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Opinion of the Court.

back-plate I of the stove that an air-space, b, communicating with the air of the room at the top, is left between the front of the reservoir and the back-plate. By this means the outside air will pass down between the back-plate and front of the reservoir and prevent the front of the reservoir from burning out, which would be the case if the parts were in direct contact, especially when the water in the reservoir becomes low. In the ordinary method the flame is made to strike directly upon the front surface of the reservoir, thereby rendering it liable to crack while replenishing with cold water upon the heated plates. The opening a in the back-plate I of the stove is of the same width as the centre-flue D, and the products of combustion pass through said opening into the sheet-flue G, which thus has a contracted entrance and a contracted exit. When using the direct draft the damper d of the centre flue D is turned downward and rests against the backoven plate, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. At such times the heat passes down the centre-flue D of the back, through the opening a in the back-plate I, into the sheet-flue G under the bottom of the reservoir, and out of the exit-flue E. When the indirect draft is used, the damper d occupies the position shown in Fig. 1, and at such times the heat passes down the usual side Alues and under the bottom of the oven to the front of the stove, where it turns into the centre-flue D and passes back through the opening a to the sheet-flue G under the bottom of the reservoir and out of the exit-flue. With a stove thus constructed, the reservoir is heated almost entirely from the bottom, and the heat acts upon the entire surface of the bottom of the reservoir, and when the reservoir is but partially filled there is no danger of the heat acting against, and burning out, the top part of the front side of the reservoir. We do not claim under this patent a flueshell and rear central extension that is detachable from the stovebody by means of hooks on the one and catches or pins on the other, nor do we specifically claim a reservoir with a flue in its rear, as these elements of invention are the subject of a separate application for a patent, now pending ; neither do we wish to be understood as claiming the arrangement of the reservoir and flues for heating the same in front of the fire-box of the stove, as shown in our patent of May 6th, 1873, No. 138,682.”

The claims of No. 142,933 are 2 in number, as follows, and the infringement of both is admitted :

Opinion of the Court.

“1. The combination with the back-plate I of the cooking. stove A, of the reservoir C, arranged on a support about midway between the top and bottom plates of the stove, and the airchamber 6 between the stove-back and reservoir-front, open at the top and communicating with the air in the room, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 2. The combination, with the stove A and reservoir C, of the small opening a, the sheet-flue G under the entire bottom of the reservoir, and the small exit-passage or pipe E, all substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth."

The point of invention in claim 1 is in so arranging the reservoir as to have an air-space between the front plate of the reservoir and the back plate of the stove, to a sufficient extent to prevent the flame from striking against the upper part of the front plate of the reservoir, which it would do if the upper part of the back plate of the stove were cut away, and there were no such air-space. It is the upper part of the front side of the reservoir which, as the specification states, is liable to be burned out by the direct action of the flame, as the water in the reservoir is lowered. In the McDowell patent of 1871 all the upper part of the reservoir is protected by an air-space, open at the top, between the reservoir and the stove.

The point of invention in claim 2 is to take the gases through a small opening into a broad sheet-flue under the bottom of a reservoir and out through another small opening in the rear, so that they will circulate in the broad flue and act on the entire surface of the bottom of the reservoir. The Stewart patent of 1859 shows the same arrangement with an elevated reservoir, but there is no invention in applying it to a low-down reservoir. The Tiffany patent of 1869 shows the same arrangement with a low-down reservoir.

The specification of No. 142,934 says:

“ The nature of our invention consists in the construction and arrangement of a cooking-stove with a portable base-pan or flueshell, and the means for attaching the same, as will be hereinafter more fully set forth.... Figure 1 is a longitudinal vertical section of our improved cooking-stove ; Fig. 2 is a side view of Opinion of the Court.

the rear end of the same ; Fig. 3 is a plain view of a loose cover or plate for the base-pan; and Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the portable base-pan or flue-shell. A represents the main baking

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oven of the stove ; B is the top flue; B B', the vertical and hori. zontal side flues; C is the centre flue; D is the base-pan or flueshell ; E, the exit-flue passing up the rear side of the reservoir ; Opinion of the Court.

