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gradual emancipation of, 9;
Virginia passes law regulating
manumission of, 9; numbers of
in various States in 1790, 9;
counted in determining repre-
sentation in Congress, II, 12;
Jefferson's schemes for emanci-
pation and disposition of, 17 ff;
value of increased by invention
of cotton gin, 23; fugitive, over-
tures made to England for
treaty on, 28; instruction of
denied in Virginia, 44; physical
and moral condition of, 48.
Slave States, 23.
Slave trade, begun by Europe,

brutality of, 5; maintained by
Eng. trading companies, colon-
ists attempt to check, 5; New
Eng. in, 6; Virginia remon-
strates against, 8; clause in
Declaration of Independence de-
nouncing, suppressed; Mass., R.
I., and Middle States in; de-
nounced by Dr. Hopkins, 9;
Congress refused power to for-
bid until 1808; North aids ex-
treme South in fight to pro-
long; champions of defend only
as necessary evil, 13; stopped in
Virginia and Maryland, 20;
made piracy by Congress (1800),
22; revival of between Africa

and Cuba, 158; checked, 159.
Slave-trading companies, Eng-

lish, 5; oppose tax on slaves, 6.
Smith, Caleb B., supports Lincoln,

Smith, Gerritt, characterized by

Andrew D. White, 55 ff; sup-

ports John Brown, 160, 168.
Smith, Wilfred H., 379.
Soulé, Pierre, in Congress, 89;
with Buchanan and Mason issues
Ostend manifesto, 128.
Souls of Black Folk, The," an
appeal for higher education of

negro, 398.
South. (See also VIRGINIA, etc.,

SLAVERY, etc.) Economic con-
ditions in favor slavery, 5; de-
mands Congress be refused right
to forbid slave trade, 12; all
ideas of abolishing slave trade
dropped in, 24; aggrieved by

protective tariff, 32; leadership
of passes to So. Carolina, 44, 229;
fully accepts slavery as estab.
institution, 46 ff; strengthens
defense of slavery, 54;
nomic disadvantages of, 69 ff;

territory with
North, attempts to nationalize
slavery, 80; opposes admission
of Calif. as free State, demands
allowance of slavery in Utah
and New Mexico, 84; demands
fugitive slave law, 85; leaders of
in Congress (1850), threatens
disunion, 89; denounces “ Per-
sonal Liberty Laws,” 91; North
outstrips in industrial growth;
advantages of over North, 94;
master class in analyzed by
Fanny Kemble, 105 ff; surprised
by Kansas-Nebraska bill, 113;
anti-slavery sentiment com-
pletely ostracized in, 129; sup-
pression of free speech in, 130;
leaders of (1850-60), 132; mag-
nifies State rights; general view
of slavery in, 133; apprehensive
of growing hostility in North,
134; clergy in united in defense
of slavery, 141; economic con-
ditions in compared with North
in Impending Crisis, 156; hostil-
ity in toward North increased
by Brown's raid, 167, 169-70;
misconceived by abolitionists,
168; renewed outbreaks in
against anti-slavery men, 169;
antagonism toward slave power
in, 170; solidarity against North
created by Brown's raid, 170;
presents ultimatum in Senate
(1859), 184; demands protec-
tion of slave-holding right in all
territories, 185; power of in de-
mocracy and state, 185; growing
hostility in, expulsion of anti-

men, 186; extreme,
breaks up Democratic party,
conjectural reasons for move,
187; Alex. H. Stephens explains
move, 189; open threats of
secession in, 193; position of on
secession, etc., defined, 197 ff;
underlying divergences from
North in sentiment and char-

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acter, 205 ff; ideal of society in,
205; religious life and literature
in, 206; inflamed against North,
sources of misunderstanding,
207; plantation life in at best,
208; concentration of interest in
on national politics, 208; con-
centrates on secession
ment, 209; duelling and street
affrays common in, 209; men
of in Texas, in Mexican war,
and filibusters," 209-10;
believes all war-spirit extinct in
North, 210; causes of united
action in, 211; North impatient
of political dominance of, 212;
patriotic sentiment still power-
ful in, 214; disunion sentiment
strongest in Gulf and Cotton
States, 214; reasons for suc-
cess of secession movement
in, 218 ff; leaders of resign
from Buchanan's cabinet, 224;
leaders of in Congress favor
secession, last formal

