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different in successive generations, the environment is also changing in these generations.
In trying to understand evolution and the doctrine of recapitulation by the individual of the life-history of the race one must proceed slowly and by single steps, for there is no difficulty in understanding how any particular stage is related to the corresponding stage in the previous generation, but the whole series of changes is simply the sum of successive terms.
Space does not permit a complete review of Professor Dendy's contribution. Its most important part seems to be the “law of the accumulation of surplus energy.” The complications introduced into the problem by the union of two cells of different sexes Professor Dendy regards as less important than is generally held, as the parents must have been alike in main respects or they could not have interbred. He also recognises the very important recent work on “mutation” and “hybridisation " from the point of view of heredity, but regards the unit characters arising by mutation and interchanged by hybridisation as chance char. acters due to chance modifications of the germ-plasm, and having comparatively little influence upon the general course of evolution. The characters inherited in the Mendelian manner are apparently non-adaptive, and with no particular value in the struggle for existence. Probably the nucleus of Professor Dendy's position may be found in the following quotation : “Surely that much-abused philosopher, Lamarck, was not far from the truth when he said, the production of a new organ in an animal body results from a new requirement which continues to make itself felt, and from a new movement which this requirement begets and maintains.' Is not this merely another way of saying that the individual makes adaptive responses to environmental stimuli?” As a counteractive to the foregoing, however, the reader may be referred to Professor Bateson's “ Problems of Genetics,” in which he writes: “When ... we contemplate the problem of Evolution at large, the hope at the present time of constructing even a mental picture of that process grows weak almost to the point of vanishing."
J. S. T.
ART, DRAMA, AND MUSIC.
In the history of art in England the year 1914 will be remembered chiefly as a period of trouble, unrest, and disappointment. To the picture lover the first disappointment of the year was the failure of the Royal Academy to hold the exhibition of Old Masters which had been arranged for January ; a disappointment caused, not as some imagined by the difficulty of obtaining works, but solely by the death in the preceding autumn of Sir Frederick Eaton, the Secretary to the Royal Academy, who had been chiefly responsible for the organisation of the Winter Exhibitions almost from their commencement. The endeavours of enthusiastic supporters of the woman's suffrage movement to call public attention to their propaganda by attacking works of art resulted in serious damage to pictures in various galleries, several of which were closed for a time wholly or in part (pp. 71, 112). At the National Gallery the most serious case was the injury to the famous Velasquez, the “Venus and Cupid.” This picture, which had been given an unfortunate prominence two or three years earlier by a ridiculous agitation about a supposed signature which proved to be imaginary, was now the victim of a more serious attack. Early in March a woman named Richardson broke the glass in front of the picture with a hatchet and managed to slash the canvas several times before she could be arrested. The outrages at the National Gallery caused the partial closing of the exhibition for some time, and the normal conditions had not been resumed when the war broke out and still further disarranged affairs at Trafalgar Square.
The German threats of attacks on London by airships called attention to the possible injury to the nation's pictures in such a case, and Sir Claude Phillips was especially prominent in urging that protection should be given to them. Numbers of the best works were removed accordingly to places of safety, and during the winter the Foreign side of the National Gallery was occupied mainly by second-rate pictures, and each room was disfigured by one or more huge bins of galvanized iron, filled with sand. At the Victoria and Albert Museum special precautions were taken with a view of protecting the Raphael Cartoons and certain other famous works of art.
