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made for the National Penny Bank. The Government enabled the Bank of England to render assistance, whereby depositors were paid 58. in the pound at once. The management of the Bank was officially declared (Nov. 5) to have been unsatisfactory.

1. Announcement that seven German merchant steamers and a gun. boat had been captured by H.M.S. Cumberland off the Cameroons.

2. The Admiralty announced that a minefield for defensive purposes had been laid in the North Sea.

On the Highland Railway, the mail train caught fire; the guard was injured and sixty mailbags destroyed.

On the arrival of the steamship Komagata Maru from Vancouver at Budge Budge, near Calcutta, with British Indians who had been refused admittance to British Columbia, some of the emigrants attempted to walk to Calcutta instead of proceeding direct by train to the Punjaub. Eventually they fired on the police, killing one and wounding others, and were fired upon by troops ; sixteen rioters and two spectators were killed. (See For. and Col. Hist., Chap. V.)

5. Exactly two months from its commencement, the National Relief Fund reached 3,000,0001.

6. Off Schiermonnikoog, H.M.S. Submarine E 5 sunk the German destroyer S 179; most of the crew of the latter were reported saved.

President Poincaré visited Sir John French's headquarters and exchanged congratulatory telegrams with the King.

7-8. The bombardment of Antwerp began at midnight. 9. Fall of Antwerp. (See For. Hist., Chap. IV.)

Announcement that three British naval airmen had destroyed a Zeppelin at Düsseldorf.

10. Death of the King of Roumania. (See For. Hist., Chap. III.)

11. Two German aeroplanes flew over Paris soon after midday, dropping twenty bombs, of which one struck Notre Dame; three persons killed, fourteen injured.

The Russian cruiser Pallada was sunk, with all her crew, in the Baltic by a German destroyer; two German destroyers sunk by the Russians.

11-12. Bombardment of Arras.
12. Warning by the Mayor of Gravesend regarding hostile aircraft.

13. The Prime Minister received a deputation of women protesting against a possible revival of the Contagious Diseases Acts, in view of the evils that had arisen in the neighbourhood of certain camps.

Announcement of Maritz's rebellion in South Africa. 14. The first Canadian troops arrived at Plymouth.

Fire at the Monfalcone Shipbuilding Works, near Trieste; a large cruiser building for the Austro-Hungarian Government was destroyed.

15. Announcement that H.M. cruiser Yarmouth had sunk the German liner Markomannia near Sumatra, and captured the Greek steamer Pontoppros. Both had been coaling the Emden-the latter compulsorily.

15. Near Bucharest, two English M.P.'s, Mr. Noel Buxton and Mr. C. R. Buxton, were shot at and wounded by a Young Turk while proceeding to King Carol's funeral ; they recovered.

H.M.S. Hawke was sunk by a submarine, and H.M.S. Theseus attacked, in the northern waters of the North Sea. The number saved was seventy, leaving 524 killed and missing.

16. On the Didcot-Newbury line, in the evening, at a level crossing, a goods train struck a motor-car containing ladies returning from a concert at Churn Camp; one lady killed, two injured.

17. Four German destroyers, with all their crews but thirty-one, were sunk in the North Sea by H.M.S. Undaunted and four destroyers, the Lance, Lennox, Legion, and Loyal; one British officer and seventy-four men wounded.

- Severe earthquake in Greece and Asia Minor; thirty-three miles of railway in Asia Minor damaged, and 3,000 peasants reported killed.

The Japanese cruiser Takahichio was sunk by a mine in Kiao-chao Bay; about 254 persons believed lost.

– In Camberwell and Deptford a number of shops, belonging, or believed to belong, to Germans, were wrecked by a mob.

18. H.M.S. submarine E 3 reported sunk on the North Sea coast.

19. Announcement that a“ Distinguished Service Medal” had been instituted for non commissioned officers and privates in the Royal Marines, and for petty officers, men and boys in the Royal Navy.

At Marquise, near Boulogne, a train with Belgian refugees was partly telescoped by a following goods train; thirty-one killed, eighty-one wounded.

- Attempted rising in Portugal. (See For. Hist., Chap. IV.)

