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21. British raid on the Zeppelin airship factory at Friedrichshafen. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

Basra occupied by British. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.) 23. The German submarine U 18 was rammed and sunk by a British patrol vessel off the north coast of Scotland ; she subsequently rose, surrendered, and foundered; one man killed.

The German destroyer S 124 was sunk by collision with the British steamer Anglo-Dane off Falsterbro.

- The Cunard freight steamer Malachite, from Havre to Liverpool, was shelled four miles off Havre by a submarine and sunk; the crew landed in their own boats.

The U.S. troops evacuated Vera Cruz. 24. First Indian soldier recommended for the V.C.-Havildar Gangna Singh, a Dogra, 57th Wilde's Rifles.

26. H.M.S. battleship Bulwark blew up at Sheerness at 7.35 A.m.; about 750 lives were lost.

The British merchant steamer Primo was sunk off Cape Antifer by a German submarine; crew saved.

27. Announcement that Dr. C. S. Loch had resigned the secretaryship of the Charity Organisation Society, which he had held since 1875.

Earthquake in Western Greece and the Ionian Islands; at Leucadia, twenty-three persons reported killed, fifty injured ; great damage also at Corfu.

At the Central Criminal Court, in the trial of Lord Alfred Douglas for libelling Mr. Robert Ross, the jury disagreed ; a nolle prosequi was entered December 10.

29. December 4. The King visited the front in France. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

30. At the bye-election for Londonderry City, due to the death of Mr. D. C. Hogg (L.), Sir James Dougherty (L.) was returned unopposed. His opponent, Mr. J. P. Goode, a “Federal Imperialist,” was disqualified on the informality of his nomination papers.

DECEMBER.

2. At the Cleckheaton Chemical Works, Heckmondwike, seven lives were lost by a lyddite explosion.

3. Riot among interned Belgian soldiers near Zeist, Holland; the guard fired, killing seven and wounding twenty-two.

3-8. Great Austrian defeat in Serbia.

4. Mr. James Cosgrove (N.) returned unopposed as M.P. for Galway (E.), vice Mr. John Roche, deceased. 5. War precautions in the English Channel.

At Riardo, between Rome and Naples, a passenger train for Naples was partly telescoped by a following goods train ; eleven persons were killed or mortally injured, about fifty less seriously injured.

5. The German mercantile cruiser Prince Eitel Friedrich sank the British steamer Charcas about seventy miles south of Valparaiso; the crew were landed.

French air raid announced on the Zeppelin sheds at Freiburg-imBreisgau.

5-6. Heavy gale; serious floods in Wales.

7. Defeat and death of General Beyers in South Africa. (See For. and Col. Hist., Chap. VII.)

The Rev. L. R. Phelps elected Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, vice Dr. L. Shadwell, resigned.

Severe storm on the United States coast from Maine to North Carolina ; many wrecks.

8. Off Barrow, the oil-tank steamer Vedra stranded and exploded; thirty-four persons were lost, two saved.

In the King's Bench Division, an action by Sir John Brunner and Sir Alfred Mond against Mr. R. T. Palmer, a Leicester manufacturer, who, being excited by the war, had written addressing them as “ German swine,” was settled by an apology and payment of costs.

British naval victory off the Falkland Islands. (See For. Hist., Chap. V.)

9. At the Parliamentary bye-election for King's County (Tullamore), due to the death of Mr. E. Haviland Burke (N.), Mr. E. J. Grabam (I.N.) was returned by 1,667 votes, Mr. P. F. Adams (N.) receiving 1,588.

At the Durham Assizes, before Mr. Justice Shearman, Nicolaus Emil Hermann Adolf Ahlers, recently German Consul at Sunderland and a naturalised Englishman, was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death, he having incited and assisted German reservists in England to join the German forces after the declaration of war. (The conviction was quashed on December 18 by the High Court.)

The Edison Works at West Orange, New Jersey, burnt down; estimated damage $5,000,000.

10. Lieut.-Gen. Sir James Wolfe Murray appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff, vice Lieut.-Gen. Sir Charles Douglas, deceased.

11, 12. Suspension of the London tramway service owing to an accident at a generating station.

