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ter mutually attract attention, and thus trifles ists, it is the result of education and habits of become interesting." life. From a difference in these originates all the disparity in intellectual powers that can be observed between the two sexes, and which is no longer discoverable when similar circumstances, or equal opportunities, have called female abilities into exertion, and given expansion to their ideas. Females have made a distinguished figure in every situation of life, as well as in every de

rally represcribed as the topics only of female gossips, and on that account are denominated old women's tales; an expression which seems to indicate their peculiar and exclusive appropriation to that class of beings; but to my exceeding great surprize, I have generally found the same ideas equally prevalent, and the same subjects of conversation equally common among the men as among the other sex. Their notions are absurd, and their conversation, for the most part, as uninteresting; and the male and female gossips appear, in this respect, to differ only in sex. In their mutual associations they are perfectly similar, and both may be included in one general representation."

The young Clairville here interrupted the sage instructor" Permit me, Sir," said he, " to mention a remark which I have frequently made in the course of our excursion: the legends of superstition, the tales of scandal, and all the farrago of absurdities that occupy the minds and exercise the tongues of the people with whom I have of late so frequently conversed, are gene-partment of science and literature; and you are not ignorant that the number of those who have been eminent for their talents, as well as their virtues, crowd the page of history. In native vigour of mind, and in understanding, one sex cannot claim any advantage over the other; and your own observations in this place, may convince you, that where the education of both is nearly equal, and the habits of life strikingly similar, their ideas will be confined within the same circle. Absurd ideas, and scandalous reports, indeed, are held up to ridicule by their appropriation to old occurrences; but although custom has established this kind of phraseology, we are only to consider it as a figurativé mode of expression, indicative of mental debility, or moral profligacy; for in this signification of the term, there are old women in breeches as well as in petticoats; and indeed it is not easy to determine which are the most numerous.

"This, my dear Sir," returned M. de Palaise, "ought not to excite your astonishment: Nature has made no difference in the male and female intellect. The mental endowments of the latter are in no respect inferior to those of the former sex, and where any such inferiority ex

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standing of the feudal system.

FEW expeditions are more extraordinary || regard, and to be connected with a right under. than those which were undertaken for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Turks by the Crusades They took the name of Crusaders, or Croises, from the cross which they wore on their shoulders, in gold, silk, or cloth; in the first crusade all were red, in the third the French alone preserved that colour, while green crosses were adopted by the Flemings, and white by the English; each company likewise bore a standard on which was painted a cross.

From the æra of the crusades may be traced the diffusion of several kinds of knowledge, and from the communication of the western with the eastern nations, arose a succession of causes, which with different degrees of influence, or with more or less rapidity, contributed to introduce order and improvement into society. Judea, or the Holy Land, was the highest object of veneration to the Christians of the middle ages; there had lived the Son of God, there he had performed the most astonishing miracles, and there he had suffered death for the sins of the world. His holy sepulchre was preserved at Jerusalem; and as a degree of veneration was annexed to this place, nearly approaching to idolatry, a visit to it was regarded as the most meritorious service which could be paid to Heaven, and it was eagerly frequented by crowds of pilgrims from

If we consider the great number of Europeans who were engaged in them, or their long and obstinate perseverance in the same design, notwithstanding numerous hardships, losses, and defeats; and if we reflect upon the important consequences with which those enterprises were attended, both to themselves and their descendants, the history of the crusades, including a period of one hundred and seventy-five years, from A. D. 1095 to 1270, will be found to deserve particular || every part of Europe.

If it be natural to the human mind to survey those spots which have been the abodes of illustrious persons, or the scenes of great transactions, with delight, what must have been the veneration with which the Christians of those times, the ruling passion of whose mind was religious enthusiasm, regarded a country which the Almighty had selected as the residence of his beloved Son, and the place where that Son had shed his precious blood to expiate the sins, and accomplish the redemption of mankind. The zealous travellers who made a pilgrimage to Palestine, were long exposed to the insults, extortions, and cruelty of the Infidels; but at length their complaints roused the Europeans to attempt their expulsion.

THE FIRST CRUSADE FROM A. D. 1095 to 1099.

