.

In this town the theater, the great educational agency, supported by the black as well as the white, since it is a public institution, is closed to the black people, and I have to go to New York when I want the cultured entertainment of the opera. Is this right? No. We have done our full share of the dying for this country, and it is high time we were getting some of the living. This war, which was Waged for world democracy, as President Wilson said, has meant no democracy for us. It has not only given us no relief for the thousand burning wrongs we were suffering before the war but it has increased discrimination against us. The black boy who left this country at the command of Woodrow Wilson to go to France to die for democracy comes home to find more obstacles placed in the way of those he fought to save. At this very hour there are thousands of brave black heroes who never knew what liberty was that are now sleeping on the bill slopes of France, and we, who are left behind, would be unworthy of the glorious tradition of sacrifice they left us, if we did not work to Hocure the democracy for which Mr. Wilson told them to die. We would be folme to their sacred memories. We are determined to get democracy in this country. We expect the cooperation of our honorable Congrown and all just white men, and we are going to urge it and continue until wo wot up here in this Western Hemisphere the Tirst democracy the world has over seen. Think nothing of segregation. We have dillicultion in this country, it is true, but the solution IN not wurrender. We should face the problem with courage, with rosolution, and with mantenmanship. We should enforce the laws that nro Ingrently violnted in most of the States of this Union; admit all the citizenship, regardless of color, into all public places, and if there in friction punish the transgressor and not his innocent victim. That in justico; nothing also will we accept, and we ask nothing more. no

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