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5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye (awa) formerly knew this, that the Lord having faved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward deftroyed them who did not believe. 3



6 (TE) Alfo the angels who kept not their office, but left their proper habitation, he hath referved in everlafting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day. + 4


5 I will therefore, to prevent you from liftening to thefe wicked teachers, put you in remembrance, although ye formerly knew this, that the Lord, having faved the people of Ifrael out of the land of Egypt, afterward deftroyed them in the wilderness, because they did not believe his promises, and refused to go into Canaan, Numb. xiv. xxvi. Heb. iii. 18, 19.

6 Alfo, the angels who kept not their own office, the office which was originally allotted to them, but left their proper ftation, by intruding into the offices and ftations of the angels who were greater than they, God hath driven out of heaven, notwithflanding their numbers and power, and hath kept them, ever fince, in everlasting chains of confinement under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day, to be punished.

took notice of, 2 Epift. ii. 4 5. and in place of the third instance, the deftruction of the old world, he hath introduced the destruction of the rebellious Ifraelites in the wilderness.

2. That the Lord having faved the people. Some MSS. and verfions read here Inoac Jefus having faved. Two of Stephen's MSS. read Go God; which expreffes the true meaning of the paffage. But the common reading is beft fupported.

3. Afterward deftroyed them who did not believe. Jude doth not mention the various fins committed by the Ifraelites in the wilderness; fuch as their rebellion in refufing to go into Canaan, their idolatry in worshipping the golden calf, their fornication with the Midianitish women, their frequent murmurings; but he fums up the whole in their unbelief, because it was the fource of all their fins.

Ver. 6.. I. Alfo the angels who kept not my ixutwy apyny their own office. So the word apx" fignifies, Luke xx. 20. Deliver him on apx? xas nada, to the power and authority of the Governor. The apoftle's meaning is, that these fuperior beings did not keep their original of fice, but forfeited it by fome misbehaviour. Hence they are called, 2 Pet. ii. 4. The angels who finned.-The common tranflation of this claufe, viz. who kept not their firft eftate, expreffeth its meaning very well; but it is a paraphrafe and not a tranflation.-Hunt in his Dif fertation on the fall of man, faith, the office of the angels who finned, was to attend the vifible manifeftation of the divine prefence in para


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7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them, in like manner giving themfelves over to fornication, and going after ftrange feih, are fet forth for an example, fuffering the vengeance of eterna


7 Ως Σόδομα на Гоμορρα, και αἱ περι αὗτας πόλεις τον όμοιον τετοις τρο που εκπορνευσασαί, και απ ελθεσαι οπίσω οπίσω σαρκος ἑτε ρας, προκεινται δείγμα, πυ ρος αιώνιες δίκην ὑπεχεσαι,

8 Likewife also these filthy dreamers defile the flefh, defpife dominion, and fpeak evil of dignities.

8 ‘Ομοιως μεντοι και έτοι. Ενυπνιαζόμενοι, σάρκα μεν μιαινεσι, κυριοτητα δε αθετεσι, δόξας δε βλασφήμε


dife, and to minifter to mankind. But this is to be wife above what is written. See note 4.

2. But left their proper habitation. Onпpicy, denotes the place in which God appointed the angels who finned, to execute the offices and functions which he hai affigned to them. According to Hunt, their habitation was this earth.It is of more importance to obferve, that by faying, The angels kept not their own office, but left their proper habitation, the apoftle infinuates that they attempted to raise themselves to a higher ftation than that which God had allotted to them; confequently that the fin for which they are to be punished, was pride and rebellion.

3. He hath referved in everlating chains, under darkness.-Everlasting chains, is a metaphorical expreffion which denotes a perpetual confinement, which it is no more in their power to escape from, than a man who is ftrongly bound with iron chains can break them. See the explication of the phrafe, under darkness, given 2 Pet. ii. 4.

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4. Unto the judgment of the great day. This great day is elsewhere called, the day of the Lord, and that day, emphatically.-In our Lord's defcription of the general judgment, Matth. xxv. 41. he tells us that the wicked are to Depart into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. This implies that thefe wicked fpirits are to be punished with the wicked of mankind.-Hunt in his differtation referred to in note 1. on this verfe, faith, Upon the fuppofition that the fallen angels belong to our fyftem, their punishment with the wicked of our fpecies, will appear the more congruous.-If the angels who finned, were originally appointed to minifler to mankind, as Hunt imagines, and were difcontented with this earth in its paradifical ftate as an babita tion, the atmosphere which furrounds the earth in its prefent altered ftate, is very properly made the prifon-house in which they are con fined till the general judgment.

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Ver. 7.-1. And the cities around them. These cities were Admah and Zeboim. The four are mentioned, Deut. xxix. 23.-Zoar, the fifth city in the plain of Sodom, was fpared at the request of Lot, for a place of refuge to him and his family.

2. Which in a manner like to thefe. Τον όμοιον τέτοις τρόπον. I have followed our tranflators in completing the conftruction of this claufe, by fupplying the prepofition zara, which the fenfe likewife requires. Like to theje. The relative retos, being mafculine, may refer to the ungodly teachers mentioned, ver. 4 —Or, though was be a feminine word, yet as it fignifies the inhabitants of a city, as well as the city itfelf, the relative Ters may very properly be in the mafculine gender, to denote the inhabitants of the other cities of the plain. See Eff. iv. 64-I make thefe obfervations, becaufe fome commentators fuppofe Teros ftands for the angels who left their proper habitation, as if, their fin had been lewdneft; which is a very falfe idea.

