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quested the door to be locked and no one admitted. Then she would have to soothe his grief, his temper, his fancies.

• Sometimes he sheds tears, which he cannot control. Presently a minister comes bringing bad news. If my presence is required, I am called; if not, I retire in some corner and pray. Sometimes I hear that all is going wrong; then my heart beats, and I cannot sleep at nights. . . . But God wills it so, as compensation for all the worldly benefits that He has showered upon me.'

To Madame de Fontaines she writes, 1705 : There is • much to suffer while we are on this earth; but do not despair, God will not always be angry, and I trust will console you.'

At last the husband to whom for thirty-two years she had been an exemplary wife, a silent slave, and the most devoted and intelligent companion, fell ill of a serious illness, and the dawn of rest she had so long sighed for, away from the grandeurs of a Court she could not endure, began to rise. In August, 1715, the King sickened. His wife had a room prepared next to his apartment and nursed him for several nights, sometimes for fourteen hours at a stretch; and after the tenderest farewell, and being informed that her pre

sence was no longer necessary,' she retired to St. Cyr. The King rallied, and asked for her, but she had left, and her seeming impatience to leave the King has been made the subject of reproach. M. Geffroy points

out that the reproach is unmerited.

The King fell ill on August 15. On the 26th she was on her knees by his bedside while his wounds were being dressed, and Louis XIV. begged of her himself to leave him

and not to return, as her presence affected him too much.' She came back, however, when the King told her that he wished to be left alone and to die in peace. According to Dangeau, she spent almost all the day of the 27th by the King's bedside. On the 28th, in the evening, she went to St. Cyr so as to attend her devotions early on the morning of the 29th. On the 29th she again spent most of the day with the King. On the 30th, however, the King became worse, and having called together all the princesses and Madame de Maintenon to bid him farewell, he ordered the latter to

repair at once to St. Cyr;' and, faithful to that will to the last, she did as she was ordered, and left Versailles for ever.

On September 1 Louis XIV. died, and four years later Madame de Maintenon followed him to the grave at the age of eighty-four years. The last years of her life brought her that religious peace she had sighed for, and the opportunity

which she desired to prepare seriously for a future life. Throughout her existence a unity of purpose is singularly evinced. Worldly care until her worldly position is assured: spiritual care until her salvation by means of religion in a cloister is obtained. Gratitude to man who promoted her worldly interests : gratitude to God when man is no longer a necessity to her. Hope in divine mercy while troubles poured upon her: confidence in that mercy to the last.

She never preached a doctrine she did not strive to practise, and we may safely assert that a careful study of her correspondence cannot but lead one to the conclusion that on Grimm's estimate of greatness, quoted at the outset of these pages, Madame de Maintenon's great virtue entitles her not only to be remembered by men,' but to be honoured by all who can appreciate how difficult it was in the days in which she lived to spend a virtuous existence in a Court where folly and vice had previously to her advent reigned supreme.

The Regent Orleans paid her a just tribute when, hearing some courtiers speak against her, he rebuked them, declaring that she never did harm to a soul, and she always • tried to keep peace and harmony among all.'

ART. IV.-1. Directory of Girls' Societies, Clubs, and Unions.

By S. A. CAULFEILD. London: 1886. 2. Sex in Mind and Education. By H. MAUDSLEY, M.D.

1874. 3. Sex in Education (1 Reply). By ELIZABETH GARRETT

ANDERSON, M.D. 1874. 4. Girton College Report, 1886. 1886. 5. An Account of the North London Collegiate School for

Girls. By SOPHIE BRYANT, D.Sc. 1886. Seventy years ago, in the pages of this Review, Sydney

Smith glanced with his usual good sense and sunshine of style at the controversy then opening between the friends and foes of the higher education of women. From that day to this the battle has waxed fiercer and more fierce. Campaign after campaign has been fought out. Famous leaders have won victories, and anon suffered defeat. Whole armies have seemed to be annihilated, but fresh battalions have taken their place, and the cry on either side has been

No surrender. But, on the whole, victory has beyond all doubt been on the side of the friends of progress. Things which, in the days of Hannah More, were solemnly affirmed to be unwomanly, indelicate, unseemly, and ruinous to the best interests of the fair sex, have been triumphantly achieved, without injury, it is said, to man, woman, or child. The gates of knowledge have been flung open wide, and the fair ideal of Tennyson's 'Princess'

Pretty were the sight
If our old halls could change their sex, and flaunt
With prudes for proctors, dowagers for deans,
And sweet girl-graduates in their golden hair.
I think they should not wear our rusty gowns,

But move as rich as emperor moths'has been more than realised. Young and fair maidens have not only donned academic cap and gown, but achieved fame as poets, painters, and physicians, and shone in the list of wranglers, scientists, and logicians. Oh! how I wish, says Lilia,

That I were some great princess, I would build,
Far off from men, a college like a man's;
And I would teach them all that men are taught.

