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28. At Paris, after seven days' trial, Mme. Caillaux was acquitted of murdering M. Gaston Calmette. (See ante, Chron., March 16.)

30. Belgrade taken by the Austrians. Partial mobilisation by Russia. (See For. Hist., Chaps. II. and III.)

A painting of “An Interior with Figures,” by P. de Hoock, realised 8,200 guineas at a London auction sale.

Lieut. Gran (Norway) flew from Cruden Bay, near Aberdeen, to Stavanger, 400 miles, in 4 hrs. 10 min.

31. The London Stock Exchange was closed by order of the Committee, and the Bank rate raised to 8 per cent. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. IV.)

AUGUST.

1. The Endurance, with Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic expedition, left the Thames on her voyage to the South Polar regions.

The Bank rate was advanced to 10 per cent.
The National Penny Bank suspended payment.
Mobilisation ordered of the German and French armies.

Germany declared war on Russia and France. 2. Russian troops crossed the East Prussian frontier; German invasion of Luxemburg and France.

Prayers offered for the nation in churches and chapels throughout the United Kingdom.

The Admiralty called out the Naval Reserves. Patriotic demonstration before Buckingham Palace.

Partial Moratorium decreed in the United Kingdom by Royal Proclamation.

3. Announcement of the abandonment of Cowes Regatta by special desire of the King.

German ultimatum to Belgium.

Royal Proclamations issued authorising the Admiralty to requisition British ships, prohibiting the use of wireless by British merchant vessels, and forbidding the export of numerous articles described as warlike stores.

The German Embassy left Paris, the French Embassy Berlin.

Sir E. Grey's statement in the House of Commons. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. IV.)

4. Order in Council declaring it expedient that the Government should take control of the railways of the United Kingdom.

British ultimatum to Germany. British Army mobilisation ordered by Proclamation.

Resignation of British Ministers. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

German invasion of Belgium. 5. Earl Kitchener of Khartoum appointed Secretary for War.

The German mine-layer Königin Luise, a converted liner, sunk by H.M.S. Amphion and the Third Torpedo Flotilla,

5. French troops entered Belgium.

6. Vote of Credit for 100,000,0001. and vote of 500,000 men for the Army passed by the House of Commons, after a statement by the Prime Minister.

- Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia.

– H.M.S. Amphion struck a mine in the North Sea and sank; a paymaster and 150 men

vere lost.
Bank rate reduced to 6 per cent.

The Prince of Wales and the Queen appealed for subscriptions for a National Relief Fund. 7. Reopening of British Banks after the extended Bank Holiday.

Issue of Government notes for 10s. and 11.

Montenegro declared herself at war with Austria-Hungary. 8. Bank rate reduced to 5 per cent. - British Expeditionary Force landing in France.

9. H.M.S. Birmingham sank the German submarine U 15 in the North Sea. 10. State of war between France and Austria-Hungary.

Lord Islington appointed Under-Secretary for the Colonies, vice Lord Emmot, appointed First Commissioner of Works ; and Dr. Christopher Addison, M.P., appointed Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Education, vice Mr. C. M. Trevelyan resigned.

Completion of the purchase of the Crystal Palace. 12. Declaration of war by Great Britain on Austria-Hungary. Proclamation under Defence of the Realm Act, establishing a kind of martial law in Great Britain.

Announcement that Turkey had purchased the German warships Goeben and Breslau.

14. The Austrian Lloyd liner Baron Gautsch struck a mine off Lussin, Dalmatia, and sank; 150 persons drowned. 15. The Panama Canal formally opened.

Proclamation by Grand Duke Nicolas of Russia to Poles. Hist., Chap. III.) 16. Japanese ultimatum to Germany.

Arrival at Avonmouth of General Huerta, ex-President of Mexico. Entry of the Carranzist General Obregon into Mexico City.

