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EPISTLE OF THE APOSTLE
SECT. I. The History of Jude the Apoftle, and Brother of James,
'N the catalogue which Luke gives of the apoftles, chap. vi. 14, 15. James the Son of Alpheus, Simon called Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James, are mentioned. In the catalogue, Acts i. 13. we have the fame perfons named, and in the fame order. But in the catalogue, Matt. x. 3. in the place of Judas, there is Lebbeus whofe firname was Thaddeus; and in Mark iii. 18. Thaddeus fimply, Wherefore, as all the evangelifts agree that there were only twelve apostles, we must suppose that Judas the brother of James, was firnamed Lebbeus and Thaddeus. -The appellation of the brother of James was given to Judas, probably because James was the elder brother, and because, after our Lord's afcenfion, James became a perfon of confiderable note among the apoftles, and was highly esteemed by the Jewish believers.
In the preface to the epiftle of James, fect. 1. we have fhewn that James the fon Alpheus was our Lord's brother or coufingerman. From this it follows, that Judas the brother of James stood in the fame relation to Chrift. Accordingly we find James and Jofes, and Simon and Judas, exprefsly called the brethren of Jefus, Matt. xiii. 55. Mark vi. 3.-We have no account of the time and manner, in which Judas the brother of James became Christ's difciple. But the hiftory of his election to the apostleship is given, Luke vi. 13. Perhaps, like fome others of the apostles, he was originally a follower of the Baptist, on whofe teftimony to Jefus, he believed him to be the Messiah.
None of the evangelists have faid any thing of Judas after he became an apostle, except John who tells us, that when our Lord spoke what is recorded, John xiv. 21. Judas faith to him,— ver. 22. Lord how is it that thou wilt manifeft thyself to us and not to the world? 23. Jefus answered and faid to him, If a man love me he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him; meaning, that after his refurrection, he would fhew himself alive to his apostles; and that he and his Father, by the spiritual gifts bestowed on them, would make their abode with them; that is, would fhew that they were prefent with them in all their ministrations. Accordingly, Judas the apoftle was one of thofe to whom Jefus appeared, at different times, after his refurrection. He was alfo one of the 120 upon whom the Holy Ghoft defcended in the visible shape of flames of fire, on the memorable day of Pentecoft. Being therefore an eye-witness, and endowed with the Holy Ghoft, he no doubt, as Lardner remarks, joined his brethren apostles in witneffing their Master's refurrection from the dead, and fhared with them in the reproaches and sufferings, which befel them on that account.
Lardner conjectures, that Judas the apostle was an husbandman before he became Chrift's disciple; founding his conjecture on a paffage of the apoftolical conftitutions, where the apostles are made to fay, "Some of us are fishermen, others "tent makers, others hufbandmen." He adds, " undoubtedly "feveral of the apoftles were fishermen. But by the latter "part of the fentence no more may be meant, than that there
es was among them one tent maker, even Paul; and one huf"bandman, intending perhaps St. Jude. For Hegefippus, as "quoted by Eufebius, writes, That when Domitian made en
quiries after the pofterity of David, fome grandsons of Jude called "the Lord's brother, were brought before him. Being asked con"cerning their poffeffions and fubftance, they affured him, that they “had only so many acres of land, out of the improvement of which "they both paid him tribute, and maintained themselves with their own hard labour. The truth of what they faid was confirmed by "the callousness of their hands," &c. On this paffage Lardner's remarks are," Hence fome may argue that St. Jude himself had "been an husbandman. And from this account, if it may be "relied upon, we learn, that this apoftle was married and had "children." Lardner on the Canon, vol. iii. chap. xxi.
If Judas the apostle was the fame perfon with Judas the author of the epiftle, he lived to a great age. And his life being thus prolonged, we may suppose that after preaching the gospel and confirming it by miracles, he went into other countries for the fame purpose.-Lardner tells us, fome have faid that Jude preached in Arabia, Syria, Mefopotamia and Perfia; and that he fuffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country. But these things are not fupported by any well attefted history. With respect to his being a martyr, it may be doubted; because none of the ancients have mentioned his having fuffered martyrdom. It is therefore generally believed that he died a natural death. Jerome in his commentary on Matt. x. 35. fays, "That "the apostle Thaddeus, called by the evangelift Luke Judas "the brother of James, was sent to Edeffa to Agbarus King of "Ofroëne."-Eufebius, Eccl. Hift. L. i. c. 13. fays, Thomas one of the twelve, fent to Edeffa Thaddeus one of Chrift's feventy disciples, to preach the gospel in these countries.
SECT. II. Shewing that the Epistle of Jude, was written by Judas the Apofile, confequently that it is an infpired Writing.
I. In the inscription of this epistle, the writer ftyles himself, Ιάδας Ιησε Χρισε δαλος, αδελφός δε Ιακοβs, Judas a fervant of gefus
Chrift, and brother of James. By these two characters, the author of this epiftle hath fhewed himself to be an apostle. For, 1. His name Judas, is precifely the fame with that of the apostle Judas. 2. His defignation is the fame, and brother of James.-If it be objected that Judas, the writer of the epiftle, hath not called himself an apostle, but only a fervant of Jefus Chrift, the answer is, Firft, As there was another apostle named Judas, to have called himself an apofle, was no diftinction at all. Whereas by ftyling himself the brother of James, he hath made himself known to all who are acquainted with the catalogues of the apostles given by the evangelists, to be a different perfon from Judas the traitor, and hath as effectually declared himself to be an apostle, as if he had exprefsly affumed that title. Befides, by calling himself the brother of James, he hath afferted his relation to Chrift, as his coufin-german, (see Pref. to James, fect. 1. paragr. 1.) and thereby hath secured to himfelf whatever respect was due to him on account of that honourable relation. Secondly, Some others who were undoubtedly apostles, have in their epiftles omitted to take that title, and have called themselves fimply, fervants of Jefus Christ. Thus, in Paul's epistle to the Philippians, chap. i. 1. we have Paul and Timothy fervants of Jefus Chrift. And in the epiftle to Philemon, Paul a prifoner for Jefus Chrift, without any addition. Also, in the inscription of the epiftles to the Theffalonians, we have Paul and Silvanus and Timothy to the church of the Theffalonians, without any defignation whatever. In like manner James in his epiftle, chap. i. 1. calls himself fimply, a fervant of Jesus Chrift. Yet no one, on account of the omiffion of the word apofile in these epiftles, ever doubted of the apostleship, either of Paul, or of James. Farther, in the first epistle of John, the writer, neither in the infcription nor in any other part of his let'ter, hath called himself an apofile, or so much as mentioned his own name. Yet, by his manner of writing, he hath made himself known fo fully, that his epiftle, from the very first, hath been universally acknowledged as John's, and respected as a writing divinely inspired. Why then fhould Judas be thought no apostle, or his epiftle be reckoned an uninspired writing, merely because he hath not called himself an apostle, but only a fervant of Jefus Chrift