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emancipation, 35; rejects 15th
New Mexico, South demands per-
mission of slavery in, 84.
New Orleans, riot in, 303.
New York Evening Post, supports
Independent Republicans, 327;
refuses support to Greeley, 329.
New York Herald, 141, 164, 193.
New York Times, 141, 347.
New York Tribune, influence of,
140, 141; against forcible re-
pression of secession movement,
228; criticises Lincoln, 255;
supports Independent Republi-
Tilden telegrams, 352.
New York State, number of
slaves in in 1790, 9; passes
emancipation law, 22; counted
as free State, 23; delegation of
to “ Free Soil" convention
(1848), 82; declares right of
citizenship for negroes, 149.
Nicholls, Francis T., claims gov-
ernorship of Louisiana, 349; be-
comes governor, 353.
North, the (see also New ENG-
LAND), slavery unprofitable in,
5; aids extreme South in extend-
ing slave trade, 13; slavery abol-
ished in, 20; surpasses South in
population and wealth; increased
representation in House, 24;
its economic advantages over
South, 69 ff; violence against
negroes in, 74; disputes with
South over new territory, 80;
dissatisfaction in over Compro-
mise measures of 1850; passes
“ Personal Liberty Laws,” 91;
outstrips South in industrial,
literary, and religious growth,
advantages of South over, 94;
growth of anti-slavery feeling
in, 113 ff; best intelligence of in
early Republican party, 127; re-
sents polit. aggression of South
more than slavery, 128; leaders
of (1850-60), 132; leaders of,
140 ff; attitude of clergy in to-
ward slavery, 141; economic con-
ditions in compared with those
of South, 156; John Brown's
raid intensifies conviction
against slavery in, 167; growing
distrust of South in, 169; posi-
tion of on secession, etc., 200 ff;
underlying divergences from
South in sentiment and char-
acter of, 205 ff; religious life
in, 206; inflamed against South;
sources of misunderstanding,
207; varied occupations in, 208;
secession movement causes con
sternation in, 209; strongly in-
clined to peace; disbelieves in
Southern courage, 210; grounds
for resistance of secession in;
impatient of Southern political
dominance, 212; reasons for
failure of disunion movement
in, 218 ff; disinclination in to
force against secession
movement, 228; Mass. becomes
leader in, 229; united in resist.
ance to secession, 235; views on
Civil war in, 237; bitter feeling
against South in, 241; moral
effect of war on, 244; Unionism
the absorbing issue in, 248;
party divisions in, 253; growing
sentiment in against slavery,
254; courage of in war, 262;
advantages of over South, 264;
joy in over prospect of success,
268; opposes Johnson's recon-
struction plans, 288; current
opinion in on cause of secession,
300; hatred of Jefferson Davis
in, 301; general temper in hos-
tile to Pres. Johnson, 312; feel-
ing of relief in after Grant's
election, 315; resumption of
business in, 316; immigration
from into South, 319; growing
tendency in to accord social
equality to negroes, 373 ff,
North Carolina, emancipation
favored in, 36; right of free
speech vindicated in, 129; votes
against secession convention,
229; secedes, 235; emancipation
in, 260; provisional govt. formed
in, 275; reconstructed, 310; rela-
tive number of negro voters in,
311; Democrats regain, 323;
legal limitation of suffrage in,
Northwestern Territory, slavery Petigru, James L., 223.
prohibited in, 10.
Petitions to Congress, anti-slavery,
Nullification, So. Carolina claims
right of, 32; denounced by Jack Pettus, Gov., of Mississippi, 221.
son, 33; opposed in “ Force bill” Philadelphia, convention in behalf
of 1833, 33; question dropped, of Pres. Johnson at, 303.
Phillips, Wendell, becomes ally of
Garrison, 54; scorns Republican
OBERLIN COLLEGE, becomes anti party, 127; declares all war un-
slavery stronghold, 37; plan for Christian, 210; favors disunion,
students to earn expenses fails 217, 228; abuses Lincoln, 254.