17. The Belgian Court and Government removed from Brussels to Antwerp.

French Fleet cleared Adriatic up to Cattaro. 18. Germans entered Tirlemont. 19. French reverse in Lorraine.

Russians defeat Germans at Stallupönen, East Prussia. 20. Death of Pope Pius X. (See Obit.)

Belgian Army retired to Antwerp.

At the bye-election for Wicklow (W.) Mr. J. T. Donovan (N.) was returned unopposed, vice Mr. E. P. O'Kelly (N.)

(See For. At Llandaff, the Bishop's palace was burnt down; many of the valuables, pictures, and books were saved.

20. At Sydney, N. S.W., the President of the British Association, Professor Bateson, delivered the Presidential Address. (See post, Science.) 21. German occupation of Brussels.

Day of Intercession for the War. 22. Funeral of Pope Pius X. 23. War began between Japan and Germany. 23-26. Four days' battle in France. (See For. Hist., Chap. V.) 24. Fall of Namur. 25. Parliament reassembled. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.) 26. Destruction of Louvain.

The American steamer Admiral Sampson sank after collision with the British steamer Princess Victoria; ten persons drowned.

The German light cruiser Magdeburg went ashore at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland, and was blown up. A Russian attack had resulted in some loss of life.

27. First British wounded arrived at Folkestone.

-- Further Parliamentary Papers published containing additional details of breach with Germany.

28. It was announced in Parliament that Indian troops were on their way from India.

British Naval victory in the Bight of Heligoland. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

29. Apia in Samoa surrendered to a British Expeditionary Force. 31. Arrival of the Queen of the Belgians and her children at Dover.

Russian defeat in East Prussia.

SEPTEMBER.

1. The King received the Belgian Mission to the United States. (See For. Hist., Chap. VIII.)

Announcement that, by order of the Tsar, St. Petersburg would be known for the future as Petrograd.

- It was reported at Petrograd that Lieut. Sedoff, leader of the Suvorin Polar Expedition, had died and been buried in Kronprinz Rudolf Land.

3. The French Government left Paris for Bordeaux. (See For. Hist., Chap. I.)

The election of the Pope resulted, at the third ballot, in favour of Cardinal Della Chiesa, who took the title of Benedict XV.

- The steam drifter Linsdell, and shortly afterwards H.M.S. Speedy, struck mines off the east coast and sank; eight lives lost.

5. H.M.S. Pathfinder was sunk by a mine (or, more probably, a submarine) off the east coast ; 259 killed, 16 wounded. The Wilson liner 15. The Stock Exchange issued a list of trustee securities with minimum prices, below which its members were rbidden to deal in them.

Runo, from Hull for Archangel, met a similar fate; about twenty-five lives lost.

5. A collision occurred outside Cannon Street between two outgoing trains; eight persons were injured.

7. Announcement that the German cruiser Nürnberg had cut the cable between Fanning Island and British Columbia.

9. The armed merchant cruiser Oceanic, late White Star Line, wrecked off the north coast of Scotland ; no lives lost.

At Doncaster, the St. Leger resulted as follows: Mr. J. B. Joel's Black Jester, 1; Sir J. Thursby's Kennymore, 2; Sir J. Thursby's Cressingham, 3; time, 3 min. 23.8 sec.

10. A troop train was derailed at the Hex River Pass, South Africa ; eight persons were killed, eighty-six injured-one fatally.

Russian advance checked at Allenstein, East Prussia. 11. Pope Benedict XV. issued an appeal for peace.

Minimum height of recruits raised by War Office to 5 ft. 6 ins. and chest measurement to 354 inches.

12. The Annual Report of the Development Commission showed that grants had been recommended during the year by that body of 767,3871., of which 472,7931. was intended for the development of agriculture and rural industries. Special grants had been made for veterinary research work for the improvement of live stock. The Commission repeated its warning that it would be obliged to cut down or abandon several of its most beneficial schemes unless Parliament aided it after 1915.

