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passions never become too violent or destructive.jof Arundel, where he fed high, and drank If he ever gives way to anger, he experiences | plentifully of the best wines, the natural func. rather an useful glow of warmth, an artificial |tions of the parts of his body became over. and gentle fever, without an overflowing of the charged, his lungs obstructed, and the habit of gall. He is fond also of employment, particularly the w bole body quite disordered, upon which calm meditation, and agreeable speculations ; there could not but soon ensue a dissolution. is an optimist; a friend to natural affections,
“ There is another account of the dissection and domestic felicity; has no thirst after honours of an old man, also preserved in the Philoso. or riches, but is satisfied with bis lot.
phical Transactions, which merits observation.“ The sentiments of the celebrated Lord it is of a worker in the mines in Switzerland, Bacon, upon such a subject, must always be who died in 1723, aged 109 years and 3 months, treated with great deference and respect, and without entering into the anatomical circumit is the more necessary to take notice of them, stances therein mentioned, it may be sufficient as he alludes to some particulars, not mentioned to remark, that many important parts of the by Hufeland. Among other observations re- body, which ought to have been soft, were garding this point, he remarks, that a head found in a hard state, in many cases bony and somewhat less than to the proportion of the cartilaginous, and, in some particular places, body, a moderate neck, wide vostrils, a large quite ossified; plainly proving, that the dissolumouth, an ear gristly, not feshy, teeth strong |tion of the human frame, is owing to the soft and contiguous, firm flesh, a raw boned body, with veins lying higher than the flesh, betoken parts becoming hard, and even bony, and, conlong life. He adds, that a broad chest, a large sequently, incapable of performing their proper
functions, hand, a short and round foot, thighs not fleshy, deep calves of the leg, eyes somewhat large,
“ A third, and most satisfactory account of senses not too quick, the pulse in youth slow, the dissection of a person distinguished for old but quicker in old age, facility in holding the age, is the one given by Doctor James Keill, of breath in youth, the body inclined to be bound, John Bayles, a buttonmaker, who died at Norbut more laxative in the decline of years, are
thampton, anno 1706, in the 130th year of his also signs of long life.
age. This account is accompanied with some “ But it is not from the speculations of artists, l judicious reflections on the constitution requisites
for longevity. of philosophers, or of physicians, that the form the best calculated for health and longevity can
“ Dr. Keill observes, that the weakness of alonc be described; for the bodies of those who his stomach, and the hardness of the aorta, or have lived long, having, in various cases, been the great artery of the body, were the principal examined by skilful anatomists, the causes of causes of his death. The coats of the stomach their long lives, and of their ultimate dissolution, were so thin, (hardly thicker than thin writing have been thus ascertained, with considerable, paper), that they were incapable of performing though not decisive, accuracy,
its usual functions, and cousequently his digese “ 'I he first anatomical account drawn up of tion must have been spoiled. He had not tasted the dissection of any old person, is the one ineat for some years; and had latterly lived given by the celebrated Doctor Harvey, of solely on small beer, bread and butter, and Thomas Parr, who died (16th November 1638,)
sugar. But had bis digestion been better, that at the extraordinary age of 152 years and 9 || would have been of little avail, for it was immonths.
Notwithstanding his great age, yet possible that his blood could circulate duly, his body was found very fleshy, his breast hairy while the great artery, having become cartilagiand large, his heart was great, thick, fibrous, nous, gristly, or hard, had lost its elasticity. and fat, bis viscera were sound and strong, Nor is this all. His whole flesh and skin felt especially the stomach, his brain was entire hard; and his brain was so firm and solid, that, and firm, all his inward parts appeared so in cutting, it hardly moistened the sides of the healthy, that, if he had not changed his diet kuife. It was biglily probable, that the same and air, he might perhaps have lived a good disposition prevailed throughout the whole body. while longer. He had such strength of body, | Indeed, whoever considers how soft a substance that he was able, at the 130th year of his age,
an animal body is, at its first beginning, and to do any husbandman's work, even thrashing how, from time to time, it acquires firmness of corn; but, coming out of a clear this and and solidity, will easily be induced to believe, free air, into the thick air of London, and after that old age brings ou a more than ordinary a constant plain and homely country diet, being hardness to all the fibres and vessels. fakes into a splendid family, that of the Earl “ The fibres and vessels of old people becom.
