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President of the United States ; and before the

; same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.


lay taxes

Duties uniform.

The Congress shall have power to lay and Power of Cou collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay —pay debts. the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but General welfare. all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United Borrow money. States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, Cominerce. and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, Naturalization. and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies Bankruptcy. throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, Coin money. and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and meaweights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counter- Counter? ting. feiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish post offices and post roads; Post roads.

To promote the progress of science and use- Promote arts and ful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;



Piracies, &c.

Declare war and make captures.


Rules and articles of war.

Inferior courts. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme


To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on

land and water; Raise armies. To raise and support armies, but no appro

priation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regu

lation of the land and naval forces; Call out militia. To provide for calling forth the militia to ex.

ecute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of

the United States, reserving to the States reOfficers of militia. spectively, the appointment of the officers, and

the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles squarejas may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of

the State in which the same shall be, for the and over forts erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock

yards, and other needful buildings;—and

Urganize and gov. ern militia.

Exclusive legislation over seat of government.

arredals, &c.


To make all laws which shall be necessary to make general

carry . and proper for carrying into execution the fore. ers into effect. going powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.



slaves allowed till

facto .

The migration or importation of such persons Importation as any of the States now existing shall think 1808. proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus Habeas corpus. shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall Attainder and ex be passed.

No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, Direct taxes. unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles ex- \o exportation ported from any State.

No preference shall be given by any regula- Commerce tion of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another : nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, Money, how drawn but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the

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between the States.



To be published. recuipts and expenditures of all public money

shall be published from time to time. Xo nobility. No title of nobility shall be granted by the

United States; and no person holding any office

of profit or trust under them, shall, without the Foreign presents consent of the Congress, accept of any present,

emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State.

and titles.


Powers denied to the States.

Other powers do-
Did to States.

No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

No State shall, without the consent of Con. gress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Furth-r denial of powers to States,



United States.


The executive power shall be vested in a Pres. President of the ident of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: Each State shall appoint, in such manner as Electors, how ap

pointed. the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Rep. resentative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective Electors to meet States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of sident and Vice whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of

a the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of Their votes count

ed in Congress. the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such num. ber be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one

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