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On the other hand,
I. The King of Cochin-china, as soon as tranquillity shall be re-established in his dominions, shall engage to furnish for fourteen ships of the line, such a quantity of stores and provisions as will enable
them to put to sea without delay, on the requisition
of the ambassador from the King of France; and
for the better effecting this purpose, there shall be sent out from Europe a corps of officers and petty officers of the marine, to be put upon a permanent establishment in Cochinchina.
VI. In case that the natives shall at any time be unwilling to remain in the ceded territory, they will be at liberty to leave it, and will be reimburs ed the value of the property they may leave upon it. The civil and criminal jurisprudence shall remain unaltered; all religious opinions shall be free; the taxes shall be collected by the French in the usual mode of the country, and the collectors shall be appointed jointly by the ambassadors of France and the King of Cochinchina; but the latter shall not claim any part of those taxes, which will belong properly to his most Christian Majesty for the support of his territories.
VII. In the event of his most Christian Majesty being resolved to wage war in any part of India, it shall be allowed to the Commander in Chief of the French forces to raise a levy of 14,000 men, whom he shall cause to be trained in the same manner as they are in France, and to be put under French discipline.
VIII. In the event of any power whatsoever attacking the French in their Cochin-chinese territory the King of Cochinchina shall furnish 60,000 men ar more in land forces, whom he shall clothe, victual, &c.'
Adran was rewarded for his share in this negociation promising to prove so advantageous to the French, with a bishop's mitre, and appointed plenipotentiary; but the revolution which soon commenced frustrated his views; for the bloody republicans who sacrificed their king to their blind rage, would have deemed it a crime to assist in the restoration of a sovereign to his throne, At
his return, Adran found that during his absence, which lasted two years, two of the usurpers had waged war against each other, and that the people rising in favour of CaungShung, he had assumed their command and already become master of Sai-gong, which he had strongly fortified, and where having been joined by bishop Adran, they began in concert to raise an army and equip a fleet.
In 1791 Long-niang, one of the usurpers, died, and Caung-Shung immediately attacked and destroyed Yin-Yac's fleet; and when Mr. Barrow reached Cochin-china the southern provinces had acknowledged their lawful monarch. The rest of the information, which Mr. B. gathered from a manuscript written by the French captain of a frigate in CaungShung's service, informs us that, Yin-Yac died in 1793, that his son was deprived of his capital by the victorious arms of his prince in 1796, who in 1800 was about to take the field against the son of the rebel, who still preserved the sceptre of Tung-quin. We will now let our author describe the improvements which his favourite hero has scattered over his native land.
From the year 1790, in which Caung-shung returned to Cochinchina, to 1800, he was allowed to enjoy only two years of peace, 1797 and 1798: and these two years were, in all probability, the most important of his hitherto troublesome reign. Under the auspices of the bishop Adran, who in every important undertaking was his oracle, he turned his attention to the improvement of his country. He established a manufactory of saltpetre in Fentan (Tsiompa of the charts), opened roads of com munication between important posts and consider. able towns, and planted them on each side with trees for shade. He encouraged the cultivation of the areeca nut and the betel pepper, the plantations of which had been destroyed by the army of the usurper. He held out rewards for the propagation. of the silk-worin; caused large tracks of land to be prepared for the culture of the sugar-cane; and established manufactories for the preparation of pitch, tar, and resin. He caused several thousand match-locks to be fabricated; he opened a mine of iron ore, and constructed smelting furnaces. He distributed his land forces into regular regiments, established military schools, where officers were instructed in the doctrine of projectiles and gunnery by European masters. Adran had translated into the Chinese language a system of military tactics, for the use of his army. In the course of these two years he constructed at least 300 large gun. boats or row gallies, five luggers, and a frigate on the model of an European vessel. He caused a system of naval tactics to be introduced, and had his naval officers instructed in the use of signals. One of the English gentlemen, whom I mentioned to have been at Sai-gong in the year 1800, saw a fleet of ships consisting of 1200 sail under the immediate command of this Prince, weigh their anchors and drop down the river in the highest order,
in three separate divisions, forming into lines of