20. Announcement that the Tsar had decided to prohibit for ever the Government sale of alcohol in Russia.

In Montreal, a block of nine houses, with three shops, was blown up, probably by Austrians ; four killed, including three of the perpetrators. The occupants were chiefly Russians.

21. Trafalgar Day. The tributes at the Nelson column included mementoes of the Aboukir and Hawke. Crowds of people visited the square.

Extensive arrests of Germans and Austrians in London and many English towns.

22. Announcement that German and Austrian merchant ships must leave the Suez Canal.

23. Announcement that Dr. Arthur Berriedale Keith, D.Litt. Edin., D.C.L. Oxon, had been appointed Regius Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in Edinburgh University, vice Dr. Julius Eggeling, resigned.

24. H.M.S. Badger rammed (and was believed to have sunk) a German submarine off the Dutch coast.

President Poincaré and Earl Kitchener were unanimously elected


Lord Rector of Glasgow University and Lord Rector of Edinburgh University respectively.

26. The French liner Amiral Ganteaume, with 2,500 refugees on board, bound from Calais to Havre, was torpedoed twelve miles off Cape Grisnez by a German submarine, and sank ; four engineroom hands were killed. The cross-Channel steamer Queen (S.E. & C.R.) took off the passengers, but about twenty were killed, chiefly in trying to jump aboard her in panic.

Importation of sugar into the United Kingdom prohibited.

An Anglo-French force entered Edea, Cameroons. 27. News of the risings headed by General Beyers in the Western Transvaal and by General De Wet in the Orange Free State.

The steamer Manchester Commerce struck a mine near Tory Island, off the north-west coast of Ireland, and foundered ; thirty of the crew were saved; the captain and thirteen were lost. The Admiralty consequently warned shipping to pass by Skerryvore and the Hebrides.

Closing by order of several entrances to the Thames.

Announcement that Mrs. Carman had been released on bail after a disagreement of the jury in her trial for murder. (See ante, June 30.)

28. Completion of the piercing of Moutier-Granges tunnel, on the line between Delle and Berne, Switzerland, saving thirteen miles on the route from Paris to Milan via the Lötschberg.

Announcement that the Germans had invaded Angola.

At Sarajevo, sentence was pronounced on the persons convicted of conspiring to murder the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess of Hohenberg. (See Chron. June 28, and For. Hist., Chap. III.) Four were sentenced to be hanged, three, including the actual murderer, who was too young for the death penalty, to twenty years' penal servitude, and seven others to shorter terms.

At Penang, the German cruiser Emden sank the Russian cruiser Zhemchug and a French destroyer; eighty-six lives lost; three officers and 112 men injured.

29. Resignation of Prince Louis of Battenberg. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

Bombardment by Turkish warships of Black Sea ports. Turkey thus entered into the war.

30. The British hospital ship Rohilla (late a P. & O. liner) proceeding from Leith to the Continent to fetch Belgian wounded, went ashore just south of Whitby, having probably struck a mine; after great difficulties, the last set of survivors were rescued on November 1, after thirty-six hours' exposure to heavy seas. About seventy-five lives were lost; the saved numbered 146.

Lord Fisher of Kilverstone appointed First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, vice Prince Louis of Battenberg, resigned.

The German cruiser Königsberg bombarded by H.M.S. Chatham in the Rufigi River, East Africa, and her exit prevented by sinking colliers.

30. The Morning Post published the letter written by the German Emperor to the late Lord Tweedmouth when First Lord of the Admiralty, assuring him that the German Navy was not intended to challenge British Naval Supremacy. (See A.R., 1908, Pt. I., p. 58.) 31. Gallant charge of the London Scottish near Ypres.

The cruiser Hermes, seaplane carrier, was sunk at 10.30 A.m. in the Straits of Dover while returning from Dunkirk; twenty-two killed, seven wounded.


1. Seafight off the Chilean coast; H.M.S. Good Hope and Monmouth sunk. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

The German Emperor reported to have had a narrow escape from bombs dropped by a British airman at Thielt.