Ing tlus hard and contracted, the necessary or sbort. The tall are too apt to get a habit of consequence is, a diminution of their secretions; stooping, which injures the organs of respiratheir skin is always dry, and their perspiration tion, and hastens their dissolution: the short very little. The fullness of the vessels, and are too apt to become fat: whereas the middle the frequent rheums and catarrhs of old people, sized can easily keep themselves erect, and are evince the effects of the closeness of the coats not generally disposed to corpulency. of the vessels; and, indeed, when the fibres of " In regard to leanness on the one hand, or the arteries become indurated, instead of assist- | corpulency on the other, Lord Bacon makes the ing, they obstruct the heart in circulating the following distinction. To be lean, with a settled blood.
temper, denotes long life; and length of life “ from the anatomical examination of Parr may also be expected, from a more fat habit and Bayles, there are two particulars which of body, joined with choler, and a disposition seem to be essentially necessary for the preserva- || stirring and peremptory. tion of long life. A due conformation of all
6 6. Sex. the vital parts is certainly most desirable; but a sound heart, and good lungs, are absolutely
“ It has been much disputed, whether inessential, without which length of days cannot dividuals of the male or the female sex live the be expected. The heart, in particular, must longest. If women are most exposed to domestic be strong and fibrous, for, as it is left alone to disease, men are most liable to suffer from the force the circulation of a large quantity of dangers of war, the risks of commerce, the sluggish blood,' great strength is absolutely fury of the elements, and other external injuries; requisite to propel the blood through the in and also, are more addıçted to those irreguactive vessels, to the extremities of the body, larities and excesses which shorten life. On the and back again, which may be more easily other, it is to be observed, as a circumstance done by men of a low stature, such as old adverse to the longevity of females, particularly Bayles was. The goodness of the lungs, and in high life, that it is more fashionable to be a large chest, are also essential requisites, in delicate than robust: whereas, if good health consequence of which the air has its full effects were considered to be an accomplishment, and upon erery particle of the blood. Every other as necessary for a woman as any showy acquiremeans should likewise be thought of, which ment, the case would soon be altered.
In might render the blood better calculated to be discussing this point, we shall first state what easily moved through the contracted chanuels of philosophers say regarding it, and shull then an old body.
ascertain how far their doctrines are verified by “ Dr. Keill justly remarks, that the dissee
facts. tions of old persons are not yet sufficiently
“ The bodies of males in general, though not numerous, to ground any positive opinion
without some exceptions, are stronger, larger, regarding the effects of age, and the causes of and more active, than those of the females. the death of old men; but that it certainly is a
In the human species, in particular, the male judicious system to follow, to endeavour toll is commonly not only larger than the female, preserve such a softness in all the fibres, that but his muscular fibres are firmer, and more they may easily yield to the pressure of the compact, and his whole frame indicates a blooil, and, by their elasticity, restore them- superior strength, and robustness of texture. selves to their former state, and thus to enabie But as in women, the bones, the cartilages, the the body to perform all its proper functions. muscles, and every other part of the body, are
“Having discussed these anatomical inquiries, softer, and less solid than those of men, they we shall now proceed to consider two points, must require more time in hardening to that connected with this branch of the subject, which degree which occasions death; neither are they still require more particular attention, namely, generally so much subjected, as men, to bodily height and corpulency.