Peter, surnamed the Hermit, a native of Amiens, in Picardy, was the most zealous and indefatigable promoter of this first expedition; he was a man of acute understanding, and keen observation; in the garb of a pilgrim he had visited the holy sepulchre, and had noticed the insults and hardships to which the Christians were exposed. He brought letters from the Patriarch of Jerusalem to Pope Urban II. in which their sufferings were described in the most pathetic terms; and the Christian states of Europe were exhorted to redress their grievances, and retaliate upon their Infidel tyrants, from an apprehension that the Turks, more ferocious, and more subtle than the Saracens, were aiming at universal empire. The ambassadors of the Greek Emperor, Alexius Comnenus, represented in the council of Placentia, to the numerous bishops and clergy there assembled, the imminent danger of their master, and his capital, from the vicinity of the Turks.

The Pope afterwards, in a great council held at Clermont, enlarged upon the same topics, and stated, that the desire of the Turks for empire could only be satisfied with the conquest of the whole world. The indignation and ardour of persons of all ranks were excited, and they resolved to commence the expedition to the Holy Land without delay. Peter the Hermit, with sandals on his feet, and a rope round his waist, led the way; a great number of devotees, chiefly peasants, neither furnished with necessaries, nor regulated by discipline, followed his steps; their ignorance magnified their hopes, and lessened the dangers of the undertaking. In the forests of Hungary and Bulgaria, many of them fell a sacrifice to the indignation of the inhabitants, provoked by their rapine and plunder. A pyramid of bones, erected by Solyman, the Emperor of the Turks, near the city of Nice, marked the spot where many of those who penetrated farther

than their companions, had been defeated; and of the first crusaders very great numbers are said to have perished before a single city was taken from the Infidels. These misfortunes were so far from extinguishing, that they rather tended to increase the enthusiasm of the Christians. The most eminent chieftains of the age, renowned for their prowess in arms, engaged in the crusade without delay. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Brabant, a descendant of the Emperor Charlemagne, with his two brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, Hugh, Count of Vermandoes, brother to the King of France, Robert, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of William the Conqueror, King of England, Robert, Count of Flanders, Steven, Count of Blois, one of the richest and most powerful princes of that age, the number of whose castles equalled that of the days of the year, were the leaders of the French, the Norman, and the English forces. Adhemer the legate of the Pope, and Raimond, Count of Thoulouse, took the command of those who went from the south of France, Lombardy, and Spain; Bohemond, and his cousin, the accomplished Tancred, princes of the Norman race, were accompanied by several nobles of that province; they were followed by their numerous adherents and vassals, whose services were either prompted by zeal and attachment to their respective lords, or purchased with rewards and promises.

Their principal force was cavalry, chiefly ccmposed of gentlemen invested with the honour of knighthood. When their collected forces were mustered upon the plains of Bithynia, the knights and their martial attendants amounted to 100,000 fighting men, completely armed with the helmet and coat of mail. The princess Anna, the daughter of the Greek Emperor, compared their numbers, but much in the style of Eastern exaggeration, to locusts, to leaves of trees, or the sands of the sea. Constantinople was at that time the largest, as well as the most beautiful city in Europe; it alone retained the image of ancient manners and arts; it was the place where manufactures of the most curious fabric were wrought, and was the mart of Europe for all the commodities of the East; the seat of empire, elegance, and magnificence, was appointed as a general rendezvous for all the crusaders.

Several contemporary writers were witnesses to this singular assembly of different nations, and they have given a lively picture of the characters and manners of each people. When the polite natives of the metropolis of the East speak of the northern warriors, they describe them as barbarous, illiterate, fierce, and savage; and they sometimes inveigh against them with great severity, and relate instances of their violence in

terms not unlike those which preceding historians had employed in describing the incursions of the Goths and Vandals, when they overturned the Roman empire. On the other hand, the crusaders, while they despised the effeminate manners and unwarlike character of the Grecks, were surprised at the wealth and magnificence of their metropolis.