We are twice as quick.' The thing has now been done. The college has been built. The sweet girl-graduates' have stormed the very citadels of learning along the banks of Isis and of Cam, sacred hitherto to the male biped. They may be met with sauntering down • The High,' or taking a constitutional on the Trumpington Road, elate, unabashed, and as graciously fair and womanly as ever.*

The wise and witty canon, were he now to revisit the glimpses of the moon,' would be lost in amazement at the mighty change which has been effected in the course of a single half-century. “Much has been said,' he remarked, of the original difference between men and women, as if women were simply more quick, and men more judicious; women more remarkable for delicacy of association, men ' for stronger powers of intellect. Whereas, there is no difference between them but that which arises from dif

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* One only of the great universities, as yet, has fully opened its degrees to women, though signs are not wanting to show that ere long it will be só at both. Two women, the other day,' says Mrs. Fawcett, • were a first class by themselves, in the modern language tripos, no men sharing the honour with them; but while second and third-class men were admitted to the honour of a degree, the women of the first class were excluded.'

‘ference of circumstances.' For making this bold, and in those days unheard-of, assertion, he was at once fiercely assailed by many opponents of either sex. “Jacobin' and Revolutionist' were, as he tells us with unrivalled good temper, among the mildest epithets bestowed on him for his wild audacity in fighting what then seemed a hopeless battle; and it is now amusing enough to note how many of the hottest points of controversy have in our day been utterly swept from the field. Women, he went on to say, are excluded from the pursuit of all serious business; it is men, and men only, who are lawyers, physicians, clerks— reverend or lay-or apothecaries; all these offices being • sources of exertion which demand far more time than the production and suckling of children.'

But what a change has since befallen us! In this year of grace, 1887, thousands of young women, educated, and of keen ability and business-like habits, are actually employed as Post-Office and Savings-Bank clerks, with profit to themselves and credit to the State.* Lady physicians, skilful and fully equipped with credentials, are within hail of all who need them. Doctors of philosophy and logic; bachelors of arts, science, music, and of law, if rarer, are still to be found in goodly numbers; while ere long there may be, in the new world, if not in the old, some fair dame who can claim the title of special pleader, or the yet higher dignity of Q.C. In America the progress is even more rapid and decided than in Europe.

* Women jurors in Washington territory are counted as more intelligent, clear-headed, and reliable than men. Forty-eight women are now practising in the United States as solicitors; four are now practising in New York as public notaries; three others-Drs. Susan Stackhouse, Clara Marshall, and Mary Willets--are members of the Clinical Board at Philadelphia, where also eight women, as physicians, are making yearly incomes of 20,000 dollars each; twelve of 10,000 dollars; and twenty-two of 5,000 dollars. In Holland, a large number of women are acting as pharmaceutical chemists. “Nor is this all. Mrs. Frank Leslie, the only woman editor and manager of a publishing house, is called in America the “ Mother of the Illustrated Press.”

They make excellent Civil servants,' says Mr. Fawcett, ' and their salaries are only about one-third of what is paid to men for similar work. On a recent occasion, when 145 additional women were needed, there were 2,500 candidates for the vacant posts.' About 700 women are employed as clerks at the General Post Office; about 1,000 in the telegraph service, and several thousands in the various telephone offices ; and 300 in Industrial Assurance offices.

which, in the days of Hannah More, were solemnly affirmed to be unwomanly, indelicate, unseemly, and ruinous to the best interests of the fair sex, have been triumphantly achieved, without injury, it is said, to man, woman, or child. The gates of knowledge have been flung open wide, and the fair ideal of Tennyson's Princess'

' Pretty were the sight
If our old halls could change their sex, and flaunt
With prudes for proctors, dowagers for deans,
And sweet girl-graduates in their golden hair.
I think they should not wear our rusty gowns,

But move as rich as emperor moths'has been more than realised. Young and fair maidens have not only donned academic cap and gown, but achieved fame as poets, painters, and physicians, and shone in the list of wranglers, scientists, and logicians. Oh! how I wish, says Lilia,

· That I were some great princess, I would build,
Far off from men, a college like a man's ;
And I would teach them all that men are taught.

We are twice as quick.' The thing has now been done. The college has been built. The sweet girl-graduates' have stormed the very citadels of learning along the banks of Isis and of Cam, sacred hitherto to the male biped. They may be met with sauntering down. The High,' or taking a constitutional on the Trumpington Road, elate, unabashed, and as graciously fair and womanly as ever.*

The wise and witty canon, were he now to 'revisit the glimpses of the moon,' would be lost in amazement at the mighty change which has been effected in the course of a single half-century. “Much has been said,' he remarked, of the original difference between men and women, as if women were simply more quick, and men more judicious; women more remarkable for delicacy of association, men ' for stronger powers of intellect. Whereas, there is no • difference between them but that which arises from dif

* One only of the great universities, as yet, has fully opened its degrees to women, though signs are not wanting to show that ere long it will be so at both. Two women, the other day,' says Mrs. Fawcett, • were a first class by themselves, in the modern language tripos, no men sharing the honour with them; but while second and third-class men were admitted to the honour of a degree, the women of the first class were excluded.'

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