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of thofe things which they.

know not: but what they

10 But thefe fpeak evil το Ούτοι δε όσα μεν εκ οίδασι βλασφημεσιν· ὅσα δε φυσικώς ως τα αλογα ζωα επιςανται, εν τέτοις φθειρον

know naturally, as brute beafts, in thole things they

corrupt themselves..

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buried Mofes's body fo privately that none of the Ifraelites ever knew where his fepulchre was.-Vitringa, inftead of the body of Mofes, propofes to read, the body of fofbua; but without any authority whatever.-The firft mentioned account of this tranfaction, which was given long ago by Ephraim the Syrian, (See Lardner, Canon iii. c. 21. p. 345, 346.) is now adopted by many.

3. Did not attempt to bring against him. In the common English tranflation it is, durft not bring, as if Michael had been afraid of the devil, which certainly is an improper idea. The tranflation of TOμnce, which I have given, is fupported by Blackwall, Sacr. Claffics, vol. 2. p. 155.-Tillotfon's remark, (Pofthum. ferm. 31.) on this text deferves a place here. Michael's " duty restrained him; and probably his difcretion too. As he durft not offend God in doing a thing fo much beneath the dignity and perfection of his nature, fo "he could not but think that the devil would have been too hard for


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11 Ουαι αυτοίς ότι τη 78 Καιν επορεύθησαν,



και τη πλάνη τε Βαλααμ pode εξεχύθησαν, και τη αντιλογία τε Κορε απώλοντο.

him at railing; a thing to which, as the angels have no disposition, "fo I believe they have no talent, no faculty at it: The cool con❝fideration whereof fhould make all men, efpecially those who call "themselves divines, and efpecially in controverfies about religion, "afhamed and afraid of this manner of difputing."


4. A reviling accufation; ngow Eveya hanas, literally to bring against him a fentence of reviling; a form of expreffion founded on this, that whoever reviles or fpeaks evil of another, doth in effect judge and condemn him.-Doddridge thinks the tranflation might run, did not venture to pass a judgment upon his blafphemy, but referred him to the judgment of God by saying, the Lord rebuke thee. But this tranflation requires the addition of two words not in the text; and without any neceffity. That author in his note on the paffage faith, If the an



gels do not rail even against the devil, how much lefs ought we "against men in authority, even fuppofing them in fome things to "behave amifs. Wherefore, to do it when, they behave well, muft "be a wickednefs much more aggravated.'

Ver. 10. What things they know naturally as animals void of reason, by these they defroy themselves. Flere Jude infinuates, That these un


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godly teachers, notwithstanding they made high pretenfions to knowledge, had no knowledge, at leaft concerning the ufe of their body, but what they derived from natural inftinct, as brute animals: That they made their lufts the only rule of their actions: That they coupled with women promifcuoufly like the brute beafts: and That, instead of ufing the knowledge they derived from inftinct rightly, they thereby destroyed both their foul and their body. In this paffage the apoftle ftrongly condemned the lafcivious practices of the Nicolaitans, and of all the ungodly teachers who defended the promiscuous ufe of women; and confuted the argument taken from natural appetite, by which they vindicated their common whoredoms. If these teachers had had any true knowledge, they would have known that reason is given to enable men to reftrain the exceffes of their natural appetites, and to lead them to the right ufe of the members of their body, as well as of the faculties of their mind.

Ver. 11.-1. Wa is to them. The fubftantive verb wanting in this fentence may be taken either from the present of the indicative, or from the prefent of the optative mode. In the fecond way 2x autois must be tranflated as in our Bible Woe be to them, and is a curfe. But in the first way it fhould be translated as I have done Wo is to them, and is only a declaration of the mifery which was to come on them. Ac. cordingly, the phrafe is thus ufed by our Lord, Matth. xxiv. 19. Wo unto them who are with child, and to them who give fuck in those days. For


12 These are spots in your feafts of charity, when

12 Οὗτοι εισιν εν ταις απ

they feaft with you, feed. ing themfelves without fear: clouds they are without wa

γαπαῖς ὑμων σπιλάδες, συνευωχεμενοι, αφόβως ἑαυτες ποιμαίνοντες" νεφέλαι ανυδροί, υπο ανέμων περιφερο μeva devopa & We δενδρα φθινοπωρινα

ter, carried about of winds:

trees whofe fruit wither

eth, without fruit, twice

dead, plucked up by the anapπa dis aпоDavovтa• Ex



certainly this was no wifh of punishment, fince to be with child and to give fuck in those days, was no crime. But it was a declaration of the mifery which was coming on perfons in that helpless condition. See Luke vi. 24. for another example of this ufe of a

2. And have run far in the error of Balaam's hire. The word xunov which I have tranflated have run far, literally fignifies, effufi funt, vagantur, in allufion to the running of liquors, which follow no certain courfe when they are poured out. The apostle's meaning is, they have gone far in the fin which Balaam committed for hire, when he counfelled Balak to tempt the Ifraelites to commit fornication and idolatry. The ungodly teachers in the firft age, ftrongly actuated by Balaam's paffion for riches, drew money from their difciples by allowing them to indulge their lufts without reftraint. Hence what is here called the error of Balaam's hire, is called, Rev. ii. 14. his docrine And 2 Pet. ii. 15. his way: And the ungodly teachers are there faid to have followed in it. See notes 1, 2. on that passage of Peter.

3. And have perifked. Here, as in many paffages of fcripture, a thing is faid to have happened, which was only to happen. This manner of expreffion was used to fhew the abfolute certainty of the thing fpoken of. Have perified, therefore, means fhall certainly perif. See Eff. iv. 10. 2.

