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ter mutually attract attention, and thus trifles / ists, it is the result of education and habits of become interesting."
life. From a difference in these originates all the The young Clairville here interrupted the sage disparity in intellectual powers that can be obinstructor“ Permit me, Sir,” said he, “ to served between the two sexes, and which is no Inention a remark which I have frequently made longer discoverable when similar circumstance, in the course of our excursion: the legends of or equal opportunities, have called female abilisaperstition, the tales of scandal, and all the ties into exertion, and given expansion to their farrago of absurdities that occupy the minds and ideas. Females have made a distinguished figure exercise the tongues of the people with whom I in every situation of life, as well as in every de. have of late so frequently conversed, are gene- || partment of science and literature ; and you are rally represcribed as the topics only of female not ignorant that the number of those who have gossips, and on that account are denominated been eminent for their talents, as well as their old women's tales ; an expression which seems | virtues, crowd the page of history. In native to indicate their peculiar and exclusive appro- | vigour of mind, and in understanding, one sex priation to that class of beings; but to my ex cannot claim any advantage over the other; and ceeding great surprize, I have generally found the your own observations in this place, may consame ideas equally prevalent, and the same sub-vince you, that where the education of both is jects of conversation equally common among the nearly equal, and the hábits of life strikingly simen as among the other sex. Their notions are milar, their ideas will be confined within the absurd, and their conversation, for the most part, sanie circle. Absurd ideas, and scandalous reas uninteresting ; and the male and female ports, indeed, are held up to ridicule by their gossips appear, in this respect, to differ only inappropriation to old occurrèrices ; but although sex. In their mutual associations they are per-custom has established this kind of phraseology, fectly similar, and both may be included in one we are only to consider it as a figurative mode of general representation."
expression, indicative of mental debility, or mo“ This, my dear Sir," returned M. de Palaise, ral profligacy; for in this signification of the “ought not to excite your astonishment: Na- term, there are old women in breeches as well as ture has made no difference in the male and fe- || in petticoats ; and indeed it is not easy to determale intellect. The mental endowments of the mine which are the most numerous. latter are in no respect inferior to those of the
[To be continued.] former sex, and where any such inferiority ex
Few expeditions are more extraordinary | regard, and to be connected with a right under. than those which were undertaken for the re standing of the feudal system. covery of the Holy Land from the Turks by the From the æra of the crusades may be traced Crusades They took the name of Crusaders, or the diffusion of several kinds of knowledge, and Croises, from the cross which they wore on their from the communication of the western with the shoulders, in gold, silk, or cloth; in the first eastern nations, arose a succession of causes, crusade all were red, in the third the French which with different degrees of influence, or with alone preserved that colour, while green crosses more or less rapidity, contributed to introduce were adopted by the Flemings, and white by the order and improvement into society. Judea, or English; each company likewise bore a standard | the Holy Land, was the highest object of veneon which was painted a cross.
ration to the Christians of the middle ages; there If we consider the great number of Europeans || had lived the Son of God, there he had performed who were engaged in them, or their long and ob- ll the most astonishing miracles, and there he had stinate perseverance in the same design, notwith || suffered death for the sins of the world. His standing numerous hardships, losses, and defeais; holy sepulchre was preserved at Jerusalem; and and if we reflect upon the important conse as a degree of veneration was annexed to this quences with which thuse enterprises were at place, nearly approaching to idolatry, a visit to it tended, both to themselves and their descendants, was regarded as the most meritorious service the history of the crusades, including a period of which could be paid to Heaven, and it was one hundred and seventy-five years, from A. D. eagerly frequented by crowds of pilgrims fron 1095 to 1270, will be found to deserve particular every part of Europe.