The conquests acquired in this first crusade were comprised within the small territory of Jerusalem, the dominion of which lasted rather longer than fourscore years; the principality of Antioch and Edessa, extending over Mesopotamia, possessed by Bohemond, and retained about forty years; and the Tiberiad, assigned to Tancred. Encouraged by such delusive prospects of establishing a Christian empire in the Holy Land, the Pope and the clergy continued to recommend this sacred war with increased ardour. It was still represented to the people as the cause of God and of Christ, in which death would confer the merit of martyrdom, and paradise would be equally the reward of defeat or

The progress of the crusaders was attended with many flattering instances of their success; they took Nice, at that time the capital of the Turkish empire, the seat of Sultan Solyman in Asia Minor, and they defeated him in two pitched battles. After crossing mount Taurus, they besieged Antioch, a place of great strength. Before the capture of that important place, many || victory. of their troops were lost by famine, and after it, many perished by pestilence; but undismayed by these misfortunes they continued their zealous career. The lofty walls of Jerusalem at length struck their eyes; and as soon as they beheld this hallowed object of their affections, they raised a general shout of joy, and then devoutly fell prostrate on their faces, and kissed the ground whereon the Redeemer of mankind had deigned to tread. The city was strong both by nature and art, and defended by the Saracen Caliph of Egypt, at the head of a garrison well appointed, and more numerous than the Christian army.

Forty days were employed in the siege, at the end of which they took the city by storm; in the ardour of rage and victory they put multitudes of Jews and Turks to the sword; and such was their thirst for the extirpation of the Infidels, that according to the candid account which God frey himself gives of the transaction, so great was the slaughter of the enemy in the Temple of Solyman, that his men stood in blood above the ancles. They then walked with naked feet in solemn procession to the holy sepulchre, there to return thanks for so great a victory. The Arabian writers assert, that they continued the massacre of the Turks, in the adjacent country, for several weeks together, and assembling all the Jews, burned them in their temple. The Latin historians are very far from contradicting these statements, nor do they relate any instances of clemency on this occasion. On Robert, Duke of Normandy, declining the honour, Godfrey of Bouillon, the most worthy of the champions of Christendom, was proclaimed King of Jerusalem. In imitation of his Saviour, he was crowned with thorns; he rejected the appendages of royalty, and contented himself with the modest title of Defender and Baron of the Holy Sepulchre (1099). Many of his companions returned to Europe; and his short reign, which continued only one year, did not give him time to establish his new kingdom.



Forty eight years after the deliverence of Jeru salem the second crusade was undertaken.St. Bernard, famed for his eloquence and piety, and the great influence which he obtained amongst the people, flourished at the beginning of the twelfth century; armed with the authority of the Pope, Eugine III. he fanned the flame of military fanaticism with a voice which was in every place obeyed without delay, he called the nations to the protection of the holy sepulchre. The fame of his pretended miracles and predictions removed every doubt of success from the minds of his credulous hearers; insomuch, that all who were able to bear arms were eager to participate in the glory of this warfare. Bernard was invited by the bishops and nobles of France, to become a leader in the expedition, which he so zealously recommended, but the Pope would not allow him to accept the flattering office.

The event proved him more fortunate in advancing the interests of the church than in the success of his projects, or the fulfilment of his predictions. The court of Rome profited by his labours, and canonized his memory. Conrad III. Emperor of Germany, and Louis VII. King of France, were the principal leaders in the second crusade; from the hands of Bernard they received the cross, with assurances, that he had authority from Heaven to promise them victory. Their cavalry was composed of one hundred and forty thousand knights, and their immediate attendants; and if even the light armed troops, the women, and children, the priests and monks, be excluded from the computation of their effective forces, their number will amount to four hundred thousand souls. Manuel the Emperor of the. Greeks was accused by his own subjects of giving intelligence of the plans of the crusaders to the Turkish Sultan, and of providing them with treacherous guides. The conduct of the Christian leaders was dictated by no sound policy, or vigorous

co-operation; instead of endeavouring to crush || Acre, and they had the joint honour of taking

the place. A capitulation was granted, on condition of a ransom of 200,000 pieces of gold, the deliverance of 100 nobles, and 1500 inferior captives, and the restoration of the wood of the genuine cross of Christ. The delay in the execution of the treaty, inflamed the rage of the conquerors, and three thousand Turks are said to have been beheaded, almost in the view of the Sultan, by the orders of Richard.