4. In the rebellion of Koral. Literally, arrihoya fignifies contradition. But when princes and magiftrates are contradicted, it is rebellion. Wherefore amikoya here, may very properly be translated rebellion; And λaar arrihyorra, Rom. x. 21. a rebelling people.-By declaring that the ungodly teachers were to perish in the rebellion of Korah, Jude infinuated that thefe men, by oppofing the apoftles of Christ, were guilty of a rebellion fimilar to that of. Korah, and his companions, who oppofed Mofes and Aaron on pretence that they were no more commiffioned by God, the one to be a prince, the other a prieft, than the reft of the congregation, who were all holy, Numb. xvi. 3. 13. By comparing the ungodly teachers to Cain, to Balaam, and to Korah, Jude hath reprefented them as guilty of murder, covet oufnefs, and ambition.

Ver. 12.-1. These men are, onihades, Spots. The word omiλadis, properly fignifies rocks in the fea, which when they rife above its fur


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12 Thefe ungodly teachers are a dif grace to your love-feafts; when they feaft with you, eating and drinking to excefs, without any dread of the baneful confequences of their intemperance, or of the punishment which God will inflict upon gluttons and drunkards. They are clouds without rain, which intercept the genial rays of the fun; and being carried about of winds, render men's habitations gloomy (fee 2 Pet. ii. 17.) They are withered autumnal trees without fruit, although they ought to produce the best; They have died twice; once in the Jewish, and a fecond time in the Christian vineyard; and are rooted out on that account.

face appear like fpots. For this reafon, and because in the parallel paffage, 2 Pet. ii. 13. the ungodly teachers are called owiñol xai μwpoi, fols and caufes of reproach, Beza hath tranflated the word onades, Spots, in which he followed the Vulgate, which hath macula.—Jude's meaning is, that the exceffes which the ungodly teachers were guilty of in their love feafts, brought disgrace on the whole body of Chriftians.

2. In your love feafts. Ayatrais. Commentators are not agreed about the meaning of this word. Some think Jude is fpeaking of the ancient love fuppers, which Tertullian hath defcribed, Apol. c. 39. and which do not feem to have been accompanied with the eucharift. -Others think they were those suppers which the firft Chriftians ate, previous to their eating the Lord's fupper, and of which St. Paul hath fpoken, 1 Cor. xi. 21. But being afterwards perverted to the purposes of carnal love by the ungodly teachers, 2 Pet. ii. 14. they were in time difufed. The love fuppers, however, which Tertullian defcribes, were continued in the church to the middle of the fourth century, when they were prohibited to be kept in the churches.-As Benfon obferves, they were called love feats or fuppers, because the richer "Chriftians brought in a variety of provifions to feed the poor, the "fatherless, the widows, and ftrangers, and ate with them to fhew "their love to them."


3. When they feast with you. 2 Pet. ii. 13. note 3.-In the ment, the word is wanting. reafon our tranflators have adopted it.

For the meaning of ouvexaμevo, See common edition of the Greek TeftaBut feveral MSS. have it, for which

4. Feeding themselves without fear. Ives. This word is emphatical, containing an allufion to the name given to the ministers of


13 Raging waves of the fea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to -whom is reserved the blacknefs of darkness for ever.

14 And Enoch alfo, the feventh from Adam, prophefied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his faints,


13 Κυματα αγρια θα λασσης, επαφρίζοντα τας αυτών αισγυνας' αςέρες πλα νηται, οἷς ὁ ζοφος της σκοτες εις τον αιώνα τετήξεται.


14 Προεφήτευσε δε xal τετοις ἑβδομος απο Αλαμ Evwx, depov Idu, yade Kuριος εν μυριάσιν άγιαις αυτ


religion, both under the old and the new difpenfation. These were called Tapes, Shepherds or feeders because their office was to feed the people with the fpiritual food of true doctrine. The falfe teachers, inftead of feeding the people in that manner, fed themfelves with meat and drink to excefs, without any fear of punishment from God, or of disgrace from the world. I fuppofe Jude had in his eye here, Ezek, xxxiv. . Wo be to the fhepherds of Ifrael that do feed themselves: Should not the Shepherds feed the flocks?

5. They are clouds without water. The propriety of the comparifon, by which Jude in this paffage, and Peter, 2 Epift. ii. 17. have fhewed the emptinefs and unprofitablenefs of the falfe teachers of their time, will display itself in vivid colours, when it is recollected that in fcripture, good doctrine and found know edge are often reprefented by water, because found doctrine beautifies and invigorates the mind, as effectually as rain, in the hot eastern climes, renders the earth ver dant and fruitful. Deut. xxxii. 2. My dodrine full drop as the rain, &c.

6. Carried about of winds. Falfe doctrine is compared to wind, Ephef. iv. 14. on account of its variableness. Having no foundation in truth, it is changed as it fuits the paffions and interefts of men. The teachers of falfe doctrine, therefore, may fitly be compared to clouds without water carried about of winds, becaufe, not withitanding they give an expectation of good doctrine, they afford none; in which refpect they are like clouds which promife rain, but being carried about of winds, distil none. See 2 Pet. ii. 17. note 1.

7. Withered autumnal trees. So I tranflate Soweiz, because it comes from wowgov, which, according to Scapula, fignifies fenefcens autumnus et in hiemem vergens; The decline of autumn drawing towards winter. Or, according to Phavorinus, it fignifies, voro; sσa oдagas, a difeafe in trees which withers their fruit. This fenfe of the word Beza hath adopted in his tranflation, Arbores emarcide infrugifere. The Vulgate tranflation, Arbores autumnales infructuofe, fuggefts a beautiful idea. In the eastern countries the fineft fruits being produced in autumn, by calling the corrupt teachers, autum trees, Jude intimated.


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