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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
Among the Contributors to the Sixteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are
G. F. Dewey, Philadelphia.
Prof. M. J. DRENNAN.
ZINZENDORF, NIKOLAUS LUDWIG, Count. Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Univer- HENRY S. DRINKER, E. M., Philadelphia. sity.
Eaton S. DRONE.
UNITED STATES (statistical and political),
VIRGINIA, STATE and UNIVERSITY OF,
WILLIAM AND MARY, COLLEGE OF,
WISCONSIN, STATE and UNIVERSITY OF,
and other articles.
and other articles in biography, geography, and Capt. C. E. Dutton, U. S. Ordnance Corps,
Washington Arsenal, D. C. Commodore George S. BLAKE, U. S. N., late
VELOCIMETER. Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Acade- Robert T. Edes, M. D., Harvard University. my, Annapolis, Md.
Articles in materia medica.
Hon. EDWARD EVERETT, Boston.
W. M. Ferpiss.
VERNET, FAMILY OF,
WALES (history), ALFRED W. Burrows, Winnipeg, Manitoba,
and other articles in biography and history. Canada.
CHARLES S. FOSTER, Editor of the “New York WINNIPEG. ROBERT Carter.
Building, New York.
VOLTAIRE, FRANÇOIS MARIE AROUET DE,
Lieut. Com. HENRY II. GORRINGE, U. S. N.,
Washington, D. C.
URUGUAY, a republic.
UrpGUAY, a river.
Prof. W. E. Griffis, late of the Imperial Coland other articles in geography and history.
lege, Tokio, Japan.
YEZO. Prof. E. II. CLAPKE, M. D., Harvard Univer
YOKOHAMA. sity. WOORABA
ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. and other articles in materia medica.
VICESBURG (war history).
Rev. Henry HARBAUGH, D.D., Lebanon, Pa.
Prof. JAMES MORGAN Hart.
WALLENSTELN, ALBRECHT, Count of.
J. W. IIawes.
Troy, N. Y..
UNITED STATES (geography and history),
UTAN, cians and Surgeons, New York.
WASHINGTON TERRITORY, UBISE,
WASTUINGTON, D, C., VISION,
WYOMING TERRITORY, VOICE
YOSEMITE, and other medical and physiological articles.
and other articles in American geography.
WALLACE, ALFRED RUSSEL. Louis HEILPRIN.
WURMSER, DAGOBERT SIGMUND.
ZUYDER ZEE. Prof. J. E. HILGARD, U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. O.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (in part).
UNITED STATES (geology).
and other articles in biography and history, Prof. Ç. A. Joy, Ph. D., Columbia College, New York.
and other chemical articles. Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of Technology, Boston.
UNITED STATES (zoology),
and other articles in zoology. Hon. JOHN J. Knox, Comptroller of the Currency, Washington, D. 0.
UNITED STATES (finance).
YOUNG, CHARLES AUGUSTUS.
and articles in biography and geography. Rev. BERNARD O'Reilly, D. D.
and other articles in ecclesiastical history. GUSTAV POLLAK.
and other astronomical articles. PENNOCK Puser, St. Paul, Minn.
WALLACK, JAMES WILLIAM.
WELLINGTON, DUKE OF.
UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST,
and various articles in geography and history. J. G. SHEA, LL. D.
TYNG, STEPHEN HIGGINSON (two).
XENOPHON (in part).
WYCLIFFE, JOHN DE.
UNITED STATES (botany),
and other botanical articles. Prof. Robert H. THURSTON, Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, N. J.
articles. I. DE VEITELLE.
VENEZUELA, UNITED STATES OF.
UNITED STATES, LITERATURE OF TIE (in part).
TURANIAN RACE AND LANGUAGES (in part).
ZEND-AVESTA (in part).
WARMING AND VENTILATION.
BOMBONE, a brass wind instrument, sup- | From 1656 to 1662 he lived in retirement. In but, which constitutes one form of the trum- | Opdam was beaten by the English off Solebay, pet. By means of sliding tubes great depth Van Tromp conducted a masterly retreat. He and power of tone are produced, and the in- was appointed commander-in-chief in the abstrument is capable of splendid effect. Trom- sence of De Ruyter, and under him he disbones are of three kinds, alto, tenor, and bass; played great valor in the encounter with the the first having a compass from C, the second English in the Downs in June, 1666; but on space in the bass, to G, an octave above the July 25 (N. S., Aug. 4) he was cut off from treble clef; the second from B, the second line the main squadron, and was unable to come in the bass, to A, the second space in the to the relief of De Ruyter, who accordingly treble; and the third from C, an octave below insisted upon his removal. He was reinstated the second space in the bass, to G, the second in 1673, during the war with the allied French line in the treble.