Soon after the surrender of Acre, Phillip quitted Palestine, and Richard Cœur de Lion had the chief command, and added the cities of Cæsarea and Jaffa to the kingdom of Lusignan; he led the main body of the Christian army at the battle of Ascalon against Saladin and his numerous host. The two wings were broken in the beginning of the fight, by the impetuous Sultan, but Richard renewed the attack with admirable intrepidity of conduct, and turned the fortune of the conquest to a complete victory. He advanced within a day's march of Jerusalem, and intercepted a caravan of seven thousand camels. Roused by a report that Jaffa was surprised by Saladin, he sailed for the place, and leaped first on the shore; the Saracens and Turks filed before him in wild dismay. On the following morning they returned, and found him carelessly encamped with only seventeen knights and three hundered archers; regardless of their numbers, he sustained their charge, and grasping his lance rode along their front without meeting a single adversary who dared to oppose his career.

the common foe by a pre-concerted attack at the same time on different sides of his territories, Louis of France had scarcely passed the Bosphorus when he was met by the returning Emperor, who|| had lost the greatest part of his army in a battle on the banks of the Meander. The King of France advanced through the same country to a similar fate, and was glad to shelter the relics of his army in the sea port of Satalia. At Jerusalem these unfortunate monarchs met to lament their sad reverses of fortune. The slender remnants of their army were joined to the Christian powers of Syria, and a fruitless siege of Damascus was the final effort of the second crusade.


The great Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, encouraged by the inactivity or weakness of the Christian princes, re-conquered the kingdom of Jerusalem, and after a seige of fourteen days took the holy city itself, and planted upon its walls the banners of Mahomet. He treated Sybilla the Queen, a descendant of Count Baldwin, and her consort, Guy of Lusignan, his captives, with kindness, and allowed his Christian prisoners their liberty on condition of paying a moderate ransom. By the report of these disasters, the zealous princes of Europe were again roused to arms, and Frederic Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany, Richard Cœur de Lion, King of England, and Phillip Augustus, King of France, resolved to retrieve the honour of the Christian arms. They were reinforced not only by the fleets of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice, but with the warriors of Flanders and Denmark, remarkable for their lofty stature, and the use of the battle-axe. With Lusignan at their head they besieged the city of Acre, thirty miles to the south of Tyre, and about seventy from Jerusalem.

In the course of this active campaign, some circumstances occurred to soften the rigour of hostilities, even presents were exchanged by the courteous warriors; and snow and fruit, were given by Saladin, and Norway hawks were exchanged for Arabian horses. The health of both Saladin and Richard began to decline, and each wished to return to his own dominions.

The siege, which continued for two years, was remarkable for nine battles fought by the united Moslems of Egypt, Syria, and Arabia, and the Christians in the neighbourhood of Mount Carmel. The camp of the Christians was wasted by famine, and Saladin heard with joy that the Emperor of Germany had died on his march. The English fleet, assailed by a violent storm, was driven on the coast of Cyprus. Isaac Comnenus, the despot of the place, pillaged the stranded ships, and threw the sailors into prison; but the gallant Richard took ample vengance for this act of inhumanity, he attacked the plunderer, who opposed his landing, took him prisoner, and loaded him with chains, he entered Lomisso his capital by storm, and conferred the command of the island upon Guy of Lusignan, the expelled King of Jerusalem. At length, however, the fleets of Richard and of Phillip, cast anchor in the bay of

Richard especially, was eager to depart for Europe, as the perfidious Phillip, in violation of his solemn oath, had taken advantage of his absence to invade Normandy, then a province of England. A treaty was concluded, on condition that Jerusalem, and the holy sepulchre, should be open without tribute, or molestation to the Latin pilgrims, that the Christians should possess the sea coast from Jaffa to Tyre, and that for three years and three months, all hostilities should cease.

The English monarch informed Saladin that he might depend on his return to the Holy Land to try his fortune once more. The Sultan, with a degree of courtesy which would have done honour to the most refined age, replied, that if it must be his misfortune to lose that part of his dominions, he would rather lose it to the King of England than to any other monarch in the


world. The death of Saladin, not long after, inspired the Christians with no small exultation, as he had obstructed the career of their conquests more than any General that had opposed them. He was exemplary for his piety and his temperance; his drink was water only, and he wore a coarse woollen garment; during his last illness he ordered a shroud to be carried through the city, while a cryer went before the procession, and proclaimed with a loud voice,-"This is all that remains to the mighty Saladin, Sultan of the East."