At the Summer Exhibition of the Royal Academy the Hanging Committee for oil paintings was composed of Mr. David Murray, Mr. Seymour Lucas, Mr. W. W. Ouless, Mr. S. J. Solomon, Mr. H. H. La Thangue, and Mr. Lionel Smythe ; the last named of whom also arranged the watercolours, which for the first time were placed in the Tenth and Eleventh Galleries. Another new departure in Academy hanging was the arrangement of the Fourth Gallery by Mr. H. H. La Thangue, who allowed no pictures to be “skied,” and did not overcrowd the lower lines. The result was eminently satisfactory, but it is to be feared that Mr. La Thangue's example will not be followed extensively unless the wall space at the Academy is largely increased. During the season several pictures were attacked by women, and Sir Hubert von Herkomer's portrait of the Duke of Wellington; Mr. Sargent's portrait of Mr. Henry James, the novelist; and Mr. Clausen's study of the nude, “Primavera,” were all injured. Mr. Henry James, whose portrait by Mr. Sargent was one of the most discussed pictures in the exhibition, was also the subject of another portrait of great interest, a bust in marble by Mr. F. Derwent Wood. This bust was a commission from Mr. Sargent, who, however, surrendered it to the Chantrey Trustees, by whom it was purchased for 1001. A marble statue
Dawn,” by Mr. C. L. Hartwell (1,1001.), was also bought by the Trustees ; and two pictures, Mr. F. Cadogan Cowper's “Lucretia Borgia reigns in the Vatican in the absence of the Pope" (1,5001.); and Mr. Maurice Greiffenhagen's “Women by a Lake” (4201.). The general sales at the Academy were fairly numerous although not up to the level of some recent years. The King, when he paid his first visit to the exhibition, purchased Mr. B. W. Leader's landscape, “ The River Llugwy, near Bettws-y-Coed (1501.); and the other pictures sold included “The Annunciation,” by Mr. J. W. Waterhouse ; “The Little Archer" (4001.), by Mr. Charles Sims; “ The Silent Woods” (3501.), by Sir Ernest Waterlow ; “A Farm Loggia, Veneto," and "A Riva on the Grand Canal, Venice,” by Mr. Henry Woods; “Primavera ” (2501.), by Mr. George Clausen ; “ Noon, Equihen, France,” and “To the Sea: Equihen, Pas de Calais, France,” by Mr. Hughes-Stanton; “A Greek Water Carrier in Egypt” (2501.), by Sir W. B. Richmond ; “And step from glowing heat to welcome depths of shade" (3001.), by Mr. Reginald Vicat-Cole; “Where Aspens Quiver," by Mr. Lionel P. Smythe ; “Eternal Eve" (5001.), by Mr. Gabriel Nicolet ; “ Ragtime, Rio Mendicante, Venice” (2501.), by Mr. David Murray ; “ Dawn and the Shepherd” (2001.), by Mr. George Wetherbee ; “The Silver Strand” (6301.), by Mr. Julius Olsson ; “A Winter Morning” (3501.), by Mr. Harry W. dams; “The Toast is England-Lord Nelson handing the loving cup to Benjamin West, R.A.” (5001.), by Mr. Fred Roe; “ Room at James Pryde's” (3001.), by Mr. Oswald Birley ; “The Meadow Pool” (1051.), by Sir Alfred East; and “ Napoleon's last Inspection of his Army” (315l.), by Mr. J. P. Beadle. It is curious that the largest picture exhibited in the Royal Academy at the time England declared war upon Germany was the portrait group by the late Sir Hubert von Herkomer of “ The Managers and Directors of the firm of Fried. Krupp, Essen, Germany."
The exhibitions held in the earlier part of the year, before the declaration of war, included those of pictures by artists of the Venetian School, at the Burlington Fine Arts Club; of Old Masters and of the work of Mr. John Lavery, both at the Grosvenor Gallery; and of paintings or drawings by M. Steinlen, Sir Alfred East, Mr. H. H. La Thangue, and Mr. L. Campbell Taylor at the Leicester Galleries. An exhibition of Italian studies by Sir William Richmond was held at the Fine Art Society's gallery. The famous portrait by Millais of Mrs. Heugh, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1873, and afterwards sent to America, was shown in the spring at the International Society's exhibition, to which it was lent by Mr. Edmund Davis. A loan exhibition of examples of modern French art was held at Grosvenor House by permission of the Duke of Westminster. It was of singular interest, but, unfortunately, was opened too late in the season to attract the attention it deserved.
One of these exhibitions, that of Old Masters at the Grosvenor Gallery, was organised to raise funds for the purchase of modern pictures for the nation. It was so successful that the committee was enabled to purchase works by Mr. W. Orpen, Mr. Oliver Hall, Mr. H. Muhrman, Mr. A. McEvoy, Mr. W. W. Russell, Mrs. Mary Davis, Mr. John Lavery, and Mr. Gerald F. Kelly; all of which were presented to the late Gallery in July. A noble gift of some twenty examples of his art was made by M. Auguste Rodin to the Victoria and Albert Museum in November. The London Museum, admirably arranged in its permanent home at Stafford House, was opened in the summer; and other events of interest in the year were the unveiling of the Royal Academy memorial to Sir Lawrence AlmaTadema (designed by Sir George Frampton) at his birthplace in Holland, and of a memorial to the late Sir William Orchardson in St. Paul's Cathedral. An important new departure was made at the Victoria and Albert Museum, where the “sixpenny" days were finally abolished and free admission given to the public throughout the week. In the summer plans were made, for the consideration of Mr. Asquith, for a proposed Ministry of Fine Arts; and a non-party and unofficial committee was formed of members of the House of Lords and House of Commons for the purpose of noting and examining questions connected with the acquisition of pictures for the nation and other matters relating to the arts.