12. On board the s.s. Batavier V., at Tilbury, for Rotterdam, a box which broke during shipment contained a young German lieutenant, Otto Koehn, who was attempting escape to Germany and had been interned at Dorchester.

Announcement that Russia had declined the Christmas truce suggested by the Pope.

13. In the Dardanelles the British submarine B11, Lieut.-Com. Holbrook, torpedoed and sank the Turkish battleship Messudiyeh.

14. Serbian army re-entered Belgrade.

16. German bombardment of Hartlepool, Scarborough and Whitby. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

17. Egypt was proclaimed a British Protectorate, and Lieut.-Col. Sir Arthur Henry MacMahon, G.C.V.O., appointed British Commissioner.

During a performance in the 86th Street Theatre, New York, five lions escaped; one was eventually killed in the street, the rest recaptured; the police had fired on them, wounding three persons.

- The Austro-Hungarian naval cadet training ship Beethoven was reported to have struck a mine near Trieste and sunk, with the loss of all on board.

18. The Khedive Abbas II. of Egypt deposed ; Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha, a son of the ex-Khedive Ismail, appointed Sultan of Egypt.

– Meeting of the Kings of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, at Malmö.

19. The Donaldson (cargo) liner Tritonia, from Partington (Manchester Ship Canal) for St. John, N.B., struck a mine off the North of Ireland ; the crew escaped.

20. Herbertshire Castle, Denny, Stirlingshire, was burnt down in the early morning; two young girl visitors and a lady secretary lost their lives.

21. The United States Supreme Court decided that Harry Thaw must be extradited from New Hampshire to New York (A.R , 1913, Chron., Aug. 17.)

24. A German aeroplane dropped a bomb on Dover, missing the Castle ; little damage.

24, 25. A German aeroplane dropped bombs on Nancy ; two persons killed, about twelve injured. 25. British air and sea raid on Cuxhaven.

German aeroplane over Sheerness; the airman was shot at, and probably killed.

27. A British destroyer wrecked near St. Andrews; all hands saved.

28. Sudden storm in southern England ; at Clapham a house was blown down, killing one person and injuring others.

29. At Edinburgh, Kate Hume, aged seventeen, of Dumfries, was convicted of forging and altering two letters purporting to relate German outrages on her sister; she was released on probation.

30. German aeroplane raid on Dunkirk; four aeroplanes dropped seventeen bombs intended for military buildings, but they fell in the market-place and streets ; fifteen killed, thirty-two wounded, including many women.

The Prussian casualty lists, numbering 112, gave the total of killed, wounded and missing as 771,073. The eighty-three Saxon, eighty-five

aberg, 130 Bavarian, and thirteen naval casualty lists increased this total by over 500,000. Some estimates, however, put the total German losses much higher.

Würt

RETROSPECT

OF

LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART IN 1914.

LITERATURE.

There is an undoubted temptation in reviewing the Literature of 1914 to consider it from two obvious points of view : that published, or already in the Press, before the declaration of war with Germany, and that issued afterwards. But, although the outbreak of war caused 'a momentary pause in the operations of many publishers, it did not affect the flow of volumes already announced, though it has doubtless seriously reduced future commitments.

In dealing with the first half of the year, our attention is drawn to a more than usually numerous list of important. works of mental and artistic culture. The students of History, too, relax nothing of their strenuous ardour, and writers upon Theological questions abound. It will be obvious therefore that in the present brief survey only a certain portion of all the multitudinous literary activities of the year can be noticed.