sentation of ultimatum of in
Senate, 225; general sentiment
in against armed repression of
secession, 227; So. Carolina
leader of, 229; views on Civil
war in, 237; bitterness against
North in, 241; moral effect of
war on, 244; courage of in war,
262; advantages of North over,
264; social conditions in after
war, 275; State legislatures and
conventions resumed in, 275,
276; 13th amendment ratified
in 276; Senators from refused
admission to Congress, 218; re-
ports of Gen. Grant and Carl
Schurz on conditions in after
war, 286 ff; views of on negro
labor, 287; laws governing negro
labor in after war, association of
whites and negroes forbidden
in, 290; Congressional represent.
of conditioned on negro suffrage
by 14th amendment, 298; pro-
posed to refuse suffrage to
leaders of, 299; mistake of such
course, 301; excepting Tennes-
see, rejects 14th amendment,
304; reconstruction of, see Re-

construction; government of
under reconstruction bill begins,
307, 310; number of

voters in various States of, 311;
trials and struggles of under
new conditions, under martial
law, restored to self-government,
316; unfitness of negroes in for
suffrage, whites refuse to vote,
constitutional conventions held
and negro delegates chosen, 317;
typical attitude of whites in;
under "carpet bag" rule, 318,
332; Northern immigration into,
319; Northern teachers insulted
or disdained in; Northerners in
politics in; legislation in during
reconstruction, 320; extrava-
gance, waste and corruption in
under Republican governments;
exaggeration of, 321 ; negro rule
in, 319, 321; resumption of
white leadership in, 322 ff; con-
tinued interference of Congress
in, 326; growth of Republican
opposition to Federal interfer-
ence in; repudiation in, 332;
Democrats organize resistance
to Republican rule in and prac-
tice intimidation, 339 ff; Federal
troops withdrawn from, 353;
regeneration of, 354; whites in
driven to labor, 355; end of
Federal interference in, 371, 402;
negro suffrage practically nulli-
fied in, civil rights secured to
negroes, 372, 382, 388; refuses
social equality to negro, 373,
407-8; fear of race mixture in,
*374, 407; development of in-
dustrial democracy in, 379; pres-
ent condition of politics in, 379
ff; why “solid,” 380; life in di-
versifying, growth of literature
in, 380; growth of standard of
education in, 381; widening gulf
between the races in, 382; legal
and practical limitation of suf-
frage in, 382 ff, 388; efforts in
to restrict negro education, 385;
negro still has industrial free-
dom in, 385, 395; pronounced at-
titude of on social inferiority of
negro, 386; hopes for better


conditions, growth of goodwill
and confidence in, 389; amount
spent by for negro education,
397; educational and industrial
problems of, 397 ff; suffrage
laws in, 400; politics in, no
Longer a struggle between
whites and blacks, 401; scheme
to reduce representation of
under 14th amendment, 403;
government aid to education in
advocated, 404; disproportion-
ate share of national expense
borne by, 405; problem of social

equal. of races in, 406 ff.
South Carolina (see also CAROLI-

NAS, The), demands representa-
tion based on slave numbers, II;
refuses to join Union if slave
trade forbidden, 12; revolts over
tariff, claims right of nullifica-
tion, 32; passes law against
negro seamen, 73; considers
secession, 221; passes ordinance
of secession, 223; occupies Ft.
Moultrie and Castle Pinckney,
224; leads South, 229; emanci-
pation in, 260; provisional gov-
ernment formed in, 275; recon-
structed, 310; negro voters in
majority in, 311; under "carpet-
bag,” rule, 332 ff; Presidential
and State vote of contested
(1876), 348 ff; legal limitation

of suffrage in, 383.
Southern Democracy, asserts uni-

versal right of slave-holding,

“Southern Planter, A," 100.
Southern Statesmen of the Old

Régime,” 137.
Speed, Joshua F., 178; resigns

from cabinet, 303.
Springfield Republican, 124 and

note, 127; its opinion of John
Brown, 162; state's issue be-
tween Democrats and Republi-
cans in 1864, 265; favors educa-
tional test for suffrage, 308, 310;
prophesies slave-holding class
will regain power, 322;. sup-
ports Independent Republicans,
328; on Hayes-Tilden contest,