Pierce, Franklin, nominated for,
O'Conor, Charles, nominated for
and elected President, 93; recog-
nizes usurpers in Kansas strug-
Ohio, admitted as free State, 23; gle, 117
declares for emancipation, 35. Pierce, Henry L., in House, 331;
Olmsted, Frederic Law, on con vote of in Hayes-Tilden contest,
dition of slaves in South be 352.
fore the war, 49; volumes Pinckneys, Charles and Thomas,
of travels in the slave States, demand freedom of slave
trade, 12 ff.
Ordinance of 1784, fails to limit Pittsburg, counter convention at,
slave territory, 10.
Ordinance of 1787, limits slave Platte country, the, 112.
Polk, James K., nominated for
Oregon, boundary dispute, 80; President, 75; elected; declares
rejects 15th amendment, 315; war with Mexico, 76.
double returns from in Hayes Poor whites, evil effects of slav-
Tilden election, 351.
ery on, I10.
Ostend manifesto, 128.
“ Present South, The," by E. G.
Murphy, 388, 408.
PACKARD, S. B., in govt. of Louisi Pottawatomie massacre, 120; re-
ana, 341; claims governorship, sults of, 121.
Presbyterian Church, condemns
Paine, Thomas, 8.
Parker, Theodore, influence of in Prisons, military, terrors of, 245 ff.
church and state, 143; supports
Protection. See TARIFF, Pro-
John Brown, 160, 168.
Peace Congress, proposed, to find
means to preserve the Union,
QUAKERS, relation of to slavery, 7.
RANDALL, Samuel J., in House,
Pendleton, George H., candidate 284; speaker, 346.
for Presidential nomination, 313. Randolph, John, his opinion of
Pennsylvania, number of slaves in slavery, 47
in 1790, 9; votes against ex Randolph, Thos. Jefferson, his
tension of slave trade, 13;
scheme of emancipation, 43.
passes emancipation law, 21; Rankin, John, 38.
counted as free State, 23; de Rantoul, Robert, joins “Free
clares for emancipation, 35; Soil" party, 81.
Republicans fail to indorse Raymond, Henry J., 141; in
Pres. Johnson, 276.
House, 284; supports Pres.
Peonage cases, prosecution of, Johnson's plan of reconstruction,
Personal Liberty Laws, passed in Reconstruction, 267 ff; Lincoln's
plans for and views on, 268 ff;
271; congressional bill (1864),
rejected by Lincoln, 269; Lin-
coln's plans for opposed by Con-
gress, 270; first Congressional
plan of, 274 ff; President
Johnson's plan of, 275; Henry
Ward Beecher's plan
277 ff; John A. Andrew's plan
of, 280; both latter plans too
advanced for the time, 280;
action taken on_by Congress
(1865-6), 281 ff; Pres. Johnson's
plan of opposed in Congress,
285; second Congressional plan
of, 294 ff; difficulties of question
increased by lack of statesmen
to handle, 302; two policies of
before the country, South in-
dorses Pres. Johnson's plan of,
303; final plan of, 306ff; bili
passed, 306; results of bill, 307,
310; verdict of country on work
of, 312 ff; the working out of,
316 ff; the last act, 344 ff.
" Reconstruction and the Con-
stitution,” by Prof. J. W. Bur-
Reeder, Governor, of Kansas, 117.