The outbreak of the war was from every point of view disastrous to artists and picture dealers. The sale of pictures was brought temporarily almost to a standstill; the opening of some exhibitions was postponed indefinitely, and that of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters abandoned for the year. In these conditions, when artists were suffering severely themselves, it is to their credit that they made great and successful efforts to aid the funds of the war charities. For the Artists' War Fund they contributed more than four hundred paintings, pieces of sculpture and prints which were distributed by lot to subscribers. Mr. Sigismund Goetze defrayed the cost of collection and distribution ; and Messrs. Dicksee lent their gallery free of charge ; and the honorary treasurers and secretary, Mr. O. Wynne Apperley, Mr. Louis Ginnett and Mr. Martin Hardie, were therefore enabled to hand over the entire receipts, amounting to 2,6151., to the Prince of Wales's National Relief Fund. The Royal Academy called a meeting of the Presidents of the principal art societies to arrange an exhibition of pictures to be sold for the same purpose, and also lent several of its galleries to the United Arts Force whose members practised military exercises in the courtyard of Burlington House.
In the auction room the season was uneventful even before hostilities commenced and later there was so little doing that Messrs. Christie did not reopen their rooms in the autumn, according to custom. The Grenfell sale was the most important. It included the portrait by Titian for wbich the collector paid 30,0001. a few years earlier, and now, under the hammer, realised £13,650. Other pictures sold in the spring and summer included a Peter de Hoogh (at Messrs. Robinson & Fisher's) for 8,200 guineas; a Gainsborough landscape, 7,000 guineas, and a portrait of a lady in white by the same artist which fetched a similar price; and a portrait by Lawrence, 5,600 guineas. The price paid for the de Hoogh was a record; and another auction room record was made when Valentine Green's mezzotint of Sir Joshua's portrait of Lady Betty Delmé was sold from the Northwick col. lection for 1,750 guineas.
W. T. WHITLEY.
The drama of the year 1914 falls, like every kindred subject, into two sharply defined parts : the first, seven months of normal conditions ; the second, five months of conditions not only abnormal but absolutely unparalleled. It is difficult to believe that any branch of art can have suffered more severely than the drama during these later months. No doubt, in times to come, this European war will furnish material for innumerable plays, good, bad, and indifferent; it will be treated, dramatically, from every point of view, as long as the world lasts; but while we are actually engaged in the struggle the chief incidents inseparable from a “war-play” are almost too poignant to be reproduced ; artistic values are lost sight of in an overpoweringly painful impression. On the other hand, the average "drawing-room play "-to say nothing of the problem play” -has been reduced to triviality by the readjustment of the public sense of proportion ; domestic quarrels and social theories are shorn of their interest. Lastly, apart from sentimental or intellectual considerations, the darkening of the streets at night, and the all-pervading need for the reduction of personal expenses, have had disastrous results. There is reason to hope that the lowest ebb has now been reached, and that, even if the war should be prolonged, public tension cannot be kept always at the extreme pitch of the past autumn; but for the moment, the post of dramatic critic can be little more than a sinecure.
To deal first with those plays which enjoyed ordinary chances of success or failure, the year up to August had presented no very striking features. Perhaps the greatest promise of novelty was offered by Sir Herbert Tree's production of “Pygmalion,” a new play by Bernard Shaw (His Majesty's, April 11). The prospeot of seeing Sir Herbert Tree and Mrs. Patrick Campbell in first-rate comedy parts was inspiriting ; but, frankly, it must be owned that the work was not of Mr. Shaw's best, and that the splendour of His Majesty's is less suited to his methods than the intimacy of the Court or the Little Theatre. The author may possibly have felt that the subtle effects of “Candida,” or of “John Bull's Other Island,” would be lost in so much space; what is certain is that in “ Pygmalion " the humour is far more obvious—one might almost say crude-than in the earlier plays. Sir Herbert Tree as the “professor of phonetics " who undertakes the education of a Cockney flower-girl, and Mrs. Patrick Campbell as his pupil, did full justice to their parts, each proving once again a gift of comedy too often neglected. Mr. Edmund Gurney, as a London dustman-father of the flower-girl-was the chief