Stanton, Edwin M., Attorney-

General, 224; in Lincoln's cabi-
net, 249; attitude of on eman-
cipation proclamation, 257; in
Johnson's cabinet, 274; sup-
ports Johnson in reconstruction
plans, 276; becomes bitterly
opposed to Johnson, 303; re-
moved by Johnson, 311.
Star of the West," sent with
supplies to Anderson, driven

from Charleston harbor, 224.
State rights, theory of, 133.
States, relative power of in Con-

gress determined, 11.
Stearns, George L., supports

John Brown, 160.
Stephens, Alexander H., sketch

of his life and views, 137 ff;
political activity of, 138; in
Congress, and Vice-President of
Confederacy, 139, 227; explains
defection of Southern Demo-
crats, 189; supports Douglas in
1860 campaign, 193; opposes
secession, 211,

215; labors
against secession, 219, 221, 225;
Vice-President of Southern
Confederacy, 227; pleads for

negro rights, 302.
Stevens, Thaddeus, Republican

leader in Penn., 276; leader of
House, 281; sketch of, 282; op-
poses Pres. Johnson's recon-
struction plan, 285; his drastic
reconstruction bill defeated, 306;
House prosecutor of Johnson,

311; death of, 331.
Story, Judge, on taxes in Miss.,

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, publishes

“Uncle Tom's Cabin," 97; her
views of slavery as pictured
therein, 109; publishes “ Dred,"

Suffrage, manhood, adopted, 21;

equal, without test passed in
North, 308; negro, representa-
tion of South conditioned on,

proposal to refuse to
leaders of South, 299—see also
Amendments, Constitutional;
Springfield Republican favors
educațional test for, 308, 310;

lina, 332.

unfitness of negroes in South
for after war, 317; of negroes
practically nullified in South,
372; legal limitation of in

South, 382 ff; 388.
Sumner, Charles, opinion of aboli-

tionists, 54; joins “ Free Soil”
party, 81; in Senate, 92; de-
nounces slavery in Congress, as-
saulted by Brooks, 122; in Re-
publican party, 127; opposes
admission of Senators from
Confederate States, 270; Lin-
coln refuses to quarrel with,
270; Republican leader in
Mass., 276; sketch of, 282; in
Senate, 284; opposes Pres.
Johnson's reconstruction plan,
286; belief of in Republican
party, 309; quarrels with Grant,

328; death of, 331.
Sumner, Colonel, in Kansas, 118.
TANEY, Chief Justice, in Dred

Scott case, 147.
Tappan, Arthur, 40, 44.
Tappan, Lewis, 44.
Tariff, of abominations, 32; pro-

tective, 31 ff; compromise on,
33 ff; supported in Georgia,
211; adopted

adopted by Republican
party, 190; burden of to South,

Taylor, Zachary (Gen.), 76; nomi-

nated by Whigs, 81; elected, 82;
denounces threats of disunion
as treason, 89; favors admission
of Calif. as free State, 90;

death of, 90; in North, 208.
Tennessee, added as slave State,

23; votes against holding seces-
sion convention, 227; secedes,
235; provisional govt. estab. in,
267, 275; rights of negro con-
served in, 302; readmitted un-

der 14th amendment, 303.
Tenure of office law, passed;

Pres. Johnson accused of vio-

lating, 311.
Territories, power of Congress

over, 149.
Texas, annexation of, 74 ff; slav-

ery re-estab. in, 75; becomes a
state, 76; emancipation in, 260;
silent on 13th amendment, 262;

provisional govt. of, 275; re-
constructed, 310; relative num-
ber of negro voters in, 311; un-
der martial law, 316; becomes

Democratic, 323.
Thayer, Eli, originates New Eng.