Republican party (see also RE-
PUBLICANS), beginnings of, 114
ff; components of, 115; first
Presidential convention of, 124
ff; principles, leaders, constitu-
ency, successes, and failures of
in first (1856) campaign of, 127;
opposition to in first campaign,
128; weakness of in South, 129;
composition of opposition to,
and causes of defeat of in first
campaign, 130; stand of on
negro question (1860), 186;
origin of protectionist character
of, 190; geographical lines of
in 1860 campaign, 192; de-
nounced in 1860 campaign, 193
ff; restriction of slavery the
supreme principle of, 212; Sum-
ner's belief in, 319; freedmen
instinctively turn to, 319;
leaders of in Grant's second
Republicans, hold first (1856)
Presidential convention, 124 ff;
nominate John C. Fremont for
President, 126; Wm. L. Dayton
for Vice-President, 129; plat-
form, 126; denounce Ostend
manifesto, 129; dissent from
Dred Scott decision, 148, 149;
gain in numbers, name Lincoln
for U. S. Senator, 153; first Illi-
nois convention of, 179; cam-
paign, 180ff; not in John
Brown's raid, 183; hold conven-
tion (1860), 189 ff; platform,
190; struggle bet. Seward and
nominate Lincoln and Hamlin,
192; elect candidates (1860),
194; results of success of, 221;
oppose secession, 223, 224, 225;
oppose schemes for extension of
slavery, 228; vainly concede
many points to South, 229; di-
vide over war questions, 253;
reaction against in elections of
1862, 261; success of in 1864,
262, 265; indorse President
Johnson, 276; assert right of
Congress to direct reconstruc-
tion, leaders oppose Pres. John-
son's plan of, 286; opinion of
turns against Johnson, 294; in-
creased strength of in Congress
(1866-7), 306; in Senate vote to
acquit Pres. Johnson, 312;
adopt moderate platform, nomi-
nate and elect Grant (1868),
314; in temporary control of
South, 323, 327; change attitude
tword South, independent move-
ment among, 327; Independents
hold convention (1872), 328; in
gov't of South, 332 ff; lose
heavily in Congressional elec-
tions of 1874, suspected of mal-
administration, 344; many op-
pose Force bill of 1875, 345;
hold convention (1876), 346;
nominate Hayes, campaign, 347;
claim election of Hayes, 348 ff.
"Residence on a Georgia Plan-
tation, A.” 103.
Rhett, Senator, proposes secession,
Rhode Island, in slave trade, 9;
passes emancipation law, 21.
Rhodes, “History of the U. S.,"
quoted, 301, 302.
Robinson, Chas. S.,
Kansas, 117 ff; his house burned,
Roosevelt, President, South criti-
cises for entertainment of
Booker Washington, 386.
Ross, Senator, votes to acquit
Pres. Johnson, 312.
SANBORN, Franklin B., supports
John Brown, 160.
San Domingo, proposed annex-
ation of, 328.
Scalawags," the, 318.
Schurz, Carl, on conditions in
South after war, 286 ff; 292;
favors negro suffrage, 309; in
Republican convention (1868),
314; leads Independent Republi-
cans in Missouri, 327; in U. S.
Senate, 328; Sec'y of Interior
under Hayes, 353; on peonage
cases in South, 388; on future
of negro question, 389.
Scott, R. K., governor of S. Caro-
Scott, Winfield (Gen.), nominated
for President, 92; against armed
repression of secession, 228.
Secession, Clay, denies right of,
86; Webster declares impossible
with peace, 87; threats of in
Congress denounced by Taylor
and Clay, 89; open threats of in
South, 193; not taken seriously
at North, 194; denounced by
Douglas, 194; Southern position
on defined, 197 ff; Northern
position on defined, 200 ff;
slavery question the real basis
of 211; grounds for resistance
of at North, 212; extreme abo-
litionists not opposed to, 212;
arguments for and against, 212
ff, 226; reasons for success of
movement in South and failure
of in North, 218 ff; sources of
movement in South, 219; action
of Southern States on follow-
ing Lincoln's election, 221 ff;
discussed in Congress (1860),
223; advised by Southern leaders
in Congress, 225; triumph of
movement, 226; movement halts,
227; various Southern States
take action on; general senti-
ment in South against armed
repression of, 227; disinclina-
tion in North to use force
against, 228; West strongly
against movement, 228; Mass.
takes strong stand against, 229
ff; plea of Lincoln against, 232;
current Northern opinion of
causes of, 300.
Secessionists (see SECESSION),
mation of Southern Confed-
Seelye, Julius H., vote of in
Hayes-Tilden contest, 352.
Senate, State representation in de-
termined, il; South strives to
keep up numbers in, 24; strong-
hold of South, 81.
Sewall, Samuel, protests against
Seward, William H., votes for
Taylor, 82; influence and
strength of, 82; his plan of
emancipation, 83; speaks in
Senate against extension of
slavery, 89 ff; helps prolong
Whig organization in New
York, 115; in Republican party,
127; opinion of on Dred Scott
decision, 149; opinion of on
future labor conditions in Union,
154; logical candidate for Presi-
dency (1860), 190; in Lincoln's
cabinet, 233, 249; Lincoln adopts
advice of to delay issuance of
emancipation proclamation, 257;
in Johnson's cabinet, his
fluence on the President, 274;
supports Pres. Johnson, 303.