To begin with an appealing human interest ---many books of Biography have been issued, showing how unabated is the world's concern in the life-stories of great men and women. Much critical attention has been given to the celebration of the Roger Bacon sept-centenary on June 10 at Oxford, and the contributory papers of British and Foreign savants are accordingly printed by Mr. Milford. The Life and Works of the “ Admirable Doctor” as given by Mr. J. D. Bridges, is also edited by Mr. H. Gordon Jones (Williams & Norgate). In connexion with the notice of the famous Schoolman it is interesting to note that another distinguished Oxonian, Mr. Allen, the well-known editor of the “ Letters of Erasmus," has published his Lectures on that great antagonist of the later Schoolmen, under the title of The Age of Erasmus (Oxford, Clarendon Press; London, Milford). This is conveniently supplemented by Father Hartmann Grisar's Luther (Kegan Paul), and by a study of Calvin, by H. Y. Reyburn, B.D. (Hodder & Stoughton). Here too might be mentioned the work of another distinguished Roman ecclesiastic—the Rev. Horace Mann, D.D., whose Lives of the Popes has arrived at its tenth volume, carrying their history up to 1198 (Kegan Paul). Other famous Ecclesiastics dealt with in sympathetic vein are Saint Augustin, by Louis Bertrand (Constable), translated by Vincent O'Sullivan; and two authors deal with the famous “Clement of Alexandria”—first the Rev. R. B. Tollinton, B.D., Rector of Tendring (Williams & Norgate); also Dr. John Patrick, in The Croall Lectures for 1899-1900 (Blackwood). Messrs. Lee Warner continue the edition of Vasari's Lives which is edited and translated by Mr. Gaston du C. de Vere, now in its seventh volume, and a Study of Boccaccio by M. H. Hauvette, one of the leading writers on that great medieval master, is published by M. M. Armand Colin (Paris).

Turning to a later period, we get the late Paul Janet's important work on Fénelon, translated and edited by Victor Leuliette (Sir Isaac Pitman), and the joint-lives of John and Sarah, Duke and Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744), by S. J. Reid (Murray). Suitably following this, comes The Life of Charles, Third Earl Stanhope, begun by his great-great-granddaughter, Miss Ghita Stanhope, and continued by Mr. G. P. Gooch (Longmans). Coming to studies and lives of eminent statesmen of modern times, we have The House of Cecil, by G. Ravenscroft Dennis (Constable), a Life of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), by H. G. Hutchinson (Murray), a few brief monographs on Mr. Joseph Chamberlain,-one of these contributed by Lord Milner and others,—and, above all, we have the brilliant continuation, by Mr. Buckle, of the late Mr. Monypenny's Life of Benjamin D'Israeli (Murray). Mr. Henry James's Notes of a Son and Brother (Macmillan) has naturally attracted attention, and there have been two books on Tolstoy, one, which is authoritative, by his son, Count llya Tolstoy, translated by J. Calderon (Chapman & Hall). Mr. Francis Gribble has attempted the Life of the aged Austrian Emperor (Nash), and to balance the interest we are drawn to a sketch of another great Ruler, the Tsar Nicholas II., translated from the Russian, and issued by Mr. Hugh Rees. We are never weary of books on the great French Masters, so that a study of two of them,- Balzac and Flaubert, by another eminent Frenchman, M. Emile Faguet (Constable), is welcome. Two authors have also been attracted to the writings of Paul Verlaine : Mr. Stefan Zweig, translated by 0. F. Theis (Boston, Luce & Co.; Dublin and London, Maunsell), and a small monograph is offered by Mr. Wilfred Thorley (Constable). In Italian Literature we notice the continuation of the Crispi Memoirs (published in their translated form, by Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton), and a volume on Cavour and the Making of Modern Italy (Putnam), 1816-61, by Pietro Orsi. Coming nearer home we welcome the Memoirs of Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, by himself (Methuen), which, as might be expected, are excellent reading, and we also note various unauthoritative monographs and sketches of prominent modern Generals and Statesmen, such as brief Lives of Lord Kitchener, Sir John French, President Poincaré, General Joffre, and several of Lord Roberts. Perhaps the greatest Biographical sensation of the year has been provided by Mrs. Parnell's Life of her husband, Charles Stewart Parnell (Cassell). Among studies of celebrated women there are notices of the Brontës, of Lady Hester Stanhope, and a valuable work on The Life and Times of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, by A. E. P. B. Weigall, Inspector-General of Antiquities for the Government of Egypt (Blackwood). Colonel Haggard's Remarkable Women of France, is also a fascinating volume (Stanley Paul).

The realm of Philosophy in the publications of the year is, as usual, largely dominated by distinguished foreigners. Every writer is haunted by recollections of Bergson, who, it must be confessed, has won a large and

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