The Spreewald, an armed German merchant cruiser, with two German colliers, was captured in the North Atlantic by H.M.S. Berwick. (The capture was announced Sept. 23.)

13. The King received Cardinal Mercier at Buckingham Palace. In the afternoon His Eminence, standing on Cardinal Bourne's balcony, blessed 10,000 Irishmen passing beneath in procession.

The German cruiser Hela was sunk in the North Sea by the British submarine E 9.

14. At Lebanon, Missouri, a train broke through a bridge and fell into the river ; over thirty-five persons were reported drowned.

The German merchant cruiser Cap Trafalgar was sunk off the east coast of South America by the British armed cruiser Carmania (a converted Cunard liner).

The Australian submarine AE 1 was lost by some unknown accident while returning from patrol work; thirty-five officers and men were lost.

17. H.M.S. Fisgard II., formerly the Invincible, flagship at the battle of Alexandria in 1882, now fitted up as a floating repair shop, sank in a gale off Portland Bill while being towed ; twenty-one of her crew were drowned.

18. Prorogation of Parliament. (See Eng. Hist., Chap. V.)

18. Near Astoria, Oregon, the United States merchant steamer Francis H. Leggett foundered in a gale; seventy lives were lost.

A South African force occupied Lüderitzbucht, German West Africa. 19. The Pacific Mail steamer Ortega, 8,000 tons, Capt. D. R. Kinneir, bound from Valparaiso to Liverpool, escaped from a German cruiser into the Straits of Magellan, through Nelson Strait, a dangerous and quite unsurveyed passage-a daring feat of seamanship.

20. At Zanzibar, H.M.S. Pegasus, while at anchor, was surprised by the German cruiser Königsberg, and disabled ; thirty-four of her crew were killed and sixty-one wounded ; the Königsberg escaped.

German bombardment of Rheims Cathedral. (See For. Hist., Chap. I.)

22. Two Parliamentary seats were filled, by arrangement, without opposition. At Hartlepool Sir Walter Runciman (L.) was returned, vice Sir Stephen Furness (L.), deceased ; at Bolton Mr. A. H. Gill (Lab.), deceased, was succeeded by Mr. A. H. Tootil (Lab.).

At 6 A.M., H.M.S. cruiser Aboukir was torpedoed by a German submarine in the North Sea and sank; H.M.S. cruisers Cressy and (two hours later) Hogue suffered the same fate while standing by to save life. The total loss was sixty-two officers and 1,397 men; the saved numbered 917.

British air raid on Düsseldorf; Flight-Lieut. C. H. Collet dropped three bombs on the Zeppelin sheds, approaching within 400 feet; an attack on the sheds at Cologne was frustrated by fog; all five aviators returned safely. (See Eng. Hist. Chap. V.)

Madras shelled by the German cruiser Emden; little damage. 24. An attempt was made to wreck the up Folkestone boat express train at Hither Green; no harm was done.

First Indian troops landed at Marseilles. 26. At Cambridge, the Rev. Edmund Courtenay Pearce, M.A., Fellow and Dean of Corpus Christi College, was elected Master of the College, vice Colonel R. T. Caldwell, LL.D., deceased.

27. First bombs dropped on Paris by a German aeroplane; an elderly gentleman was killed and a little girl badly wounded.

The Albanian Senate proclaimed Prince Burhan-ed-Din, a son of Abdul Hamid, ruler of the Principality.

28. Announcement of the surrender of Duala (Cameroons) to an AngloFrench force.

29. Announcement that four British ships had been sunk by the German cruiser Emden in the Indian Ocean, and a fifth, the collier Buresk, captured.

OCTOBER 1. Announcement that the Rev. Canon George Wilfrid Blenkin, Vicar of Hitchin and sometime Fellow and Chaplain of Trinity College, Cambridge, was appointed Dean of St. Albans, vice the Very Rev. Walter J. Lawrance, D.D., deceased.

In the King's Bench Division, a compulsory winding-up order was

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