Seymour, Horatio, nominated for
President, characterized, 313;
defeated, States carried by, 314.
Shadrach, fugitive slave, rescued,
Shaffer, President, urges admis-
sion of capable negroes to trade
Shannon, Wilson, gov. of Kansas,
Shaw, Robert Gould, 264.
Shellabarger, Samuel, in House,
Sheridan, Gen'l, sent to in stigate
Louisiana election scandals, 343.
Sherman, John, in U. S. Senate,
283, 285; endeavors to stem
tide against Pres. Johnson, 296;
defeats Stevens's reconstruction
bill, 306; superiority of over
Blaine, 307; Sec'y of Treasury
under Hayes, 353.
Sherman, William T. (Gen.), his
opinion of war, 244, 245.
Slaveholders, numbers of, char-
Slave Laws, compiled and pub-
lished by Stroud, 110.
Slavery. (See also SLAVES, SLAVE
TRADE.) Washington's opinion
of, 3; origin, growth, regulation
and defense of, 3 ff; legally
recognized in Judea, Greece, and
Rome, by Jesus and the early
church, 4; supplants free peas-
antry in Italy, 4; influence of
Christianity on, 4; absolute,
abolished throughout Christen-
dom, supplanted by serfdom, 4;
recrudescence of in 17th and
18th centuries, 4; economic
conditions determine location of
in America, 5; unprofitable in
North, 5, 6; need of in South,
5; casuistical defense of by
church, 5; advantages and dis-
advantages of to negro, 5; re-
sponsibility for denied by North
and South, 6; commercial de-
mand for overrides humanity, 6;
unprofitable in New England, 6;
social conscience unawakened to
enormity of, 7; Sewall and
Woolman protest against, 7;
relation of Quakers to, 7;
awakening to wrongs of, 8;
abolished in Mass., 9; Jefferson
strives to limit territory of, 9;
limited, 10; impossible for con-
vention of 1787 to prohibit, 14;
compromised, 14 ff; views of
Washington and other leaders
on, 15; Patrick Henry's views
on, Franklin labors against, 19;
early anti-slavery sentiment, 20;
abol. in Northern and Middle
States, 20; question temporarily
eclipsed, 21; estab. in Kentucky,
abol. in Spanish America, 22;
question again to the front
(1819), 23; defended in Con-
gress, all ideas of abolishing
dropped in South, growth of
sentiment against in North, 24;
Jefferson supports, 25; Clay sup-
ports, 26; growth of question
from 1832, 28; South fully ac-
cepts and defends, 46 ff; views
of Jos. LeConte, Frederic Law
Olmsted, and C. C. Jones on,
49; theory of adopted by slave.
holders, 50; abolished in West
against, 51 ff; defense of
strengthened in South, 54; un-
derlying principles of; tide of
public opinion sets against, 70;
question grows in prominence,
71 ff; freedom of speech on
denied in South, 73; Calhoun's
claim for nationalization of, 80;
excluded from new territory ac-
quired by purchase, 80; opposi-
tion of Seward and Chase to,
83; as it was, depicted by Mrs.
Burton Harrison, 100; depicted
in biography of Thomas Dab-
ney, 100 ff; described by Fanny
Kemble, 103 ff; pictured by
Frederic Law Olmsted, 107 ff;
Harriet Beecher Stowe's opinion
of embodied in “Uncle Tom's
Cabin," 109; general view of in
South, 133; attitude of clergy
toward, 141; hostility toward in
South, 170; the great cause of
difference between North and
South, 207, 211; restriction of
the supreme principle of Repub-
lican party, 212; measures upon
during Civil war, 249, 250;
Lincoln's attitude toward, 250;
abolished in Dist. of Columbia,
251; finally and forever abol-
ished in U. S., 276.
Slaves (See also NEGROES, SLA-
VERY, South, SLAVE TRADE), Af-
rica source of, 5; indolence and
unthrift of, 5; Virginia taxes, 6;
foundation of aristocracy in
Virginia and Carolinas, 6; un-
proñtable as laborers in New
Eng., 6; Virginia and Mary-
land forbid importation of, 9;
Jefferson proposes plan for