exertions. Women, of course, ought to live “ As to the first, Lord Bacon remarks, that longer than men; nay, it is said, that those tallness of stature, if it be not immoderate, men who have a weakly appearance, and who, with a convenient form or making, and not too in point of constitution, approach the nearest slender, especially if the body be active withal, to women, often live longer than those who are is a sign of long life. On the contrary, men
more robust. of low stature, live long, if they be not too “ This doctrine is fully confirmed by exactive and stirring.
experience; for, by consulting the bills of “ The middle sized, in our opinion, however, inortality, it appears, that not only after they are inore likely to live long than either the tall have passed a certain age, but even from their
birth, the probability of long life is greater in the greater softness of the female organs, wbich women than in men,
retards that hardness which is generally supposed “ Soine authors have laid it down as a general to be the principal cause of deatlı from old age. rule, or fact, that the mortality of males is greater tnan the mortality of females; and
“ Advantages of Bills of Mortality, that this is the case, not only when they have
" The doubts, however, which still remain, grown up, but even among children, insomueh, regarding some particulars connected with this that the proportion, in favour of females, is as branch of the inquiry, point out the advantages 39 to 30. Indeed it appears, from a most that might be derived were proper parish authentic document, namely, the Tables of registers kept, and bills of mortality formed, Assignable Annuities for Lives in Holland, which for the whole kingdorn, under legislative authohad been kept there for 125 years, wherein the rity, and not in the careless manner practised ages, and the sex, of the persons dying, are
at present. If this plan were adopied, and truly entered, that a given number of females properly enforced, it would give the precise kave, in all accidents of age, lived above three | law, according to which buman life wastes, in or four years longer than the same number of all its different stages; and thus supply the males.
necessary data for computing accurately the “ The greater mortality of the male sex, is values of all life-annuities and reversions. It $0 fully proved, on most unquestionable au- would, likewise, shew the different degrecs of thority, in the course of Dr. Price's observa- | healthfulness of different situations, mark the tions, that he conceives, the reason why more
progress of population from year to year, keep males are born than females, is this, That there always in view the number of people in the is some particular weakness or delicacy in the kingdum, and, in many other respects, fumish constitutiov of males, which makes them more instruction of the greatest importance to the subject to mortality, and which consequently renders it necessary that more of them should
" 7. RexovaTION OF THE DISTINCTIONS OF YOUTH. be produced, in order to preserve in the world a due proportion between the two sexes. But
Among the various circumstances which this can hardly be admitted. The female is distinguish youth from old age, three of the certainly a finer machine than the male, and
most remarkable are, the colour of the hair, formed with much more art and contrivance, the possession of teeth, and the clearness of but it does not equal the male in strength; and vision. It is singular, that many instances are the greater mortality of the males, even in their to be met with, where, after old people have youth, may be attributed to their being more
experienced a failing with respect to these exposed than the other sex to dangers and pauticulars, nature has in a manner made a hardships, and to the inclemency of the seasons,
fresh effort to renew the distinctions of youth. from the time that they are able to go about
“ We shall proceed to give instances, where by themselves.
a renovation has taken place, iu regard to each. " Dr. Price himself seems to concur in this
4 The Hair. idea, as, in another part of his work, be questions whether this difference, so unfavourable to
" 'The colour of the hair raries much in males, is natural ; and, after stating some facts, different men, during their youth; but, when to corroborate his doubts, he infers from thence they get old, it almost uniformly becomes first that human life, in males, is more brittle than grey, and afterwards white. This does not in females, only in consequence of adventitious happen at the same age, in every case : for causes, or of some particular debility, that
some are grey as early as twenty or twenty-five, takes place in polished and luxurious societies, while others have only a few grey hairs at fifty, and especially in great towns.