During this interval of peace he likewise undertook to reform the system of jurisprudence, in which he was no doubt very ably assisted by the Bishop. He abolished several species of torture, which the law of the country had hitherto prescrib. || ed; and he mitigated punishments that appeared to be disproportionate to the crimes of which they were the consequence. He established public schools, to which parents were compelled to send their children at the age of four years, under ceitain pains and penalties. He drew up a system of rules and regulations for the commercial interests of his kingdom; caused bridges to be built over rivers; buoys and sea marks to be laid down in all the dangerous parts of the coast; and surveys to be made of the principal bays and harbours. He sent missions into mountainous districts on the west of his kingdom, inhabited by the Laos and the Miaotse, barbarous nations whom he wished to bring into a state of civilization and good government. These mountaineers are the people whom the Chinese designate by the degrading appellation of "Men with tails;" though, in all probabrity, they are the regular descendants of the true original inhabitants of this long civilized empire. In short, this Monarch, by his own indefatigable application to the arts and manufactures, like Peter of Russia, without his brutality, aroused by his individual example the energies of his people, and, like our immortal Alfred, spared no pains to regenerate his
country. His activity and exertions will readily be conceived from the circumstance of his having, in less than ten years, from a single vessel, accumulated a fleet of twelve hundred ships, of which
three were of European construction; about twenty were large junks, similar to those of China, but completely manned and armed; and the rest were large gun-vessels and transports.'
To enable him the better to attend to the concerns of his government, his mode of life is regu
lated by a fixed plan. At six in the morning he rises from his couch, and goes into the cold bath. At seven he has his levee of Mandarins; all the letters are read which have been received in the course of the preceding day, on which his orders are minuted by the respective secretaries. He then proceeds to the naval arsenal, examines the works that have been performed in his absence, rows in his barge round the harbour, inspecting his ships of war, He pays particular attention to the ord nance department; and in the foundery, which is erected within the arsenal, cannon are cast of all dimensions.
Had not Mr. Barrow proved by his former publications that he was able to produce a work far superior to the present, our severity would have been disarmed: for if we bestow the epithet of inferior upon this book, it is only when compared with his travels in Southern Africa and China. Did it flow from a pen less exercised and less celebrated than his, we would not have hesitated to pronounce it an excellent composition; but from
After which he gives us an interesting ac-him we expect better things, and think it is count of the mode of life of this great prince, treating him with the sincerity of a friend whose virtues are perhaps the fruit of the to inform him of his defects, and caution misfortunes which strewed his youth with him against indulging too much in self confidence,
About twelve or one he takes his breakfast in the dock yard, which consists of a little boiled rice and dried fish. At two he retires to his apartment and sleeps till five, when he again rises; gives audience to the naval and nilitary oficers, the heads of tribunals or public departments, and approves, rejects, or amends whatever they may have to propose. These affat of state generally employ his attention till midnight, after which he retires to his private apartments to make such notes and memorandums as the occurrences of the day may have suggested. He then takes a light supper, passes an hour with his family, and between two and three in the morning retires to his bed; taking, in this manner, at two intervals, about six hours of rest in the four-and-twenty.'
THIS work is composed of three parts; al collection of the Rev. J. Warton's Poems, his literary correspondence, and the memoirs written by his biographer. The latter article alone affords us an opportunity of forming an
BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF THE LATE REV. JOSEPH WARTON, D. D.
ARTICLE VII.-Biographical Memoirs of the late Rev. Joseph Warton, D. D. by the Rev, John Wool, A. M. late Fellow of New College, Oxford; &c. &c. 4to. 11. 7s. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 1806.
opinion of Mr. Wool's powers as an author, while the two others will enable us to judge of his taste and discretion as an editor. The memoirs therefore, will detain our obser vation longer than the other parts, as we
purpose making our chief extracts from them.
testant clergyman at hand to bestow the. stamp of religion upon his union with the lady who was then his mistress, as soon as the Duchess, who was ill of a dropsy, should have resigned her breath.
