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were as well recognized, as the head of any ancient family would be by his crest and armorial bearings. Along with their names and characters, were registered such shapes as they were accustomed to adopt. A devil would appear, either like an angel seated in a fiery chariot; or riding on an infernal dragon, and carrying in his right hand a viper; or assuming a lion's head, a goose's feet, and a hare's tail; or putting on a raven's head, and mounted on a strong wolf. Other forms made use of by demons were those of a fierce warrior, or of an old man riding upon a crocodile with a hawk in his hand. A human figure would arise having the wings of a griffin; or sporting three heads, two of them being like those of a toad and of a cat; or defended with huge teeth and horns, and armed with a sword; or displaying a dog's teeth, and a large raven's head; or mounted upon a pale horse, and exhibiting a serpent's tail; or gloriously crowned, and riding upon a dromedary; or presenting the face of a lion; or bestriding a bear, and grasping a viper. There were also such shapes as those of an archer, or of a Zenophilus. A demoniacal king would ride upon a pale horse; or would assume a leopard's face and griffin's wings; or put on the three heads of a bull, of a man, and a ram, with a serpent's tail, and the feet of a goose; and, in this attire, sit on a dragon, and bear in his hand a lance and a flag; or, instead of being thus employed, goad the flanks of a furious bear, and carry in his fist a hawk. Other forms were those of a goodly knight; or of one who bore lance, ensigns, and even sceptre; or of a soldier, either riding on a black horse, and surrounded with a flame of fire;

or wearing on his head a duke's crown, and mounted on a crocodile; or assuming a lion's face, and, with fiery eyes, spurring on a gigantic charger; or, with the same frightful aspect, appearing in all the pomp of family distinction, on a pale horse; or clad from head to foot in crimson raiment, wearing on his bold front a crown, and sallying forth on a red steed. Some infernal duke would appear in his proper character, quietly seated on a griffin; another spirit of a similar rank would display the three heads of a serpent, a man, and a cat; he would also bestride a viper, and carry in his hand a firebrand; another, of the same stamp, would appear like a duchess, encircled with a fiery zone, and mounted on a camel; a fourth, would wear the aspect of a boy, and amuse himself on the back of a two-headed dragon. A few spirits, however, would be content with the simple garbs of a horse, a leopard, a lion, an unicorn, a night-raven, a stork, a peacock, or a dromedary; the latter animal speaking fluently the Egyptian language. Others would assume the more complex forms of a lion or of a dog, with a griffin's wings attached to each of their shoulders; or of a bull equally well-gifted; or of the same animal, distinguished by the singular appendage of a man's face; or of a crow clothed with human flesh; or of a hart with a fiery tail. To certain other noble devils were assigned such shapes as those of a dragon with three heads, one of these being human ; of a wolf with a serpent's tail, breathing forth flames of fire; of a she-wolf, exhibiting the same caudal appendage, together with a griffin's wings, and ejecting from her mouth hideous matter. A lion would appear,

either with the head of a branded thief, or astride upon a black horse, and playing with a viper, or adorned with the tail of a snake, and grasping in his paws two hissing serpents.

These were the varied shapes assumed by devils of rank; it would, therefore, betray too much of an aristocratical spirit, to omit noticing the forms which the lower orders of such beings displayed. In an ancient Latin poem, describing the lamentable vision of a devoted hermit, and supposed to have been written by St Bernard in the year 1238, those spirits, who had no more important business upon earth than to carry away condemned souls, were described as blacker than pitch as having teeth like lions, nails on their fingers like those of the wild-boar, on their forehead horns, through the extremities of which poison was emitted, having wide ears flowing with corruption, and discharging serpents from their nostrils. The devout writer of these verses has even accompanied them with drawings, in which the addition of the cloven feet is not omitted. But this appendage, as Sir Thomas Brown has learnedly proved, is a mistake, which has arisen from the devil frequently appearing to the Jews in the shape of a rough and hairy goat, this animal being the emblem of sin-offerings.t

A translation of this very curious work was printed for private distribution by William Yates, Esq. of Manchester, for a copy of which I have been indebted to this gentleman.

Sir Thomas Brown, who thinks that this view may be confirmed by expositions of Holy Scripture, remarks, that "whereas it is said, thou shalt not offer unto devils; (the original word is


It is worthy of farther remark, that the form of the demons described by St Bernard, differs little from that which is no less carefully pourtrayed by Reginald Scot 350 years later, and, perhaps, by the demonologists of the present day." In our childhood," says he, our mother's maids have so terrified us with an ouglie divell having hornes on his head, fier in his mouth, and a taile in his breech, eies like a bason, fangs like a dog, clawes like a beare, a skin like a niger, and a voice roring like a lion,-whereby we start and are afraid when we heare one cry bough.”

It is still a curious matter for speculation, worth while noticing-Why, after the decay of the regular systems of demonology taught in the middle ages, we should still attach the same hideous form to the devil? The learned Mede has remarked, "that the devil could not appear in human shape while man was in his integrity; because he was a spirit fallen from his first glorious perfection; and, therefore, must appear in such shape which might argue his imperfection and abasement, which was the shape of a beast; otherwise, no reason can be given, why he should not rather have appeared to Eve in the shape of a woman than of a serpent. But since the fall of the case is altered; now we know he can take upon him the shape of man. He appears, it seems, in the shape of man's imperfection, either for age or de


Seghuirim), that is, rough and hairy goats, because in that shape the devil most often appeared, as is expounded by the Rabins; as Tremellius hath also explained; and as the word Ascimah, the God of Emath, is by some conceived."

formity, as like an old man (for so the witches say); and perhaps it is not altogether false, which is vulgarly affirmed, that the devil, appearing in human shape, has always a deformity of some uncouth member or other, as though he could not yet take upon him human shape entirely, for that man himself is not entirely and utterly fallen as he is." Grose also, but with infinitely less seriousness than the truly pious writer whom I have just quoted, has confirmed this view, by saying, that "although the devil can partly transform himself into a variety of shapes, he cannot change his cloven feet, which will always mark him under every appearance."

But enough of such fancies, originating with those, who, says Scot," are so carnally-minded, that a spirit is no sooner spoken of, but immediatelie they thinke of a black man with cloven feet, a pair of hornes, a taile, clawes, and eies as broad as a bason. But surelie the devil were not so wise in his generation as I take him to be, if he would terrifie men with such uglie shapes, though he could do it at his pleasure."* Absurd as all these descriptions truly are, relative

* There are some courageous individuals, however, to whom the censure of Scot cannot apply. Baxter has recorded a case relative to one Mr White of Dorchester, Assessor to the Westminster Assembly at Lambeth, who, being honoured with a visit one night from the arch-fiend, treated him with a cool contempt, to which his satanic majesty has not often been accustomed. "The devil, in a light night, stood by his bedside; the Assessor looked awhile whether he would say or do any thing, and then said, If thou hast nothing to do, I have; and so turned himself to sleep.'"

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