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REGULATION 88.A-24. Damaged or Leaking Containers of Explosives: If upon arrival of a vessel in port it is found that a container of explosives has been damaged or is leaking, the master of the vessel shall consult the port authorities and request instructions as to disposition of the insecure container. Any container of explosives showing evidence of damage or leakage of a liquid ingredient shall not be handled with other explosives being loaded or unloaded but shall be segregated and held for inspection and disposition.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-11.)

REGULATION 88.A-25. Damaged or Leaking Containers of Explosives not to be Accepted for Transportation: Any container of an explosive when offered for transportation or storage in the Canal Zone showing excessive dampness or escaping nitrous fumes, or which is moldy or shows outward signs of any oil stain or other indication that the absorption of the liquid part of the explosive is not perfect, or that the amount of the liquid part of the explosive is greater than the absorbent can carry, shall not be accepted for transportation. The master or person in charge must substantiate any claim that a stain is due to accidental contact with grease, oil or similar substance. In case of doubt the container shall be refused. (See note following Regulation 88.A-11.)

Hazardous Cargo in Bulk, Other Than Explosives REGULATION 88.B-1: For the purpose of these regulations, inflammable liquids and combustible liquids shall be classified, in accordance with their vapor pressures and flash points, into Grades "A," "B," “C,” “D,” and “E,” as classified by the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation of the United States Department of Commerce, as follows:

Grade "A."-Inflammable liquids having a Reid Vapor Pressure of 14 pounds per square inch or more.

Grade "B."-Inflammable liquids having a Reid Vapor Pressure of under 14 pounds and over 8) pounds per square inch.

Grade "C."--Inflammable liquids having a Reid Vapor Pressure of 83 pounds per square inch or less and a flash point of 80° F. or below.

Grade “D.”—Combustible liquids having a flash point below 150° F. and over 80° F.

Grade "E.”—Combustible liquids having a flash point of 150° F. or above.

NOTE.—Grade "E" products being less hazardous are not mentioned in these regulations but the requirements prescribed for bunker fuel tanks and cofferdams under Regulation 88.B-5 (3) will apply.

The vapor pressure shall be determined by the "Reid Method," described in the Tentative Method D-323-321 of the American Society for Testing Materials, or by any other recognized method which will give a value equivalent to that obtained by the "Reid Method."

The flash point shall be determined by the “Tag" Closed Tester (American Society for Testing Materials Method, D-56-21), or by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (American Society for Testing Materials Method, D-93–22), or by any other recognized closed cup method which will give similar results.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-1.)

REGUĽATION 88.B-2: Vessels which are transporting Grade "A," Grade "B," Grade "C" or Grade "D" products in bulk, or which being in ballast have on previous voyage transported products of these grades and whose tanks are not free of explosive gases, will be dealt with as Grade "A," Grade "B," Grade "C," and Grade "D" vessels, respectively. In case a vessel is carrying two grades of hazardous cargo at the same time, it will be treated as a vessel of the grade corresponding to that of the more volatile product. A vessel in ballast, whose tanks are kept charged with an inert gas during transit, shall be dealt with as a Grade “D” vessel. Tanks which are ballasted full to the level of the expansion hatch deck coaming will be accepted as the equivalent of a tank which has been gasfreed since transporting hazardous cargo on previous voyages.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-1.)

REGULATION 88.B-3: Grade "A," "B," "C," and "D" vessels desiring to transit the Canal are required to be classified in the highest rating for carrying hazardous cargo in bulk in any recognized classification society such as American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register, Bureau Veritas, British Corporation, Germanisher Lloyd, Registro Italiano, etc. If not so classed, vessels shall obtain from the Board of Local Inspectors of The Panama Canal a certificate of inspection stating their fitness for carrying hazardous cargo in bulk in Canal Zone waters.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-1.) REGULATION 88.B-4: Vessels of Grade "A," "B," "C" and "D"

4, shall comply with Regulation 171.1 and in addition shall furnish the following information:

(a) Classification rating.

(6) Amount and name of each grade of cargo carried having a flash point below 150° F.

(c) The actual vapor pressure in the case of Grade "A" products, and certification that the vapor pressures for Grade "B" products are less than 14 and more than 83 pounds per square inch, vapor pressures for Grade "C" products are 8) pounds per square inch or less, and the flash points in the case of Grade "D" products; all determinations to be made as directed in Regulation 88.B-1.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-1. The reference herein to Regulation 171.1 should in fact be to Regulation 173.1.)

REGULATION 88.B-5: Grade "A," "B" "C," and "D" vessels shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) In addition to displaying signals as required by Rule 73, such vessels shall exercise the utmost care to prevent explosion or fire and shall take necessary precautions to avoid the issue of sparks or excessive smoke, as prescribed by Rules 45 and 100.

(2) Fire-fighting and prevention equipment shall be adequate and in good operating condition. It shall include a steam-smothering, or a flue-gas, or a carbon dioxide or a foam type system to tanks, as well as water service, fire hose, portable extinguishers, etc.

(3) All bunker fuel tanks and cofferdams shall be provided with a goose neck vent with suitable wire screen or a standard vacuum and pressure relief valve.

