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effective conductivity values in the United States, and are to be used for determining the extent of broadcast station coverage when adequate field intensity measurements over the path in question are not available. Since the values specified are only for general areas and since conductivity values over particular paths may vary widely from those shown, caution must be exercised in using the maps for selection of a satisfactory transmitter site. Where the submission of field intensity measurements is deemed necessary or advisable, the Commission, in its discretion, may require an applicant for new or changed broadcast facilities to submit such data in support of its application.

(j) In general, broadcast transmitters operating with approximately the same power can be grouped in the same approximate area and thereby reduce the interference between them. If the city is of irregular shape, it is often possible to take advantage of this in selecting a suitable location that will give a maxi. mum coverage. The maps giving the density of population will be a key to this. The map giving the elevation by contours will be a key to the obstructing hills between the site and city. The map of the soil conditions will assist in determining the efficiency of the radiating system that may be erected and the absorption of the signal encountered in the surrounding area.

(k) Another factor to be considered is the relation of the site to airports and airways. Procedures and standards with respect to the Commiss!on's considerauon of proposed antenna structures which will serve as a guide to persons intending to apply for radio station licenses are contained in Part 17 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures).

(1) In finally selecting the site, consideration must be given to the required space for erecting an efficient radiating kystem, including the ground or counterprise. It is the general practice to use direct grounds consisting of a radial buried wire system. If the area is such that it is not possible to get such ground fystem in soil that remains moist throughout the year, it probably will be

found better to erect a counterpoise. (Such a site should be selected only as a last resort.) It, like the antenna itself, must of course be designed properly for the operating frequency and other local conditions.

(m) While an experienced engineer can sometimes select a satisfactory site for a 100-watt station by inspection, it is necessary for a higher power station to make a field-intensity survey to determine that the site selected will be entirely satisfactory. There are several facts that cannot be determined by inspection that make a survey very desirable for all locations removed from the city. Often two or more sites may be selected that appear to be of equal promise, It is only by means of field-intensity surveys taken with a transmitter at the different sites or from measurements on the signal of nearby stations traversing the terrain involved that the most desirable site can be determined. There are many factors regarding site eficiency that cannot be determined by any other method. When making the final selection of a site, the need for a fieldintensity survey to establish the exact conditions cannot be stressed

too strongly. The selection of a proper site for a broadcast station is an important engineering problem and can only be done properly by experienced radio engineers. $ 73.189 Minimum antenna heights or

field intensity requirements. (a) Section 73.45 requires that all applicants for new, additional, or different broadcast facilities and all licensees requesting authority to move the transmitter of an existing station, shall specify a radiating system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements of good engineering practice for the class and power of the station.

(b) The specifications deemed necessary to meet the requirements of good engineering practice at the present state of the art are set out in detail below.

(1) The licensee of a standard broadcast station requesting a change in power, time of operation, frequency, or transmitter location must also request authority to install a new antenna sys

tem or to make changes in the existing antenna system which will meet the minimum height requirements, or submit evidence that the present antenna system meets the minimum requirements with respect to field intensity, before favorable consideration will be given thereto. (See § 73.186.) In the event it is proposed to make substantial changes in an existing antenna system, the changes shall be such as to meet the minimum height requirements or will be permitted subject to the submission of field intensity measurements showing that it meets the minimum requirements with respect to effective field intensity.

(2) These minimum actual physical vertical heights of antennas permitted to be installed are shown by curves A, B, and C of Figure 7 of $ 73.190 as follows:

(1) Class IV stations, 150 feet or a minimum effective field intensity of 150 mv/m for 1 kilowatt (100 watts 47.5 mv/m, and 250 watts 75 mv/m). (This height applies to a Class IV station on a local channel only. In the case of a Class IV station assigned to a regional channel Curve A shall apply.)

(ii) Class II and III stations, or a minimum effective field intensity of 175 mv/m for 1 kilowatt.

(iii) Class I stations, or a minimum effective field intensity of 225 mv/m for 1 kilowatt.

(3) The heights given on the graph for the antenna apply regardless of whether the antenna is located on the ground or on a building. Except for the reduction of shadows, locating the antenna on a building does not necessarily increase the efficiency and where the height of the building is in the order of a quarter wave the efficiency may be materially reduced.

(4) To obtain the maximum efficiency of which any antenna is capable a good ground system must be employed (a counterpoise may be substituted under certain conditions).

(5) At the present development of the art, it is considered that where a vertical radiator is employed with its base on the ground, the ground system should consist of buried radial wires at least one-fourth wave len long. There should be as many of these radials evenly spaced as

practicable and in no event less than 90. (120 radials of 0.35 to 0.4 of a wave length in length and spaced 3° is considered an excellent ground system and in case of high base voltage, a base screen of suitable dimensions should be employed.)

(6) It should be borne in mind that the above specifications are the minimums and where possible better antenna and ground systems should be installed.

(7) In case it is contended that the required antenna efficiency can be obtained with an antenna of height or ground system less than the minimum specified, & complete field intensity survey must be supplied to the Commission showing that the field intensity at a mile without absorption fulfills the minimum require. ments. (See $ 73.186.) This field survey must be made by a qualified engineer using equipment of acceptable accuracy.

(8) The main element or elements of a directional antenna system shall meet the above minimum requirements with respect to height or effective field intensity. No directional antenna system will be approved which is so designed that the effective field of the array is less than the minimum prescribed for the class of station concerned, or in case of a Class I station less than 90 percent of the ground wave field which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of $ 73.190 for operation on frequencies below 1000 kilocycles, and in the case of a Class II or I station less than 90 percent of the ground wave Deld which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of 8 73.190 for operation on frequencies below 750 kilocycles.

(9) Before any changes are made in the antenna system, it is necessary to submit full details to the Commission for approval. These data may be submitted by letter. $ 73.190 Engineering charts.

This section consists of the following figures: 1, la, 2, R3, 5, 6, 68, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.

NOTE: The charts as reproduced herein, due to their small scale, are not to be used in connection with material submitted to the F. C.C.

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Liitis ICROVOLTS PER METER

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