The exploits of the crusaders, and especially of Richard Cœur de Lion, may be thought to resemble the marvellous stories of romantic times, yet, what has happened in our own days, and even upon the spot where Richard displayed his valour as a warrior of the Cross, may be adduced as a strong proof of their truth. Before the walls of Acre, the Turks have again witnessed the persevering intrepidity of Britons; for there "the dauntless seaman," with his brave associates in danger and glory, stopped the progress As Richard Coeur de Lion was on his return of a French army, and compelled their leader, home, he was shipwrecked near Aquileia. He || baffled, and astonished at courage, not surpassed

even by the crusaders of Britain, to desist from
his darling enterprize, and abandon the conquest
of Syria.

travelled in the habit of a pilgrim, but the libe-
rality of his expences betrayed him, and he was
thrown into prison by Leopold Duke of Austria,
whom he had offended at the siege of Acre.—
This sordid prince sold him to the Emperor
Henry the Sixth, who had taken offence at Rich-
ard's alliance with the King of Sicily. The
place of his captivity was carefully concealed by
his enemies, but it was discovered by Blondel, a
provincial bard and minstrel, who had 'shared his
friendship and his bounty; having travelled over
many parts of Europe to learn the fate of his be-
loved master, the active Blondel at length gained
intelligence, that in a certain castle in Germany,
a noble prisoner was confined, and closely guard-phorus.
ed. The gates of the castle were barred against
him, but he was determined to try an expedient
for making the desired discovery: he chaunted,
with a loud voice, some verses of a song which
had been composed, partly by Richard, and
partly by himself; and, to his unspeakable joy,
when he paused, the second part was continued
by the royal captive. This discovery is said to
have led to his release. Vain were the remon-
strances of the bishops of Normandy to the Pope
in his behalf, exhorting him to draw the sword
of St. Peter against the Emperor, for doing vio-
lence against one of the soldiers of the church.
And as ineffectual, for some time, were the spi-
rited letters of Eleonora, the mother of Richard,
to the Pope.

The mercenary Emperor at last, not influenced by the Pope's threats of excommunication, but by the offer of a large ransom, restored Richard to liberty A. D. 1194, after a captivity of a year. Pierced by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Calais, his death happened about five years after, A. D. 1199. His formidable name is said to have been continued in proverbial sayings in the East. It was used for sixty years after by the Syrian mother, to silence her child; and the rider was wont to exclaim to his starting horse, “ Dost thou think King Richard is in that bush?"-The Arabian historians have added to his fame, and mention him as one of the bravest champions of the Cross.


The French, commanded by Baldwin, Count of Flanders, in alliance with the Venetians, embarked in the fourth crusade: they espoused the cause of the young Alexius, the son of the deposed Emperor Isaac. Constantinople was taken by the inferior army of the crusaders; and the timid usurper, basely deserting his fair daughter, Irene, and his subjects, carrying away much treasure, privately retreated through the BosThe old Emperor was restored to his throne, only to be again loaded with chains by Alexius Ducas, a relation, who put him and his son to death, and assumed the Imperial purple. With the consent of the tumultuous populace, the Latins, to revenge these atrocities, again attacked the city; and such was the terror of the Greeks, on their approach, that Nicetas, one of their historians, relates, that the thousands of troops, who guarded the Emperor's person, fled at the approach of a single French hero. The conquerors, unmoved by the solemn procession and abject supplications of the Greek priests, indulged in the licence allowed to those who take a city by storm, except the effusion of blood. They divided from a common stock the gold, silver, silks, velvet, furs, gems, and spices, and other treasures of the most splendid city in the world (1204). They profaned the sacred vessels and ornaments of the churches by common use, melted down the beautiful antique statues of brass into money for the payment of the troops; and, in the true spirit of the age, reserved the heads, bones, crosses, and images of their saints, as the most precious trophies of their conquest. The Greek provinces were divided among the victorious crusaders of Venice, France, and Lombardy. Dandole, the Doge of Venice, who had taken a most active part in the enterprize, was proclaimed Governor of Romania, and ended at Constantinople his glorious life. Five Latin Emperors, of the houses of Flanders

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