Emigrant Aid Society; 116.
Thomas, Lorenzo (Gen.), Sec'y

of War, 311.
Thompson, George, aids Garrison,

Thompson, Richard W., Sec'y of

Navy under Hayes, 353.
Tilden, Samuel J., leader of

Democrats, 313; nominated for
President; characterized; appar-
ently elected, 347; election con-

tested, 348 ff.
Tomlinson, Reuben, Repub. candi-

date for governor of S. Caro-
Toombs, Robert, sketch of, 136 ff;

political activity of, 138; gives
moral support to Preston
Brooks, 138; in Confederate
cabinet and army, 139, 227; sup-
ports Breckinridge in 1860 cam-
paign, 193; advocates secession

Georgia legislature, 2017
supports secession movement,
221; states South's ultimatum
in Congress, 225; in Confederate

cabinet, 227.
Trade unions, attitude of toward

negroes, 385, 395; danger of
excluding negroes from, 396.
Trumbull, Lyman, elected Sena-

tor, 177; favors admission of
Senators from Louisiana, 270;
in Senate, 283, 284, 285; favors
Freedmen's Bureau bill, 294 ;
votes to acquit Pres. Johnson,
312; in opposition to adminis-

tration, 331.
Tuskegee Institute, 378; function

of, 398.
Truth, Sojourner, 96.
“Twenty Years of Congress,"

Blaine's, quoted, 307, 310.
Tyler, John, becomes President,



"UNCLE Tom's Cabin," 97 ff; re-

ception, 98; “Key to," 99;
criticism of, 99,

Underground railroad, the, 85.
Unionism, spirit of strong in

white laboring class of South,
214; strength of at North, 218,
Unitarians, 143.
“Up from Slavery," Booker

Washington's personal story

told in, 378.
Utah, South demands permission

of slavery in, 84.

WADE, Benjamin, in Senate, 114;

in Republican party, 127; favors
radical reconstruction, 270; in

U. S. Senate, 283, 285.
Walker, Boston negro,

Appeal, 41.
Walker, Robert J., 117; appointed

governor of Kansas, 150; de-
feats fraud in ballot, and is de-

serted by Buchanan, 152.
War, terrors of. See Civil War,

237 ff.

“ Free

VAN BUREN, Martin, 30; becomes

President, 71; receives

Soil" nomination, 82.
Van Winkle, Senator, votes to

acquit Pres. Johnson, 312.
Vardaman, Gov., of Mississippi,

Virginia, tries to discourage slave

trade by tax; slave labor foun-
dation of aristocracy in, 6; re-
monstrates against continuance
of slave trade, 8; forbids im-
portation of slaves, passes law
regarding manumission of
slaves, number of slaves in 1790,
9; against strengthening the
slave power, 11; protests against
restraint of Congress to forbid
slave trade, 12; consents (1778)
to abolish slave trade, 18; stops
importing slaves, 20; conven-
tion for revis. of constitution,
41; general emancipation de-
bated, 42 ff; plans for fail, 43;
passes severe laws against in-
citement to rebel, instruction of
slaves, etc., loses leadership
of South, 44; Mrs. Burton Har-
rison's personal reminiscences
of before the war, 100; calls
convention to consider seces-
sion, 222; calls peace congress,
228; secedes, 235; emancipation
in, 260; loyal State govt. in
recognized, 275; delays her final
restoration to Union, 310; rela-
tive number of negro voters in,
311; under martial law, 316;
Democrats regain, 323; legal
limitation of suffrage in, 383 ;
co-operation of whites and
negroes for good govt. in, 401,

" War Between the States," by

Alex. H. Stephens, 189.
" War Democrats,” 194, 253.
Warmouth, Henry C., in govt. of

Louisiana, 341.
Warner, Col., in govt. of Miss.,

Warren, Henry W., in govt. of

Miss., 336, 337; on conditions
and experiences in Miss. during

reconstruction, 337 ff.
Washburn, Israel, Jr., helps or-

ganize Republican party, 114.
Washington, city of, threatened

by Confederates, 237.
Washington, George, 2; opinion

of New Englanders, 2; concep-
tion of liberty and of slavery,
3; favors Revolution, 8; against
strengthening slave power, II;
views of on slavery, 15; private
life and character of, 15 ff; his
treatment of his slaves, frees
them, 16; on necessity of abol-

ishing slavery, 391.
Washington, Booker T., pupil of

and successor to Gen. Arm-
strong; his aims and methods;
personal story of, 378; enter-

Pres. Roosevelt,
Watterson, Henry, in Hayes-Til-

den contest, 352.
Webster, Daniel, defends protec-
tive tariff, 32;

debate with
Hayne, 33; his public life char-
acterized, 64 ff; 7th of March
speech on slavery questions, 87;
defects of speech, 88; political
and moral characteristics of,
88; in Fillmore's cabinet, 90;
allied with upper classes, 92; as
Pres, candidate defeated in


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