If it be natural to the human mind to survey than their companions, had been defeated; and those spots which have been the abodes of illus. of the first crusaders very great numbers are said trious persons, or the scenes of great transactions, to have perished before a single city was taken with delight, what must have been the venera from the Infidels. These misfortunes were so tion with which the Christians of those times, far from extinguishing, that they rather tended the ruling passion of whose mind was religious to increase the enthusiasm of the Christians, enthusiasm, regarded a country which the Al The most eminent chieftains of the age, remighty had selected as the residence of his be nowned for their prowess in arms, engaged in loved Son, and the place where ţhat Son had the crusade without delay. Godfrey of Bouillon, shed his precious blood to expiate the sins, and Duke of Brabant, a descendant of the Einperor accomplish the redemption of mankind. The Charlemagne, with his two brothers, Eustace and zealous travellers who made a pilgrimage to Baldwin, Hugh, Count of Vermandoes, brother Palestine, were long exposed to the insults, ex to the King of France, Robert, Duke of Nortortions, and cruelty of the Infdels; but at mandy, eldest son of William the Conqueror, length their complaints roused the Europeans to King of England, Robert, Count of Flanders, attempt their expulsion.
Steven, Count of Blois, one of the richest and
most powerful princes of that age, the number: THE FIRST CRUSADE FROM A.D. 1095 To 1099.
of whose castles equalled that of the days of the Peter, surnamed the Hermit, a native of year, were the leaders of the French, the NorAmiens, in Picardy, was the most zealous and man, and the English forces. Adhemer the indefatigable promoter of this first expedition ; legate of the Pope, and Raimond, Count of he was a man of acute understanding, and keen Thoulouse, took the command of those who observation; in the garb of a pilgrim he had went from the south of France, Lombardy, and visited the holy sepulchre, and had noticed the Spain; Bohemond, and his cousin, the accomirisults and hardships to which the Christians plished Tancred, princes of the Norman race, were exposed. He brought letiers from the were accompanied by several nobles of that proPatriarch of Jerusalem to Pope Urban II. in vince; they were followed by their numerous which their sufferings were described in the most adherents and vassals, whese services were either pathetic terms; and the Christian states of prompted by zeal and attachment to their reEurope were exhor:ad to redress their grievances, spective lords, or purchased with rewards and and retaliate upon their Infidel tyrants, from an promises. apprehension that the Turks, more ferocious, Their principal force was cavalry, chiefly comand more suttle than the Saracens, were aiming | posed of gentlemen invested with the honour of At universal empire. The ambassadors of the knighthood. When their collected forces were Greek Emperor, Alexius Comnenus, repre mustered upon the plains of Bithynia, the sented in the council of Placentia, 10 the numer knights and their martial attendants amounted ous bishops and clergy there asseinbled, the to 100,000 fighting men, completely armed with imminent danger of their master, and his capital, || the helmet and coat of mail. The princess Anna, from the vicinity of the Turks.
the daughter of the Greek Emperor, compared The Pope afterwards, in a great council held their numbers, but much in the style of Eastern at Clermont, enlarged upon the same topics, and exaggeration, to locusts, to leaves of trees, or stated, that the desire of the Turks for empire the sands of the sea. Constantinople was at that could only be satisfied with the conquest of the time the largest, as well as the most beautiful whole world. The indignation and ardour of city in Europe; it alone retained the inage of persons of all ranks were excited, and they re ancient manners and arts; it was the place where solved to commence ihe expedition to the Holy manufactures of the most curious fabric were Land without delay. Peter the Hermit, with wrought, and was the mart of Europe for all the sandals on his feet, and a rope round his waist, led commodities of the East; the seat of empire, the way; a great number of devotees, chiefly elegance, and magnificence, was appointed as a peasants, neither furnished with necessaries, nor general rendezvous for all the crusaders. regulated by discipline, followed his steps; their Several contemporary writers were witnesses to ignorance magnified their hopes, and lessened this singular assembly of different nations, and the dangers of the undertaking. In the forests | they have given a lively picture of the characters of Hungary and Bulgaria, many of them fell a l and manners of each people. When the polite sacrifice to the indignation of the inhabitants, natives of the metropolis of the East speak of provoked by their rapine and plunder. A pyra
the northern warriors, they describe them as barmid of bones, erected by Solyman, the Emperor barous, illiterate, fierce, and savage; and they of the Turks, near the city of Nice, marked the sometimes inveigh against them with great sevespot where many of those who penetrated farther rity, and relate instances of their violence in
terms not unlike those which preceding histo The conquests acquired in this first crusade rians had employed in describing the incursions were comprised within the small territory of of the Gothi and Vandals, when they overturned Jerusalem, the dominion of which lasted rather the Roman empire. On the other hand, the longer than fourscore years; the principality crusaders, while they despised the effeminate of Antioch and Edessa, extending over Mesowanners and unwarlike character of the Greeks, potamia, possessed wy Bohemond, and retained were surprised at the wealth and magnificence of about forty years; and the Tiberiad, assigned to their metropolis.
