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serious audience in this country. Dr. G. R. Dodson writes on Bergson and the Modern Spirit (Lindsay Press); Mr. Bertrand Russell and Mr. H. Wildon Carr publish their discussion of The Philosophy of Bergson (Cambridge, Bowes & Bowes); Miss Stebbing, however, in her Pragmatism and French Voluntarism takes up the Professor's gage (Cambridge University Press) and questions his conclusions. We welcome a volume from yet another distinguished Frenchman, Professor Boutroux’s Natural Law in Science and Philosophy, in the authorised translation by F. Rothwell (Nutt). Then there are translations of famous German philosophers, Kant, by Lord Redesdale (Lane), Essays on Nietzsche by that distinguished scholar and critic, Georges Brandes (Heinemann), and Mr. Meyrick Booth's translation of Eucken's Essays (Fisher Unwin). From Italy we are delighted to have Professor Aliotta's work, The Idealistic Reaction against Science, as translated for us by Agnes McCaskill (Macmillan), and The Greek Problems of Professor Bernardino Varisco, translated by R. C. Lodge (Allen). Professor Burnet of St. Andrews likewise turns to the study of the Ancients, in his Greek Philosophy, from Thales to Plato in this first issue (Macmillan), as also does Mr. Carritt in his Theory of Beauty (Methuen). From the Cambridge University Press we have Mr. C. D. Broad's Perception, Physics and Reality. Sir Bampfylde Fuller publishes his Life and Human Nature with Mr. Murray, and Messrs. Longmans issue an important work by Dr. Coffey, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at Maynooth College, entitled Ontology, or the Theory of Being. The fourth and last volume of his History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century is offered by Mr. Merz (Blackwood).
The students of Psychology have no doubt been excited by Sir Oliver Lodge's grave and ex cathedra assertion of proofs of Life after (so-called) Death. Other minds seem to move in the same direction, and Dr. Mooney debates the subject of Re-incarnation from the medically scientific point of view that many, who would be sceptical of other attitudes, could accept. How You Live Again is the book's title (Manchester, The Pons Press). The Proceedings of the Society for Psychological Research are published by Mr. MacLehose of Glasgow.
In Sociology we get so much that is useful that it is quite impossible to follow the list of publications. Among those which, however, call for notice is the work of a distinguished French contemporary, La Formation de l'Anglais Moderne, by Paul Decamps (Armand Colin). Another brilliant foreign writer, Signor Guglielmo Ferrero, offers us a comparative study of Ancient Rome and Modern America (Putnam). Social Work in London (1869-1912), being a History of the Charity Organisation Society, is edited by Dr. Helen Bosanquet (Murray). Jewish Life in Modern Times is also worth mention (Methuen).
The reference to Jewish life carries us very naturally to the East and to Bible Literature. Mr. Claude Montefiore's Judaism and St. Paul (Max Goschen) seems to offer a link between the Old Testament and the New, and is a most valuable-if not absolutely convincing-contribution to the Pauline problem. New Testament Criticism: its History and Results, by J. A. M'Clymont, D.D. (The Baird Lectures for 1910-11) (Hodder and Stoughton), is but one of a host of Theological publications of importance. On the same subject we also get The New Testament in the Twentieth Century, by the Rev. Maurice Jones, B.D. (Macmillan). The Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures has now published its third volume of New Testament text. This sustains the high level of Scholarship which we have come to expect from its learned editor, the Rev. Cuthbert Lattey, S.J. It is published by Messrs. Longmans.
