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3. To the called. This defignation may denote those who are called to believe the gospel by the preaching of the word, and who having obeyed that call, make an outward profeffion of the gospel.-Or, it may denote thofe who, on account of their poffeffing faith and holinefs like Abraham, are called his seed. See Rom viii. 30. note 1.

Ver 2. May mercy, and peace, and love, be multiplied to you. Eftius faith, this is fancta et vere apoftolica falutatio, a holy and truly apoftoli cal falutation; and obferveth, that from this, and the benedictions in the two epiftles of Peter, we learn that the benedictions in Paul's epiftles are to be completed by adding the word multiplied.

Ver. 3. 1. Beloved, making all haße. So Tacay wady Toμevos, literally fignifies.-Jude being informed of the affiduity, and perhaps the fuccefs, with which the falle teachers were fpreading their pernicious errors, found it neceffary to write this letter to the faithful without delay.

2. To write to you concerning the common falvation. The falvation preached in the gospel is called common, because it belongs equally to all who believe; to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews; to men of all nations and conditions.-For the fame reason, Paul termed the belief of the gofpel the common faith, Tit. i. 4. because an opportunity of believing it was afforded to all.

3. I thought it necessary to write to you, exhorting you ftrenuously to contend. In the circumftances in which the faithful were, when Jude wrote this letter, an exhortation to hold faft and maintain the true doctrine of the gofpel against the falfe teachers, was more neceffary and profitable for the difciples, than explications of the particular doctrines of the gofpel.-By ftrenuously contending for the faith, the apoftle did not mean contending for it with fire and fword; but their endeavouring in the fpirit of meeknefs and love, to establish the true doctrine of the gospel by arguments drawn, not only from the Jewish fcriptures, but especially from the writings of the evangelifts and apostles, which were all or most of them published when Jude wrote this letter. In the fame manner, they were strongly to oppofe and confute the errors of the falfe teachers.-The word staywo, pro



3 Beloved, making all hafte to write to you concerning the common falvation, instead of spending time in explaining the nature of that falvation, and fhewing that it is common to Jews and Gentiles, or in proving any of the doctrines of the gofpel, I thought it more neceffary to write to you, exborting you ftrenuously to contend for the faith formerly delivered to the holy prophets and apoftles of Chrift, and by them published to the world.


For certain men have1

4 For certain falfe teachers have come in privily, who long cone in to the church privily, that is,


3 Beloved, making all hafte to write to you concerning the common falvation, I thought it neceffary to write to you, exborting you ftrenuously to contend for the faith (inak) formerly s delivered to the faints."


perly fignifies to strive as in the Olympic games; that is, with their whole force.

4. For the faith. Here faith, by an ufual metonymy, is put for the objects of faith; namely the doctrines and precepts of the gofpel; both being equally the objects of men's faith, and both being in the apoftle's view when he wrote this, as is plain from the epistle itfelf.

5. Formerly. So I tranflate drag, because it is used in that sense, ver. 5. and i Pet. iii. 20.-Eftius and Beza, adopt the common tranflation, fuppofing the meaning of once delivered to the faints, to be, that the faith fpoken of, was delivered to the faints once for all, and is never to be changed: nothing is to be added to it, and nothing taken from it.

6. Delivered to the faints. By the faints, Jude means, the holy apoftles and prophets of Chrift, who configned to writing the faith: that is, the things which men are to believe and do, according as they were revealed to them by the Spirit. In this fenfe the word faints is used, Ephef. iii. 5. Col. i. z6.—Hence it is evident, that the faith, for which Chriftians are to contend ftrenuously, is that alone which is contained in the writings of the evangeliits, apostles, and ancient Jewish prophets. Now, as they have expreffed the things which were revealed to them, in words dictated by the Spirit, (1 Cor. ii. 13. note 1.) we are to contend, not only for the things contained in their writings, but also for that form of words in which they have expreffed these things, left by contending for forms invented and established by human authority, as better fitted to exprefs the truth, than the words of infpiration, we fall into error. See 2 Tim. i. 13. note 2.-Jude's exhortation ought in a particular manner to be attended to by the minifters of the gofpel, whofe duty more especially it is, to preserve their people from error both in opinion and practice.