We cannot abstain from observing with more than astonishment, that far from condeinning the degrading line of conduct followed by Dr. Warton, in this instance, his ti-biographer should attempt to excuse it. That modern philosophers should look upon such trespasses as trifling, would create no wonder in us; but that a minister of the gospel should not thunder against such prostitution of honour and religion, but try to shelter the delinquent from public censure, at once surprises and grieves us.
At his return to England, Dr. Warton published his edition of Virgil, in Latin and English, with abundant and useful annotations Afterwards he yielded to the pressing solicitations of the editors of the Adventurer, and supplied them with twenty-four papers; he formed a scheme also of collecting the epistles of Politianus, Erasmus, Grotius, &c. in order to trace the revival of learning at its origin; but he soon forsook this plan, which was never carried into execution. In 1754, he obtained the living of Tunworth, and in the following year became second master of Winchester School, having at the same time the direction of a boarding-house.
The first idea that arose while reading Mr. Wool's production, was that he had totally misconceived the object which biography has in view instead of giving us an account of the manners and habits of Dr. Warton, he has mostly filled his pages with critical remarks. Of. their excellence in general, we do not entertain the least doubt, but the tle of his work led us to expect that we should find the domestic history, the private anecdotes and circumstances, of a man who drew the eyes of the public upon him, unfolded to our sight; we therefore felt disappointed when we saw that the present writer fancied such interesting researches beneath the dignity of his pen, and constantly avoided to gratify our curiosity. The little we have been able to gather concerning the life of Dr. Warton from Mr. Wool's quarto, we will present to our readers, and join together in a few lines, the information which lies scattered and lost in the midst of criticisms, encomiums upon Virgil, and enigmatical sen
Born in his maternal grandfather's house, the Rev. Joseph Richardson, rector of Dunsfold in Surrey, Joseph Warton was baptized on the 22d of April 1722. His father, who was professor of poetry at Oxford, watched over his education, and instilled the first principles of learning into his mind. In 1736, he was sent to Winchester college, and gave early pledges of the extent of his intellectual powers and the excellence of his heart. There he began his literary career by writing, in company with Collins, some verses which were inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine, and were warmly praised by that great critic, Johnson. In 1740, we find him at Oriel college, Oxford, where the superiority of his talents shone unequalled; soon after he took his bachelor's degree, and was ordained a minister of the church of England, but was not settled in any living till the Duke of Bolton presented him, iu 1748, to the rectory of Winslade, when he immediately married Miss Daman, who had long shared with science the empire of his breast. Three years after his marriage, his noble patron prevailed upon him to tear himself from the arms of his wife, to attend him to the South of France, in order to enjoy the society of a man of letters, and have a pro- ||
In order to give a specimen of Mr. Wool's stile, with all its beauties and numerous deficiencies, we shall select the passage in which he describes Dr. Warton's method of instructing the boys committed to his care.
'He entered on his honourable employment with all the energy a mind like his naturally conceived: but his zeal was tempered with judgment, and the eagerness of his expectations chastened by salutary patience. Ardent in provoking emulation, and rewarding excellence, he was at the same time aware that the standard of approved merit must not be placed too high, or the laudable industry which gradually invigorates mediocrity of talent, be crushed by disproportionate demands. He knew that the human mind developed itself progres. sively, but not always in the same consistent degrees, or at periods uniformly similar. He conjectured therefore that the most probable method of ensuring some valuable improvement to the gene rality of boys, was not to exact what the generality are incapable of performing. As a remedy for inaccurate construction, arising either from apparent
idleness or inability, he highly approved, and sedulously imposed, translation. Modesty, timidity, or many other constitutional impediments, may prevent a boy from displaying before his master, and in the frout of his class, those talents, of wineb•