F is the reservoir ; G, the warming-closet; H, the damper ; 1, the fire-chamber; and J, the division-plate. When using the direct draft, the damper H occupies a line parallel with the back plate of the main oven, hanging down in the centre flue of the back part of the stove. At such time the products of combustion pass from the fire chamber I, along the top flue B, and down the centre flue, between the back oven-plate and the divisionplate J, into the base-pan D, and out of the exit-flue E. When using the indirect draft the damper H occupies the position shown in Fig. 1. At such time the products of combustion pass over the top oven-plate flue B, and down the vertical end flues B', into corresponding flues at the bottom, making the turn into the centre flue of the bottom at C, through said bottom centre flue, into and through the rear centre flue, through the divisionplate J, into the base-pan flue D, and out of exit-flue E, so that, whether using the direct or indirect draft, the reservoir is heated only on its bottom surface. The base-pan D is made separate from the stove, and provided on each side with a hook projection, a, to be fastened on a pin, b, projecting from the side of the stove. By this means the base-pan can readily be attached and detached, and when attached it fits in the upper end and forms the top of the warming-oven G. K represents a plate with two boiler-holes in it, which can be used when the reservoir is removed or should become broken in shipment, thus converting it into a six-hole stove. It is our purpose to insert a loose centre piece between the boiler-holes in the plate K, so that an ordinary wash-boiler can be used on said plate, if desired. The novelty of this invention consists in the portability of the reservoir basepan D and in the warming-closet attachment, whereby we economize space in shipment, and whereby repairs can be made at a very small cost and by unskilled workmen, as all the attachments will be shipped separate from the body of the stove, and mounted after they reach their destination. Should the reservoir become broken in shipment or otherwise, the plate K can be used, thus converting it into a six-hole stove, upon which an ordinary washboiler can be used in case of emergency. The front bottom corner of the reservoir rests upon a strip, d, attached to the divi. sion-plate J, which thus entirely shuts off the air-space at the bottom. By means of the base-pan flue D extending under the whole bottom of the reservoir F and the space between the reserOpinion of the Court.

voir and the division-plate J, the reservoir becomes heated only on its bottom surface, where there will always be water, if any in the reservoir at all. The exit-flue E passes up through and forms part of the reservoir F at the back or rear side, as shown. We do not claim, under this specification, the combination of the reservoir with the back of the stove when an air-space open at the top is left between the two, as seen in the drawings, nor do we claim the sheet-flue under the reservoir in the shell D, as both of these arrangements are the subject matter of a separate application for a patent, now pending."

The claims of No. 142,934 are 3 in number, as follows, and the infringement of all of them is admitted :

“ 1. The detachable base-pan or flue-shell D, attached to the body at a point near the centre of the back plate of the stove, by means of hooks a a cast on the base-pan, and pins b b on the stove-body, substantially for the purposes herein set forth. 2. The portable reservoir F, with flue E in the rear side, in combination with the portable base-pan or flue-shell D, substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth. 3. The combination, with a three-flue stove, having damper H arranged as described, of the portable base-pan or flue-shell D and warming-closet G, all substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth.”

The Tiffany patent of 1869 shows a low-down reservoir at the rear of a three-flue stove, and a warming closet below the reservoir. The gases pass from the flue-space into a base-pan or chamber which is immediately below the reservoir, and forms the top of the warming-closet. The flue by which the gases escape from the base-pan is in the rear of the reservoir and is removable with it. The Tiffany stove, having three flues, must have a damper to open and close the middle flue. The specification of the Tiffany patent states that the reservoir and the warming-closet are capable of being attached to and detached from the stove, so that the stove is complete without them and they are complete without being attached ; and it also states that they may be attached to the stove by lugs or hooks, either cast in the back of the stove, with a corresponding eye in the side of the case surrounding the reservoir, or in the top and

VOL. CX-10

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