(4) No smoking shall be allowed in Canal waters whether in loaded or ballast condition except in officers' or crews' quarters. The Master shall designate a place where Canal seamen may smoke when smoking is permissible. No smoking shall be allowed on any berth while a tanker is alongside and "NO SMOKING” signs are displayed.

(5) “NO SMOKING” signs shall be posted conspicuously. No naked lights shall be allowed on deck.

(6) Cofferdams required by Classification Society Rules shall not be filled with products having a flash point below 150° F. except forward cofferdams which may be used for "B," "C," and "D" products in vessels where the crew is not housed forward, provided; the venting system to these cofferdams corresponds to that required for the class of cargo carried therein.

(7) Fuel oil for a vessel's own use shall not be carried in tanks adjacent to cargo tanks containing Grade "A" products.

(8) No bilge water or slops containing traces of oil shall be pumped overboard in Canal waters.

(9) Manila or hemp rope shall be used for mooring to piers, lock walls, or buoys.

(10) While moored to piers and during transit, except when entering or passing through locks, vessels of any of these grades shall have


connecting shackles or wire pendants of sufficient strength, one forward and one aft, fastened to bitts or clinched to the deck and hung overboard, so that they can be readily used for emergency towing purposes.

(11) Tank covers and ullage plugs shall be kept closed during transit irrespective of whether the tanks are empty or contain cargo. No tank cleaning will be allowed during transit.

(12) Towboats shall not be allowed alongside tank vessels moored at loading or discharging berths, until such time as tank covers and ullage plugs are closed.

(13) No tank, whether empty or containing cargo, shall be opened, except through ullage plugs for gauging or sampling, while vessels are secured to piers, unless a special permit shall have been granted by the Canal authorities. Open ullage plugs shall be fitted with wire gauze flame arresters.

(14) No tank shall be cleaned in Canal Zone waters without prior permission from Panama Canal authorities. Tank cleaning and repairing shall be done in accordance with Panama Canal "Rules and Regulations for Repairs to Ships and Structures Containing Gases."

(15) During loading and discharging of vessels, warning placards shall be hung over the side of the vessel in conspicuous places where they can readily be seen by pedestrians and approaching craft. Warning placards will be supplied by The Panama Canal and must be efficiently illuminated at night by the vessel concerned.

(16) Scuppers shall be efficiently plugged during the entire time that bulk cargo is being loaded or discharged.

(See note following Regulation 88.A-1.) REGULATION 88.B-6: Grade "A," "B," and "C" vessels shall also comply with the following requirements

(1) They will start transit of the Canal at the discretion of the Port Captain concerned, with due regard to the safety of the Canal and of shipping in transit. So far as practicable, they will be dispatched through Gaillard Cut so as not to meet any traffic therein.

(2) They may be brought into either terminal day or night at the discretion of the Port Captain concerned, except when overdraft.

(3) When overdraft, as defined in Panama Canal Tariff No. 13, dated July 1, 1939, they will not be handled in Canal waters except during daylight.

(4) No smoking shall be allowed in any part of these vessels while they are in the locks or within one-half mile of any lock.

(5) All doors, airports, etc., leading from after quarters to weather deck shall be closed while in transit.

(6) On Grade "A" vessels a pressure-indicating system to cargo tanks shall be provided. This may consist of Bourdon-type gauges or U-gauges connected to the individual tanks and visible for reading at the tanks or collectively at any other convenient location on board the vessel.

(7) On Grade "A" vessels a sprinkling system shall be provided, which will effectively sprinkle the tank top deck and which shall be in operation throughout the transit. On Grade "B" and "C" vessels a sprinkler system shall be used, or hoses so led as to effectively spread a film of water over the tank top deck, and shall be kept in operation throughout the transit.

(8) On Grade "A" vessels there shall be a venting system for the cargo tanks consisting of branch lines from the tanks to vent headers which are carried up masts or other structures to a reason- . able height above the weather deck and fitted with a flame arrester near the outlet. Manually operated valves must be provided in the headers for relieving, through the venting system, all internal pressure on cargo tanks used for carrying Grade “A” cargo, prior to entering Canal locks or wherever deemed necessary by Canal authorities. Pressure relief valves to by-pass the manually operated valves in the headers are not required at the Canal, but as they are required by some regulations, elsewhere, they may be installed, provided they are set to open at not less than two pounds and discharge into the venting system through the headers.

When a shut-off valve is fitted into the branch line leading from a tank containing Grade "A" cargo in order to prevent contamination with cargo of other grades, the shut-off valve must be by-passed by a vacuum relief valve discharging back into the venting system. Venting of Grade “A” cargo at the deck line is prohibited. However, approved pressure vacuum relief valves fitted with lever attachments by means of which they may be manually opened to relieve, through the venting system, all pressure in cargo tanks which they serve, may be installed in either the branch lines or headers in lieu of the requirements mentioned above. On Grade "B" and "C" vessels, a standard vacuum and pressure relief valve system may be used, or the venting system as indicated for Grade "A," but pressure indicators and shut-off valves may be omitted and fire screens or automatic relief valves fitted.

(9) The use of brakes and friction bands on mooring winches located on the weather deck in close proximity to tank covers shall be prohibited during transit.

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