privacy and a relief from these embarrassments his feeling heart; for at this period his second will often give proof. If Addison, in the prime of
life and possession of the richest mental endowson, rich in talents and information, fell ments, could confess, when speaking of his deficien-victim to a severe disorder. The death of his cies in conversation, that with respect to intel-brother, for whom he had always entertained
lectual wealth" he could draw a bill for a thousand
pounds, though he had not a guinea in his pocket," it may be supposed that boys not really destitute of talent, or incapable of becoming scholars, are sometimes so oppressed by shyness or fear, as not to do themselves justice in the common routine of public construction, and to require a varied method of ascertaining their sufficiency of information and
intellect. This important end Dr. Warton thought happily answered by translation; nor did he deem lightly of its value as a general system. A habit of composition he imagined to be gradually acquired by it; and the style and sentiments of an author
deeply engraven on the memory of the scholar. These sentiments were confirmed by that most in-disease triumphed over the strength of his fallible test, experience; as he declared (within a constitution, and he paid the debt of nature few years of his death) that the best scholars he the 23d of February 1800, at the age of
had sent into the world were those whom, whilst
second master, he had thus habituated to transla tion, and given a capacity of comparing and associating the idiom of the dead languages with their
the most tender friendship, and which took place a few years after that of his son, contributed to increase the disgust he felt at the noisy bustling world, and led kim in 1793 to resign his mastership. He then tasted the joys of a studious retirement for a few years, the fruits of which were in 1797 his edition of Pope in nine volumes, octavo; and the two first volumes of that of Dryden, which were ready for the press, when the violence of a
Having thus followed the course of Dr. Warton's existence, till he withdrew from this busy scene into the calm retreat of the tomb, we will now present his picture, such as Mr. Wool has drawn in his memoirs.
Zealous in his adherence to the church estab
In 1756, his essay on the genius and writings of Pope appeared, and Lord Lyttelton chose him for his chaplain; and in 1766, he was elected head master of the school, the fame of which his talents and diligence had considerably increased. But while honours were thus accumulating on his head, a domestic calamity of the most serious nature, blasted his happiness, by carrying his beloved wife to the grave. But his grief, though vio-happy art of arresting the attention of youth on lent, was of short duration, and he sought religions subjects. Every Wiccamical reader will in the arms of a second bride for a new source of consolation.
lishment, and exemplary in his attention to its ordinances and duties, he was at the same time a decided enemy to bigotry or intolerance. His style of preaching was unaffectedly earnest and impressive; and the dignitied solemnity with which he read the Liturgy (particularly the Communion ser||vice) was remarkably awful. He had the most
recollect his inimitable commentaries on Grotius in the Sunday evenings, and his discourse annually delivered in the school on Good Friday: the impressions made by them cannot be forgotten.
To descend to the minutiae of daily habits is surely beneath the province of biography. Free, open, and chearful to his friends, without rigour or sullen severity to those he disliked, Dr. Warton in his general character could never deserve and seldom incur enmity. A playful liveliness, even on the most dry and didactic subjects, divested him of the smallest appearance of that pedantry which is too apt to attach itself to scholars by profession. None could leave his society without improvement, yet never was the man found who was oppressed by his superiority. The charm of unaffected ease and good humour prevented every feeling of inequality, every jealousy of receiving instruction; no individual perhaps ever possessed in a stronger degree the powers of enlivening conversation by extensive knowledge, correct judgment, and ele gant taste. His chearfulness and resignation in affliction were invincible: even under the extreme of bodily weakness, his strong mind was unbroken, and his limbs became paralyzed in the very act of
In 1782 also, the sequel of the essay on Pope made its appearance, and fully an- dictating an epistle of friendly criticism. So quiet, swered the expectations of the public. the beginning of the year 1786, teemed with ucw sorrows, and inflicted new wounds upon
so composed was his end, that he might more truly be said to cease to live than to have undergone the pangs of death.'