Among the notable Theological volumes of the year it is only possible to notice one here and there, and among these must be included one or two issues of Texts, such as The Epistles of St. Paul from the Codex Laudianus, by E. S. Buchanan (Sacred Latin Texts) (Heath, Cranton & Ouseley). The history of this valuable MS., which dates from the ninth century, is briefly that it was stolen from Wurzburg when it was sacked by the Swedes in 1631, and was purchased by Archbishop Laud, who gave it into the keeping of the Bodleian Library. Irenaeus of Lugdunum is presented to us by F. P. Montgomery Hitchcock, with Foreword by Professor Swete (Cambridge University Press). The Religious Philosophy of Plotinus and Some Modern Philosophies of Religion, by the Dean of St. Paul's (The Lindsay Press), is a book few thoughtful readers will care to miss, also not a few will like to read the late Father Benson's impressions of Lourdes (Lond., Herder). Dr. Skinner, Principal of Westminster College, Cambridge, publishes a learned work on the controversy concerning The Divine Name in Genesis (Hodder and Stoughton), and Dr. H. J. Wicks traces The Doctrine of God, in the Jewish Apocryphal and A pocalyptic Literature during the two centuries before Christ and the first century A.D. (Hunter & Longhurst); Dr. Oesterley, Warden of the Society of the Apocrypha, London Diocese, also edits The Books of the Apocrypha (R. Scott). One of the things not to be overlooked is the printing of a Lecture on The Spiritual Message of Dante, delivered in Harvard University (1904), by Dr. Boyd Carpenter (Williams & Norgate). The Canticles of the Christian Church, Eastern and Western, in Early Medieval Times, by J. Mearns (Cambridge University Press), is attractive to those who care for literary antiquities and survivals. Much of the year's output has again been devoted to the discussion of Mysticism, but exigencies of space will not permit individual reference to books or writers.
Archäological research has been actively pursued during the year, and the various Surveys of India, Ceylon, and Nubia have published monographs, also The Egyptian Exploration Fund has launched its new venture
– The Journal of Egyptian Archæology,-and continues the issue (Part X.) of The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The particular rolls now edited under the learned supervision of Dr. Grenfell and Dr. Hunt are among the most famous of their discoveries—including, as they do, parts of an extraCanonical Gospel, and fragments of the two famous Lyric Poets, Sappho and Alcaeus. This discovery, needless to add perhaps, has provided one of the literary sensations of the year, and goes far to justify the importance of the work of research in that cradle and tomb of almost all AntiquityEgypt.
The British Museum has done admirable work in cataloguing its collection of Egyptian Scarabs, as also in dealing with accounts of the Egyptian and Assyrian Sculptures in its possession (British Museum). These last are profusely illustrated, and are edited by Dr. Wallis Budge. The Palestine Exploration Fund issues its Annual for 1912-13. Coming nearer home, we are glad to welcome The Bronze Age in Ireland, by Mr. George Coffey, Keeper of the Irish Antiquities in the National Museum, and Mr. E. C. R. Armstrong's Irish Seal-Matrices and Sealsboth works issued by Messrs. Hodges & Figgis, of Dublin. Professor Haverfield writes on Roman Britain in 1913 (Brit. Acad. Supp. Paper) (Milford).
Anthropology, likewise, has made great strides throughout the year. Much attention has been given to aboriginal tribes and their customs, both in Northern and Central Africa, in Nigeria, also in Northern Australia, where Mr. Baldwin Spencer (Special Commissioner for Aboriginals in the Northern Territory) continues the investigations he formerly pursued with his friend, the late Mr. Gillen, to whose memory the work is dedicated (Macmillan).
As was mentioned last year, the output of Oriental literature grows apace. Much of this is due to the awakening of China, India and the East generally. The part the Chinese are taking in this renaissance of Oriental culture is indicated by the first issue of a Chinese Review (monthly), owned, edited and printed in London) entirely by Ohinamen. Interest, too, in Oriental literature has been fostered largely in English University circles, and under the enlightened and scholarly direction of the British Museum. Oxford, Cambridge and London vie with one another to produce scholarly editions of Eastern Texts or Dissertations on the ancient Religions of India, Assyria, Egypt. Mohammedanism too is not overlooked, or the Literature of Modern Persia. For particular details of the principal Oriental Literature dealt with, the publications of the British Museum, as well as of the before-mentioned Universities, are the surest guide.