or even sixty years of age. “ It may be proper also to mention, that,
“ It can liardly be doubted, that dryness, or according to the most authentic information, want of moisture, is a principal cause of grey not only women live longer than men, but that hairs; and, consequently, that the custom of married women live longer than single, in the wearing hair-powder must bring them on sooner proportion, according to some registers, of no
than otherwise would be the case. There is less than two to one: a difference so great, that reason, therefore, to believe, that keeping the it must have been, in some degree, accidental. roots of the hair well moistened with oily or fat
“ In regard to the greater mortality of males substances, is the best means of keeping back, after they have reached the age of sixty, that what so many are inelined to consider as has never been disputed and is accounted for by defect, but which, at the same time, is not
inconsistent with the possession of good health, || observed, new teeth put forth in our older years, or the attainment of longevity.
betoken long life. * But the singular circumstance is this, that « One of the first instances of this circumafter an individual has got grey hairs, he stance, at all authentically recorded, is the suddenly or accidently loses them; and, in their case of the old Countess of Desmond, which 'slead, hair of a different colour makes its was accounted to be so remarkable, that many
considered it to be a fable. Lord Bacon himself appearance. Of this, the following examples
seems to consider it as doubtful. may be cited.
They tell a tale of the old Countess of Des. " It is recorded, in the Transactions of the
mond, that she did twice or thrice cast her Royal Society, on the evidence of Dr. Slare,
• old teeth, and that others came in their room. that his grandfather, whose hair, about the But the fact is sufficiently authenticated, for eightieth year of his age, had becoine white, one of such great antiquity, and is corroborated grew much darker afterwards.
by many other instances. “ It is also reported of one Mazarella, who “ In the Philosophical Transactions, it is died at Vienna, in the 105th year of his age, affirmed by Dr. Slare, that his grandfather, that, a few months before his death, he had who was a native of Bedfordshire, had all his not only several new teeth, but that his hair, teeth strong and firm at the age of 80, and grown grey by age, became black, its original that, within five years afterwards, he had a nezo colour.
He adds, that he remained in good health “ A similar circumstance is mentioned of|and strength to the 100th year of his age, and Susan Edmonds, of Winterbourn, Hants, who even then died in consequence of fullness of died at the age of 104; and who, five years || blood. These singular events, the Doctor atbefore her death, had new hair, of a fine brown tributes to the frequent use of sugar, of which colour, which began to turn grey a few months his relation was a great eater. before her death.
“ It is singular that the teeth should, in this • It is also said, that John Weeks, of New particular instance, be preserved so long, notLondon, in Connecticut, who died at the age of withstanding the use of sugar, since the ruin of 114 years, lost his grey hairs, which were the teeth is so often attributed to that article. renewed by hair of a dark colour.
“ In the Philosophical Transactions also, two
other instances are mentioned, one of Joseph « The Teeth.
Shute a clergyman, who got a new tooth when “ There is no particular, in respect of which he was 81 years of age; and another, Mariala former generations seein to have enjoyed a Start, who got two new teeth at 75 years of age.
“ In the return I have received of the old greater superiority over the present, than with regard to the duration of their teeth. A place people from Greenwich Hospital, mention is of interinent was lately opened at Scone, near the oldest man in the house,) who said, that he
made of one, (John Moore, a native of Ireland, Perth, in Scotland, which had remained un- had four new fore-teeth, within tive years precedtonched for above 200 years, and yet, to the
ing the return, one of which he bad accidentally astonishinent of every one, among a great
lost. number of skeletons, which were there dis
“ I myself have seen one James Donald, an covered, there was hardly any of them whose old man now living, who had got new teeth, weth were not entire and sound. This must be which I had an opportunity personally of ascribed to greater simplicity of diet, to the examining. They appeared to be of a much teeth being less injured by fumes from a dis-softer consistence t' an teeth usually are, and ordered stomach, to the custom of drinking hot || not fit to do tie ame service; and, on the liquor's being then unusual, and perhaps to the whole, they can only be considered as an imabsence of scorbutic complaints.