Our author is such a foe to anecdotes,
It is no less reprehensible than remarkable, that the talents of the poet and critic, and the success ful exertions of the instructor, had as yet received neither encouragement or remuneration. Nor had one man of power and patronage, though the sons of many were entrusted to his care, deemed it incumbent on him to confer either affluence or dignity on their master. It remained for a Prelate most high in theological and classical reputation, for one who knew the value of literary acquirements, and was in his own person a distinguished example of the public benefit to which they may be converted, to do honour to himself and his situation by the preferment of Dr. Warton. In the year 1782, the eminently learned and pious Dr. Lowth, then Bishop of London, bestowed on him a prebend of St Paul's, and within the year added the living of Chorley in Hertfordshire, which, after some arrangements, the Doctor exchanged for Wickham.'
which are “beneath the province of bio-The sentences are constructed with Dadalian graphy," that whenever he is guilty, and weart, so as to lead the mind through mazes in must acknowledge it is but seldom, of intrud-which, if it do not lose itself, it is at least ing one of these "minuti" upon our no- dangerously bewildered; but this might be tice, lest it should shock our sight, he gene-perhaps, in Mr. Wool's opinion, a new and rally conceals it in a note. But to show them useful method of exercising its faculties, and that the generality of men are not of the whetting its power of conception. And we same opinion, we have snatched the follow- are the more inclined to think that we have ing from the obscurity in which it lay bu- found the real laudable cause why this writer ried. delights to wrap his meaning in obscurity, because had it been accidental, it would have been less frequent, while he seems to have laboured purposely to be obscure. If any one doubt the truth of these observations, let him look for an explanatory note, page 30, and he will see from experience, that what is meant to elucidate previous difficulties, requires elucidation itself.
The merit of Mr. Wool as an editor, shines more conspicuous than that he attempted to unfold in his composition, among the poetical articles, many of whom, however, might have better served the fame of their author had they been kept concealed. We have remarked his Ode to Music, and that to Fancy, as entitled to great praise, and the end of the latter is worthy of being presented a second time to the public.
Independent of the Duchess of Portland, Mrs. Greville, Mrs. Carter, aud Mrs. Montagu, whose talents and information Dr. Wartou beld in the
highest esteem, and with whom he frequently cor
responded; the sex in general were partial to him; and the Editor has frequently seen the young, the handsome, and the gay, deserted by the belles, to attract the notice of Dr. W.; whilst he was, on his part, thoroughly accessible, and imparted his lively sallies and instructive conversation with the most gallant and appropriate pleasantry. He was agreat admirer of beauty, nor was it in his nature to use a rude expression to a female. He had moreover a great tenderness and love for children, and fully
exemplified the maxim, that wherever there are an
uniforma attention to the female sex, and an indulgeut notice of children, there is a warm and feeling heart. His politeness to the ladies however was once put to a hard test: He was invited, whilst Master of Winchester, to meet a relative of Pope, who, from her connection with the family, he was taught to believe, could furnish him with mach valuable and private information. Incited by all. that eagerness which so strongly characterized him, he on his introduction sat immediately close to the lady, and, by inquiring her consanguinity to Pope, entered at once on the subject; when the following dialogue took place:--Pray, Sir, did not you write a book about my cousin Pope?--Warton. Yes, Madam.-Lady. They tell me 'twas vastly clever. He wrote a great many plays, did not he-Warton. I have heard only of one attempt, Madam-Lady. Oh no, I beg your pardon, that was Mr. Shakespear; I always confound them.-. This was too much even for the Doctor's gallantry; he replied, Certainly, Madam; and with a bow changed his seat to the contrary side of the room, where he sat, to the amazement of a large party, with such a mingled countenance of archness and chagrin, such a struggle between his taste for the ridiculous, and his natural politeness, as could be pourtrayed but by his speaking and expressive countenance. In a few minutes he quitted the company, but not without taking leave of the lady in the most polite and unaffected manner.'
After having dwelled so long upon the first part of this work, and selected extracts to prove that our assertions rested on solid grounds, and did not proceed from undue severity and blind prejudice, we will content ourselves with a few remarks on the style in which it is written, and examine the two last divisions of his book.
The language throughout is stiff and heavy; often bombastical, yet almost always coarse, affected, and entirely denuded of elegance.
"O! hear our prayer, O! hither come,
Among the collection of prose pieces, Ra nelagh House seemed to us deserving to be noticed; and that our readers may forma just estimate of its excellence, we will lay the following extract before them.
That pert young fellow with a black ribbon round his neck, in a fustian frock with very short skirts, and a very broad brim'd hat in an aflected