Classics are yet, happily for us, under the fine inspiration of Professor "Gilbert Murray, who though resting from the arduous labours of previous years, revises the proofs of Mr. R. T. Elliot's edition of The Acharnians of Aristophanes (Oxford, Clarendon Press; London, Milford), and, in collaboration with Miss Jane Harrison, affords his sympathetic approval to Mr. A. K. Thomson's Studies in the Odyssey (Oxford, Clarendon Press; London, Milford). Dr. A. S. Way continues his rendering of Sophocles in English Verse (Macmillan), and Mr. F. M. Cornford, in his Ori of Attic Comedy (Arnold), associates himself with Professor Gilbert Murray in ascribing the beginnings of Greek Comedy to the Ritual Drama. Zeus; A Study in Ancient Religion, by Mr. A. B. Cook, Vol. I., comes from the Cambridge University Press, and we welcome the theory of Miss Gladys M. N. Davis, Classical Scholar, late Royal University of Ireland, in her learned volume, The Asiatic Dionysos, that the origin of the Dionysos Cult was Asiatic rather than Egyptian (Bell). Coming to Roman Classics, the Loeb Classical Library (Heinemann) continues its translations, and Sir Robert Allison translates for us five of the Plays of Plautus (Humphreys).
In the department of English Prose Literature an especially fine harvest is to be gathered for 1914, though it is only possible in this brief notice to glean a sheaf or two from among the best-known writers. Ex-President Roosevelt gives us History as Literature, and other essays (Murray); Mr. H. G. Wells tells us how An Englishman Looks at the World (Cassell); Mr. Wilfred Ward writes of Men and Matters (Longmans); Mr. A. C. Benson gives us Where No Fear Was, a book about Fear (Smith Elder). Then we have Mrs. Meynell's Essays (Burns & Oates), Mr. George Moore's Hail and Farewell (Heinemann), also The Towers of the Mirrors and other Essays upon the Spirit of Places, by Vernon Lee (Lane). Messrs. Dent publish Mr. Austin Dobson's Eighteenth Century Studies, and M. Maeterlinck's fine appreciation of so-called Supernatural phenomena in The Unknown Guest is rendered into English for us by Mr. Alexander Teixeira de Mattos (Methuen).
Much literary work of the year is devoted to the study of the great authors, The Sonnets of Shakespeare, by the Countess de Chambrun (Putnam), for example, or the Lectures on Dryden of the late Dr. Verrall, published by Mary de G. Verrall through the Cambridge University Press, which is likewise responsible for the issue of an interesting volume compiled with much industry by Mr. G. Waterhouse ; The Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Seventeenth Century. The Cambridge History of English Literature, edited by Sir A. W. Ward and Mr. A. R. Waller, proceeds to its eleventh volume, treating of the Period of the French Revolution. We welcome the publication of Messrs. Batsford's Series of Fellowship Books edited by Mary Stratton, some of them being written by such distinguished modern men of Letters as Dr. W. L. Courtney-who contributes The Meaning of Life, and by Sir A. QuillerCouch, who is responsible for the volume on Poetry. Lord Haldane publishes his collected addresses, The Conduct of Life, with Mr. Murray. The Life and Genesis of Ariosto is dealt with very ably by Dr. J. Shield Nicholson, Professor of Political Economy in Edinburgh University (Macmillan); and Italian Gardens of the Renaissance, by Julia Cartwright (Smith Elder), should not be missed.
At home Social and Political questions have been, for the time being, shelved. But before the war began, the drift of political interest--apart from Ireland-has tended chiefly towards the great Land Question. Thus we get The Ownership, Tenure and Taxation of Land, by the Rt. Hon. Thomas P. Whittaker, P.C., M.P., also Mr. Lennard's Economic Notes on English Agricultural Wages, both issued by Messrs. Macmillan, and to the serious student the unfinished but instructive and valuable Essays of the late Professor Seebohm-Customary Acres and their Historical Importance (Longmans)—will appeal. At the present moment, too, in view of rising prices and diminishing supplies, the publication by the Manager of the Dalmeny Experimental Farms, on the secret of successful Farming, or Greater Profits from Land, should merit attention (Edinburgh, The Edina Pub. Co.). Nor should the interesting Canadian experiences of Miss Binnie Clark, in Wheat and Women (Heinemann), be missed, especially in a day when the scarcity of male labour for the land is universally a disquieting factor in the economical situation. We welcome the edition of his father's Speeches given to us by Mr. Austen Chamberlain (Constable).
