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TABULAR VIEW,

Shewing the Comparative Degrees of Vividness which subsist between the Sensations and Ideas that severally be-
long to Dreams, and to the Spectral Impressions which occur during waking Excitements of the Mind.

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I shall now give a few examples of those cases of spectral illusions, where an exciting cause has so gradually, yet powerfully, operated upon the ideas of dreams, as to make them more than usually intense. Dreams of this kind, after the impression has ceased, are often with difficulty recognised as sleeping or waking visions; nor can the difference be often well determined by any inquiry we may institute,-If the illusion supervened to a state of absolute repose, or of watchfulness? An instance of this uncertain species of phantasms is contained in a narrative translated by Dr Crichton, from the Psychological Magazine of Germany, (some extracts from which have been before given,) relative to a female who was subject to trances. She is the narrator of her own case; and, after describing some cruel usage she experienced from her husband, which much affected the quality of her spectral impressions, she thus proceeds :-" My sorrows increased, and I went to bed in tears. I awakened about four o'clock in the morning, and imagined myself in my father's house on the river Diele. I looked up into heaven, and saw a water-dog walking in the firmament. As soon as it passed by, the skies descended to me, and my eyes were changed on purpose to see new sights, for I saw many hundred thousand miles. The mansion of God stood in the centre, lightly enveloped in clear blue clouds, and surrounded with a splendour of such various colours as are unknown to the world below. In each colour stood some millions of men, enrobed in garments of the same colour with that in which they stood; for instance, those who stood in red were clad in red, and those in the yellow

had robes of yellow; and the faces of all these men were turned to the mansion of the Almighty. And there came out of the mansion a most lovely female, clothed in the brightest lustre of heaven, and a crown on her head. She was accompanied by three angels, one on her right hand and one on her left, the third walked beside her, and pointed out the crowd who stood in the splendid colours.

"In a minute the heavens were closed, and again opened as formerly, but the woman and angels were not to be seen; but our blessed Saviour came out of the mansion, followed by a long train of attendants, and he descended through all the splendour I have described. The Lord and his attendants all looked smilingly upon me. They were dressed in white, and wherever they went was a clear white. When he approached me near enough, that I could touch his foot, I was frightened and awoke.* It was then half-past four o'clock; I arose, and considered that my present life was not to be compared with such joys."

With regard to the foregoing illusion, it is impossible to say whether it was a trance or a very vivid dream, particularly, as the same causes which contribute to the spectral impressions of a waking vision are calculated to produce an intense dream. Most probably, however, it was the latter.

Another authentic story, respecting which there is a doubt whether it is the narrative of a lively dream or of a waking illusion, is to be found in Bovet's

The writer evidently means, that she awoke out of her trance, as she has before spoken of awakening from her sleep.

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Pandaemonium, or the Devil's Cloyster. The writer first informs us, that, about the year 1667, "he was with some persons of honour in the house of a nobleman in the west country, which had formerly been a nunnery;" he then continues his narrative after the following manner :-" I must confess, I had often heard the servants and others, that inhabited or lodged there, speak much of the noises, stirs, and apparitions, that frequently disturbed the house, but had at that time no apprehensions of it; for the house being full of strangers, the nobleman's steward, Mr C., lay with me in a fine wainscot room, called my lady's chamber. We went to our lodging pretty early, and having a good fire in the room, we spent some time in reading, in which he much delighted; then having got into bed, and put out the candles, we observed the room to be very light by the brightness of the moon, so that a wager was laid between us, that it was possible to read written hand by that light upon the bed where we lay. Accordingly I drew out of my pocket a manuscript, which he read distinctly in the place where we lay. We had scarcely made an end of discoursing about that affair, when" [here probably commenced a dream] "I saw (my face being towards the door, which was locked) entering into the room, five appearances of very fine and lovely women. They were of excellent stature, and their dresses seemed very fine; they covered all but their faces with their light veils, whose skirts trailed largely on the floor. They entered in a file, one after the other, and in that posture walked round the room, till the foremost came and stood by that side of the bed where I lay, with

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my left hand over the side of the bed; for my head rested on that arm, and I determined not to alter the posture in which I was. She struck me upon that hand with a blow that felt very soft, but I did never remember whether it were cold or hot. I demanded, in the name of the blessed Trinity, what business they had there, but received no answer. Then I spoke to Mr C., Sir, do you see what fair guests are here come to visit us?' before which they all disappeared. I found him in some kind of agony, and was forced to grasp him on the breast with my right hand (which was next him underneath the bedcloaths) before I could obtain speech of him. Then he told me, that he had seen the fair guests I spoke of, and had heard me speak to them; but withal said, that he was not able to speak sooner unto me, being extremely affrighted at the sight of a dreadful monster, which, assuming a shape between that of a lion and a bear, attempted to come upon the bed's foot. I told him I thanked God nothing so frightful had presented itself to me; but I hoped through his assistance, not to dread the ambages of hell,"

It is clear, that the subject of these visions was suggested by the popular superstitions of the old manorhouse, and little doubt can be entertained but that by fear, and perhaps by other physical causes, it was impressed on the mind during a dream. It appears that, during the next night, the companion of Bovet,

om dread, forsook the haunted room, so that the hero was left by himself to encounter the apparitions. "I ordered," he adds, " a Bible and another book to be laid in the room, and resolved to spend my time

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