3. Had habitually committed whoredom. This is the literal fignifica tion of the compound word exogrevoasa; because & increases the figtion of the word with which it is compounded. In the language of fcripture wogvevav fignifies to commit any fort of whoredom or uncleannefs, and among the rett Sodomy. See 1 Cor. v. 1. note 1. and Parkhurft in voc. exgrupal. Eltius faith the prepofition Ex in this

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9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil, he difputed

about the body of Mofes, durft not bring againft him a railing accufation, but

faid, The Lord rebuke thee.

9 Ὁ δὲ Μιχαηλ ὁ αρχαί O EX, OTE T diabory diαγελῶ, ότε διαβολῳ κρινομενός διελέγετο περι το Μωσέως σώματός, εκ ετολ μησε κρίσιν επενεγκειν βλαστ Δημιας, αλλ' ειπεν' Επιτιμησαι σοι Κύριος.

compounded word, denotes the Sodomites committing whoredom out of the order of nature. They committed the unnatural crime which hath taken its name from them.

4. Are fet forth, dayμa, an example See 2 Pet. ii. 6. The burning of the cities of the plain, being reprefented here as an example, or type, of that punishment by fire which at the general judgment God will inflict on the wicked, the confideration thereof fhould terrify the ungodly of every defcription, and bring them to repentance. For when God is about to punish them in that dreadful manner, will they be able to flee from him, or refift him?


Ver. 8.—1. În like manner indeed, thefe also shall be punished. I put a full point after the words xa 870 and to finish the fentence, I fupply the words, fhall be punished, from the end of the foregoing verse with which this claufe is connected in the sense, being the reddition to the claufe in the beginning of ver. 7.—N; σodoμa xat yoμoppa fince, or, as Sodom and Gomorrha are fet forth as an example, &c. ver. 8. oμows PEVTOL In like manner certainly thefe alfo fall be punished.In the next claufe of this 8th verfe, a new fentiment is introduced, which therefore fhould have been made the beginning of the verse.

2. Being caft into a deep fleep. This is the proper literal translation of the word anagoμo, as Beza hath fhewed. Befides in other paffages of feripture, the wicked are represented as fast asleep. See Rom. xiii. 11. 1 Theff. v.,6.

3. And defpife government, (fee 2 Pet. ii. 10 note 2.) and revile dignities : δόξας δε βλασφημώσι literally they revile glories, that is thofe who poffefs the glory of the magiftrate's office. This mult be the meaning of dogs, as diftinguished from gora, government.-The Jews fancying it finful to obey the heathen magiftrates, defpifed both them and their office. The ungodly teachers of whom Jude fpeaks, carried the matter ftill farther: They reviled all magiftrates whatever, as enemics to the natural liberty of mankind.

Ver. 9. 1. But Michael the archangel. Michael is mentioned, Dan. X. 13. 21. xii. 1. as flanding up a defence of the children of Daniel's people.--Because it is faid, Rev. xii. 7. That Michael and his angels fought against the Dragon and his angels, Eftius conjectures that Michael is the chief, or prince of all the angels. But this argument is not conI clufive Because the book of Daniel is the firft facred writing in which proper names are given to particular angels, fome have fancied,

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9 (4) But Michael the archangel,' when contending with the devil he difputed about the body of Mofes, did not attempt to bring againft him a reviling accufation, but faid, The Lord re


buke thee.


9 But how different was the conduct of Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he difputed about the restoration of the Jewish church and flate by Joshua the high prieft, Zechar. iii. 1. Though that malicious fpirit was clothed with no authority of office, he did not attempt to bring again him a reviling accufation but aniidly faid, The Lord rebuke thee Satan.


that during the Babylonifh captivity the Jews invented thefe names or learned them from the Chaldeans. But this feems an unfounded conjecture. For the angel who appeared to Zacharias, Luke i. 19. called himself Gabriel, which fhews that that name was not of Chaldean invention.

2. When contending with the devil he difputed about the body of Mofes. In the paffages of Daniel's prophecy quoted in the preceding note, Michael is fpoken of as one of the chief angels who took care of the Ifraelites as a nation. He may therefore have been the angel of the Lord, before whom Joshua the high priest is faid, Zech. iii. 1. to have food, Satan being at his right hand to refift him, namely in his defign of reftoring the Jewish church and ftate, called by Jude the body of Mofes, juft as the Chriftian church is called by Paul the body of Chrift. Zechariah adds, And the Lord, that is, the angel of the Lord, as is plain from ver. 1. faid unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan, even the Lord, that hath chefen Jerufalem, rebuke thee.-Le Clerc gives a differ ent interpretation of this paffage. By Satan in Zechariah's vifion, and Alcoho; in Jude's epiltle, he undertands Tatuai and Shether boznai, the king of Perfia's lieutenants, who oppofed the reftoratjon of Jerufalem, and who on that account might be called Satan or the adverfary of the Jews, in the fame manner that Peter was called Satan by his matter, for oppofing his fuffering at Jerufalem. According to this interpretation, Jude's meaning is, that the angel in Zechariah's vifion brought no eviling accufation against the adverfaries of the Jews, but reproved them with modefty on account of their being magiftrates. This, Jude mentioned to fhew the ungodly teachers who reviled the Roman magiftrates, that they were culpable in doing what the angels who, as Peter obferveth, 2 Ep. ii. 11. are greater in power than they, did not attemt to do.

Beza, Eftius, Tillotfon, and others, by the body of Mofes about which the devil contended with Michael, understand his dead body, which they fuppofe the devil contended fhould be buried publicly, on pretence of doing honour to Mofes; but that his intention was to give the Ifraelites an opportunity of raifing his body and worfhipping it : That Michael knowing this, rebuked the devil in the words mentioned by Jude; and to prevent the Ifraelites from committing idolatry, 0 +


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