In Music the attention of writers seems to be more and more concentrated upon the study of technique, and its analysis. Dr. Coward, the famous Director of the Sheffield Choir, publishes Choral Technique and Interpretation (Novello); and Mr. Cecil Forsyth gives us a volume on
Orchestration, contributed to the Musician's Library of Messrs. Macmillan, Stainer & Bell. Mr. W. Wallace also discourses of The Musical Faculty: its origins and processes (Macmillan). Two works are published upon The Music of Hindostan,—this first by A. H. Fox Strangeway (Oxford, Clarendon Press; London, Milford), and Indian Music by the Begum Fyzee-Rahamin, with a preface by F. Gilbert Webb (Will. Marchant, the Goupil Gallery).
Of the making of History books there seems no end! Apart from the editing and calendaring of the sources of British History as discoverable from the Rolls cared for in the Public Record Office, -of which a complete list is furnished by Messrs. Wyman,—there are endless enterprises and discursions into all periods of History, Ancient and Modern. In connexion with the mention of original sources, reference should be made to The Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission (Wyman) which publishes its seventh volume. The issue of the Great Roll of the Pipe, 31 Hen. II. 1184-1185, under the auspices of the Pipe Roll Society (St. Catherine's Press), is highly important, and we welcome a revised edition of Magna Charta, by Mr. W. Sharp McKechnie (Glasgow, MacLehose). The Reign of Henry V. is treated by Dr. James Hamilton Wylie, in a first volume (1413-15) issued from the Cambridge University Press. Professor Pollard gives us The Reign of Henry VII. from Contemporary Sources, as far as Vol. III. (Longmans). Two or three volumes on the Elizabethan Period call for mention : A History of England from the defeat of the Armada to the death of Elizabeth, Vol. I., by E. P. Cheyney, Professor of European History in the University of Pennsylvania (Longmans), and Elizabeth and Mary Stuart, by F. A. Mumby (Constable). New Light on Drake is offered by the researches of the Hakluyt Society, and we welcome particularly a treatise on The English Catholic Refugees on the Continent, 1558-1795, by the Rev. Peter Guilday, being a Thesis offered for a Doctor's degree to the University of Louvain (Longmans).
A study of Irish Priests in the Penal Times (1660-1760) is attractive reading (Waterford, Harvey), and also we are glad to follow Mr. G. V. Jourdan's Movement towards Catholic Reform in the early sixteenth century (Murray). The Scottish War of Independence, by Evan MacLeod Barron, is an admirable critical study of the subject (Nisbet). The Legislative Union of England and Scotland, by P. Hume Brown (being the Ford Lectures in Edinburgh University), Fraser Professor of Ancient Scottish History and Palæography in Edinburgh University, cannot be passed over (Oxford, Clarendon Press ; London, Milford), and the fourth volume of Dr. Keating's History of Ireland, compiled and arranged by the Rev. Patrick S. Dinneen (Irish Texts Society: Nutt) has a warm welcome. This valuable edition of the famous seventeenth century MS. has been in progress during the last fourteen years, and its interest for modern readers is incalculable.
There are the usual number of books on Napoleon, whose campaigns and personality are without doubt especially interesting in the light of present events. Two writers deal with the campaigns of 1814-Mr. F. Loraine Petre, in Napoleon at Bay (Lane), and a French writer, Mr. H. Houssaye, whose book is translated by Brevet-Major R. S. McClintock (Hugh Rees). In this connexion, too, Mr. W. Alison Phillips' book, The Confederation of Europe: A Study in the European Alliance of 1813-23, is