Foreign Office statement of repeated provocations offered by the Porte to the Powers of the Triple Entente, culminating in attacks on Russia and project of invasion of Egypt. (See For. Hist., Chap. III.)

2. British reverse in German East Africa. (See For. and Col. Hist., Chap. VII.)

– Municipal elections throughout England and Wales. By arrangement, contests were avoided almost everywhere.

Admiralty announcement of restriction of navigation in the North Sea and on the North of Scotland and of Ireland, owing to indiscriminate scattering of German mines.

Bombardment of the Dardanelles forts by an Anglo-French Squadron.

Bombardment of Akabah by H.M.S. Minerva. 3. United States elections ; large Republican gains.

4. The German cruiser Yorck struck a mine (or was sunk by a British submarine) off Jahde Bay and sank; about half the crew drowned.

5. British declaration of war with Turkey ; Cyprus annexed to Great Britain by Order in Council.

- Military execution in the Tower of Karl Lody, convicted of espionage by court-martial, November 2.

The Earl of Annesley and Flight-Lieutenant C. Beevor, R.N., shot down near Ostend while crossing in an aeroplane from Eastchurch to France.

6. At Edinburgh, William Drummond Dick, recently a coal importer at Berlin, sentenced to five years' penal servitude for attempting to sell coal to Germany. 7. Surrender of Tsing-tau. (See For. Hist., Chap. VI.)

Admiralty announcement of the occupation of Fao, at the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab. (See For. Hist., Chap. V.)

9. Ministers at the Guildhall. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

- The Lord Mayor's Show included contingents from the Canadian, Newfoundland, and New Zealand troops, and also from the Honourable


Artillery Company, the London Scottish, and other London Territorial Regiments, and the Officers' Training Corps of the City of London School.

9. M. Rodin presented to the British nation twenty of his statues, recently exhibited in London, as a token of admiration for its heroes.

Announcement that the German cruiser Emden was sunk by H.M.S. Sydney of the Australian Navy, on November 9, while attempting to destroy the wireless station at the Cocos or Keeling Islands, and that the German cruiser Königsberg had been discovered on October 30 (see that date). 11. Opening of Parliament. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

H.M.S. Niger torpedoed in the Downs, two miles off Deal; all the officers and crew saved ; four men injured. 14. Death of Earl Roberts at St. Omer. (See post, Obituary.)

The Royal Society medals were awarded as follows : Royal Medal to Prof. Ernest W. Brown, F.R.S., for astronomical investigations, chiefly in the lunar theory, and to Prof. William J. Sollas, F.R.S., for palæontological researches ; the Copley Medal to Sir Joseph Thomson, for discoveries in physical science; the Romford Medal to Lord Rayleigh, for his numerous researches in optics ; the Davy Medal to Prof. William Jackson Pope, for researches on stereo-chemistry; the Darwin Medal to Prof. E. B. Poulton, for researches in heredity; and the Hughes Medal to Prof. John S. Townsend, F.R.S., for his researches on the electric behaviour of gases.

16. Official announcement of nine awards of the Victoria Cross-the first in the War.

17. Announcement by the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the new war taxation and war loan. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

The Prince of Wales appointed A.D.C. to F.M. Sir John French.

At Amiens, fifteen bombs were dropped by German aeroplanes ; a gasholder exploded; one man killed, one injured.

German bombardment of Libau ; Russian bombardment of Trebi. zond.

Turkish defeat on the Shatt-el-Arab. (See For. Hist., Chap. V.) 18. The Russian Black Sea battleship division engaged the Goeben off Sebastopol ; she retired seriously damaged.

19. Riot among German prisoners in camp near Douglas, Isle of Man ; five killed, one fatally injured. The jury at the inquest exonerated the authorities, in view of the riotous conduct of the prisoners.

Funeral of Earl Roberts in St. Paul's.

Announcement that the Rev. John Pentland Mahaffy, D.C.L., had been appointed Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, vice Dr. Traill, deceased.

Announcement that Dr. Walter Ramsden, Senior Demonstrator of Physiology at Oxford University, was elected Johnston Professor of BioChemistry at Liverpool University, vice Dr. Benjamin Moore, resigned.

20. Turkish bombardment of Tuapse.

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