Ver. 4.1. For certain men have come in. The ungodly teachers here defcribed, feem to have been the Nicolaitans, mentioned, Rev. ii. 6. whofe doctrine Chrift himself declared to be hateful to him.


were before of old ordained γεγραμμενοι εις τέτο το κρι

to this condemnation; un


godly men, turning the grace of our God into lafcivioufnefs, and denying the only Lord God, and

μα, ασεβεις, την τε Θεό μων χαριν μετατιθεντες εις ασελγειαν, και τον μονον δε σποτην Θεον και Κύριον ήμων Ιησεν Χριςον αρνεμενοι:

our Lord Jefus Christ.

Perhaps the Gnoftics and Carpocratians, the fucceffors of the Nicolaitans, were alfo meant. See Pref. to Coloff. fećt. 2. paragr. 3. from the end, and Pref. to 1 Jhn, fect. 3. at the end.-We are told that the Nicolaitans maintained that marriage was a human invention not binding on Chriftians, on which account they had women in common, and practised unnatural lufts, as is plain from Jude's account of them. See ver. 7. note 2. ver. 1o. note. Farther, they hardened themselves against the fear of punishment in a future ftate for thefe crimes, by extolling the goodnefs and mercy of God, which thus they perverted to lafcivioufnefs.

2. Come in privily. Пapeσeducav. Though the falfe teachers went about openly making difciples, they are faid to have come in, or eftablished themfelves, privily, because, under the pretence of teaching by inspiration, they rendered the faithful inattentive to the confe quences of their pernicious doctrine.

3. Who long ago have been before written. Пgoysygauμevol els tato to gipa. Jude means, that thefe wicked teachers had their punishment beforewritten, that is, foretold in what is written concerning the wicked Sodomites, and rebellious Ifraelites, whofe crimes were the fame with theirs; and whofe punishment was not only a proof of God's refolution to punish finners, but an example of the punishment which he will inflict on them.-Others think the apoftle alludes here to the prophecy of Enoch, ver. 14. in which the utter deftruction of the ungodly is foretold. Others, that in the word wgoyεypaμvo, there is an allufion to the ancient cuftom of writing laws on tables, which were hung up in public places, that the people might know the punishment annexed to the breaking of the laws. If this is the allufion, the apostle's meaning will be, that the wicked teachers of whom he is fpeaking were, by the divine law, condemned to fevere punishment, from thie beginning.

4. To this very punishment. So xpua fignifies, Rom. xiii. 2.- Jude not having mentioned any punishment hitherto, his meaning muft be, the very punishment he was going to defcribe; namely, the punishment inflicted on the wicked Sodomites. The apoftle on this occafion, mentioned the punishment of the rebellious Ifraelites, and of the an. gels who finned, and of the wicked Sodomites, not only to terrify the falfe teachers by fhewing them the greatnefs and certainty of the punishment which awaited them, but to make the faithful fenfible, that, although wicked teachers are allowed to enter and remain a while

ago have been before writ ten to this very punishment; ungodly men, perverting the grace of our God to lafcivioufnefs, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Christ. 6

under the mask of being infpired, who long ago, in what is written concerning the lafcivious Sodomites, and the rebellious Ifraelites, have been foretold as to fuffer this very punifoment which I am going to defcribe; ungodly men who, pretending that God is fo good that he will not punish finners, perver: the grace of our God, in pardoning finners, 10 an encouragement to lafciviousness and deny the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Christ, in order to avoid perfecution.

in the church, for purposes known to God, they are to be deftroyed both here and hereafter.

5. Ungodly men, perverting the grace of our God to lasciviousness.The grace of God, which thefe wicked teachers perverted to lafciviousness, may be either the goodness of God, which they affirmed to be fo great, that he will not punish men for any fin whatever: Or, it may be the gospel itself, called the grace of God, Tit. ii. 11. For thefe ungodly men interpreted the gofpel doctrine of juftification by faith. without the works of the law, in such a manner as to free believers from all obligation to obey the law of God, and taught them that they might commit the worst actions without being liable to punishment, if they poffeffed faith; by which they meant the fpeculative belief and outward profeffion of the gospel.

6. Denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Chrift. Ka: To μονόν δέσποτην Θεον και κύριον ήμων Ιησεν Χριςον αρνεμενοι. This fentence may be tranflated various ways, all equally literal. 1. And denying the only Lord God, even our Lord Jefus Chrift. According to this tranflation, one perfon only is spoken of here, namely our Lord Jefus Chrift, who is called the only Lord God.-2. Denying both the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Chrift. According to this tranflation, two persons are diftinctly ipoken of, namely, the only Lord God, or God the Father; and our Lord Jefus Chrift, his Son.-3. And denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Chrift. This, which is the tranflation in our English Bible, and which in fenfe is not different from the fecond rendering, I have adopted, not only because according to it, two perfons are spoken of as denied; namely, the only Lord God, and our Lord Jefus Chrift: but because it reprefents Jude's fentiment as precifely the fame with John's 1 Epift. ii. 22. He is the antichrist who denieth the Father and the Son.-By declaring that thofe ungodly teachers denie both the Father and the Son, the apoftle fhewed to what a pitch of impiety they had proceeded.-Because the article is prefixed only to μονον Θεον, and not repeated before κυριον ἡμῶν Ιησεν Χρισον, Beza



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5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that

the Lord, having faved the

people out of the land of OV εκ γης Αιγυπτε σωσας, Egypt, afterward deftroyed το δεύτερον τες μη πιςευσαν

them that believed not.

5 Ὑπομνησαι δε ύμας Exλopal, βελομαι, ειδότας ὑμας


παξ τότο, ὅτι ὁ Κυρίς, λα

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τας απώλεσεν.

6 Αγγελές τε τες μη τη ζησαντας την εαυτων αρχήν, άλλα απολιποντας το ίδιον οικητήριον, εις κρίσιν μεγάλ λης ημερας, δεσμοις αιδιεις ὑπο ζόφον τετήρηκεν.

is of opinion that thefe epithets, derworny, 107, and zugo, belong all to Jefus Chrift. But the want of the article, is too flight a foundation to build fo important a doctrine on. For in the following paffages, John xvii. 3. Ephef. v. 5. 1 Tim. v. 21. vi. 13. 2 Pet. 1. 1, 2. God and Fefus Chrift are mentioned jointly, with the article prefixed to one of them only. Yet every reader must be fenfible that they are not one, but two diftinct perfons. Befides deworms is a title not commonly given to Jefus Chrift, whofe proper title is xugos. See however κύριος. 2 Pet. ii. 1. note 3.- Jude's meaning in this paffage is, that the un. godly teachers of whom he wrote, in order to avoid perfecution, denied the only Lord and God of the univerfe, by acknowledging and worshipping the heathen deities. Alfo they denied the Lord Jefus Chrift, by denying that they were his difciples.

In the Complutenfian edition of the Greek teftament, by omitting the first za, and placing so before the fecond xz, and door after it, and by inferting the article before zugior, the whole clause stands in this manner, τον μοϊον Θεον και δεσποτη», τον κύριον ήμων Ιησων χρισον, αρνεμένοι, Denying the only God and Lord, Jefus Christ our Lord. But the MSS. and verfions, on which the Spanish divines formed this reading, are not of fufficient authority to eftablish it, especially as it excludes the Father from being God and Lord.

Ver. 5.-1. I will therefore put you in remembrance, &c. On this and what follows, Oecumenius obferves, that by propofing thefe examples of the deftruction of finners from the Old Teftament history, the apoftle defigned to fhew that the God of the Old Teftament is the fame with the God of the New, in oppofition to thofe heretics who denied this, namely the Manicheans: alfo to prove that the goodness of God will not hinder him from punishing the wicked under the new difpenfation, any more than it hindered him from punishing them under the old. In this paffage, Jude hath mentioned two of the of the divine vengeance against atrocious finners, which Peter


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