perfect substitute. • The means of preserving the teeth will be
" It is said by anatomists, that the foundation the subject of future discussion. On the present of three sets of teeth may frequently be traced occasion it is only necessary to observe, that in the jaw of mail. But, if that is often the many examples may be quoted, where persons, case, it is surprising that instances are not more having lost their teeth a second time, have got frequent of such teeth being obtained. a third set of teeth, in some cases partly, in others wbolly, supplying the places of those they have lost. This circumstance merits to be • There is also reason to believe, that af er particularly attended to, for, as Bacon has well the sight bas been lost, seemingly by a decay of
“ The Sight.
nature, it has again returned, not perhaps in ; or the effects of old age. It is to be observed, its former perfection, but so as to be of great however, that the human race are not so apt to
lose their bearing as their sight. In the retin “ One of the most singular instances of the from Greenwich Hospital of 96 old men beyond sight being renewed, is in the case of Machell 80, the organ of vision was impaired in about Vivan, a native of Scotland, but who was one-half, whereas the organ of hearing only to settled as a clergyman in Northumberland, and the extent of about a fifth. But this circumlived beyond 110 years of age. A particular | stance can easily be accounted fur, as the eye account of him is given by a person entitled to is certainl y a more delicate organ than the ear, credit, who saw him personally, in the year and more liable to a variety of accidents. 1657, and who declares, that his hair had
CONCLUSION. become like a child's, rather Baxen ; that he
“ Dr. Rush conjectures, that the antehad three new teeth, which he, however, got deluvian age was attained, by the frequent with difficulty ; and though, about forty years renovation of different parts of the body; and preceding that period, he could not read the it evidently appears, from the facts above largest print without spectacles, yet, that his narrated, that such a circumstance was not sight was renewed, so that no print or writing impossible. At the same time, other reasons was so small that he could not read it without them. He had five children after he was eighty may be assigned, (which will afterwards be years of age.
stated,) for the great age of the patriarchs. " I am assured, from respectable authority,
“ Friar Bacon, in his work entitled, “ De that the following circumstance may also be retardandis senectutis malis," has given us a depended upon. A lady in the county of Fife, number of observations regarding what he calls North Britain, who died at the age of 89, after the accidents of old age, as greyness of hair, having been under the necessity of using spec. || point out medicines which will preserve youth,
wrinkles, &c.; nay, he proceeds so far, as to tacles for several years, recovered her sight, so that for some time before she died, she could and cause grey hairs to fall, and black or youthful read very small print, and sew liven without ones to come in their room. This work, though glasses.
curious, and therefore meriting to be preserved, “ Dr. Rush also mentions an old man, (Adam is unfortunately mingled with much of that Rime of Pensylvania), who, abont the 68th || mystery, so usual in medical works at the year of his age, gradually lost his sight, and period when it was written. continued entirely blind for the space of twelve
“ Lord Bacou has paid particular attention to years, at the end of which period, his sight the subject of the teeth, and the renewal of them. returned, without making use of any means the points to be considered regarding them, le for the purpose, and without any visible change observes, are,-1. The preserving of them.-in the appearance of the eyes. It is singular, | 2. The keeping of them wbite.-3. The drawing that after recovering his sight, he saw as well as of them with least pain.-4. The staying and ever he did. During both the gradual loss, and casing of the tooth-ach.-.-5. The binding in af recovery of his sight, he was noways affected artificial tecth ;-and, 6. That great one, of by sickness, but, on the contrary, enjoyed his restoring teeth in age, which, he says, may be usual health.
thought of, and would be, indeed, magnate « Several other instances of a similar nature
nature. But though nature occasionally inmight be quoted, but these are sufficient to dulges itself in such renovalions, it is hardly establish the general principle, that aged people possible to believe, that it could be compelled may have this distinction of youth renewed, to it, by any means in the power of man to
“ It is singular, that no particular instance apply; and, indecd, if proper care were paid has occurred, of the sense of bearing being to the preservation of the teeth, commencing renewed, after being lost by a decay of nature, at an early age, it would rarely be necessary."