and English, in which he gained new laurels. TROMP. I. Maarten Harpertzoon van, a Dutch | After the restoration of peace with England in admiral, born in Briel in 1597, killed in bat- | 1675 he was cordially received in that country, tle, July 31 (N. S., Aug. 10), 1653. In his boy- and Charles II. made him a baronet. On De hood he was captured by the English in a bat-Ruyter's death in 1676 he succeeded him in the tle off the Guinea coast, in which his father highest naval rank, but afterward served for was killed. Subsequently he was prominent some time with great distinction under the on various occasions, especially under Admiral | Danish government. Heijn. In 1639, as admiral of Holland, he TROMSO. 1. The northernmost stift or dioinflicted great damage upon the Spanish fleet cese of Norway, bordering on the Arctic and near Gravelines, and in October he gained a Atlantic oceans; area, 42,687 sq. m.; pop. in most decisive victory over a powerful Span- | 1865, 155,335. It is divided into the bailiish squadron under Oquendo in the Downs, wicks of Nordland, Tromsö, and Finmark, and for which he was made a noble of France. includes the Loffoden islands, celebrated for Against the English fleet in 1652 he was at magnificent scenery and extensive cod and herfirst unsuccessful in the Downs, and was su- ring fisheries. (See LOFFODEN.) There is litperseded by De Ruyter, but was soon reinsta- tle agriculture, the main means of subsistence ted as chief commander. lIe signally defeated being derived from fisheries. II. A town, capBlake near the Goodwin Sands, Nov. 29, but ital of the diocese, on an island in the sound was intercepted by him off Portland island, of Tromsö, between the island of Kvalö and Feb. 18, 1653, suffered a heavy loss, and re- the mainland; lat. 69° 38' N., lon. 19° E.; pop: treated. He was killed in an encounter off about 4,000. It is the seat of a governor, and the Dutch coast with the English fleet under has several schools, a church, a Lappish printMonk, and was buried with great splendor at ing office, and a hospital chiefly for lepers. The Delft. II. Cornelis van, a Dutch admiral, son seat of the bishop has been removed to Alstaof the preceding, born in Rotterdam, Sept. 9, houg. The town was founded in 1794, and 1629, died in Amsterdam, May 29, 1691." He has an active shipping trade and an excellent early operated against the African pirates and harbor sheltered by mountains. Many vessels against the English in the Mediterranean, and belonging here are engaged in the walrus fishwhen 21 years old was made vice admiral. ery at Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen.
TRONDHJEM, or Throndhjem. See DrONTHEIM. 1. Central America. The orchard troopial (I.
TROOPIAL (Fr. troupiale), a name given to spurius, Bonap.) very much resembles the Balseveral species of the icterinæ and agelaina, timore oriole in the pattern of its colors, the subfamilies of American conirostral birds, in orange red of the latter being replaced by dark some respects resembling the starlings of the chestnut, the tail entirely black and more gradold world, and in others coming near the finch- uated, and the bill slenderer and more curved. es; they have the nine primaries of the finches, -The only other genus of the icterinæ which but the bill is larger, straight, the base with- can be mentioned here is cassicus (Cuv.), so
called from cassis, a helmet, the bill rising on the forehead in a crescent shape ; nostrils basal, naked, pierced in the substance of the bill; third and fourth quills longest, and tail long and graduated; tarsi and toes strongly scaled. There are about 20 species, peculiar to tropical America, living in the forests and also near human habitations, in vast troops; they eat fruits, berries, insects, and larvæ. The nest is most ingeniously woven by both sexes, made of fibres and dried grasses, of a cylindrical or gourd-like form, and sometimes 3 ft. long; the lower part is hemispherical, the
opening near the top, and the fabric suspended Common Troopial (Icterus vulgaris).
from the ends of slender twigs of high trees,
out of the reach of monkeys and snakes; many ont bristles, and the tip without a notch. The nests are made on one tree, and sometimes name is derived from their habit of associating those of different species together. They are in large troops. In the ictering the bill is gen- docile in captivity, and learn to whistle and to erally longer than the head, straight and sharp- articulate words; they are generally black, pointed; wings long and pointed, and tail usu- contrasted with bright yellow, especially toally wedge-shaped; toes moderate and formed ward the tail.—In the subfamily agelaine the for perching. The prevailing colors are yel- bill is stout, short, conical, nearly straight, and low or orange and black; they are generally sharp-pointed; tarsi as long as the middle toe; called orioles in North America, and a well toes long and slender, and claws long and known species has been described under Bal-curved. Some of the birds of this subfamily TIMORE BIRD; hang-nest is a name derived have been described under BLACKBIRD, BOBOfrom their habit of suspending the nest from LINK, and Cow Bird, species respectively of the the extremity of slender branches.—The com- genera agelaius (Vieill.), dolichonyx (Swains.), mon troopial (icterus vulgaris, Daud.) is about and molothrus (Swains.). 10 in. long, with a straight bill; back and TROOST, Gerard, an American chemist and abdomen yellow; head, neck all round, breast, geologist, born in Bois-le-Duc, Holland, March and tail black; a white band ,on the wings; 15, 1776, died in Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 14, feathers of throat elongated and pointed; it is 1850. He was educated at the university of a native of northern South America and the Leyden, and in 1809 was sent by Louis BonaWest Indies, sometimes coming to the south- parte, king of Holland, on a tour of scientific
observation in Java. The capture of the vessel by a privateer interrupted this undertaking, and in 1810 he settled in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the academy of natural history, and its first president from 1812 to 1817. In 1814 he established the first alum works in the United States; and in 1825, having held for a short time the professorship of chemistry in the college of pharmacy in Philadelphia, he joined Robert Owen's community at New Harmony. In 1828 he was appointed professor of chemistry, mineralogy,
and geology in the university of Nashville, and Cassican (Cassicus).
in 1831 geologist of the state of Tennessee. He
published reports on the geology of Tennessee, ern United States. They move in flocks, some- and memoirs on geology and mineralogy. times mingled with other species, and show a TROPEOLUM. See NASTURTIUM. great partiality to the neighborhood of man; TROPIC BIRD (phaëton, Linn.), a genus of they are excellent fliers, and equally at home web-footed oceanic birds, constituting the on the ground or in trees; they are loquacious family phaëtonidæ. They have a long, strong, at all seasons; their flesh is excellent. There pointed bill, broad at the base, slightly curved, are several other species in Mexico, Texas, and without nail and the edges finely serrated;