Tancred. Encouraged by such delusive prosThe progress of the crusaders was attended pects of establishing a Christian empire in the with many Aattering instances of their success ; Holy Land, the Pope and the clergy continued they took Nice, at that time the capital of the to recommend this sacred war with increased arTurkish empire, the seat of Sultan Solyman in dour. It was still represented to the people as Asia Minor, and they defeated him in two the cause of God and of Christ, in which death pitched battles. After crossing mount Taurus, I would confer the merit of martyrdum, and parathey besieged Antioch, a place of great strength. | dise would be equally the reward of defeat or Before the capture of that important place, many || victory. of their troops were lost by famine, and after it, many perisined by pestilence; but undismarei
THE SECOND CRUSADE, A.D. 1147. by these misfortunes they continued their zealous Forty eight years after the deliverence of Jeru. career. The lofty walls of Jerusalem at length salem the second crusade was undertaken. struck their eyes; and as soon as they beheld St. Bernard, famed for his eloquence and piety, this hallowed object of their affections, they and thegreat influence which he obtained amongst raised a general shout of joy, and then devoutly the people, flourished at the beginning of the fell prosirate on their faces, and kissed th“ ground twelfth century; armed with the authority of the whereon the Redeemer of mankind had deigned | Pope, Eugine 111. he fanned the flame of military to tread. The city was strong both by nature fanaticism with a voice which was in every place and art, and defended by the Saracen Caliph of obeyed without delay, he called the nations to the Egypt, at the head of a garrison weil appointed, protec'ion of the holy sepulchre. The fame of and more numerous than the Christian army. his pretended miracles and predictions removed
Forty days were employed in the siege, at the every duubt of success from the minds of his end of which they took the city by storm ; in credulous hearers; insomuch, that all who were the ardour of rage and victory they put multi able to bear arins were eager to participate in the tudes of Jews and Turks to the sword; and such || glory of this warfare. Bernard was invited by the was their thirs: for the extirpation of the Infidels, | bishops and nobles of France, to become a leader that according to the candid account which God in the expedition, which lie so 222 lously recoins frey himself gives of the transaction, so great was mended, but the Pope would not allow him to the slaughter of the enemy in the Te:nple of accept the flittering office. Solyman, that his men stood in blood abuve the The event proved hi'n more fortunate in ad. ancies. They then walked with naked feet in vancing the interests of the church than in the solemn procession to the holy sepulchre, there to success of his projects, or the fulfilment of his return thanks for so great a victory. The Ara- predictions. The court of Rome profited by his bian writers assert, that they continued the mas labours, and canonized his memory. Conrad III. sacre of the Turks, in the adjacent country, for Eniperur of Germany, and Louis VII, King of several weeks together, and assembling all the France, were the principal leaders in the second Jews, burned them in their temple. The Latin crusade; from the hands of Bernard they received historians are very far from contradicting these the cross, with assurances, that he had authority statements, nor do they relate any instances of l from Heaven to promise them victory. Their clemency on this occasion. On Robert, Duke of cavalry was composed of one hundred and forty Normandy, declining the honour, Godfrey of thousand knights, and their immediate attendBouillon, the most worthy of the champions of ants; and if even the light armed troops, the Chri-tendom, was proclaimed King of Jerusalem. women, and children, the pries:s and monks, be In imitation of his Saviour, he was crowned wi'h excluded from the computation of their eifective thorns; he rejected the appendages of royalıy, forces, their number will amount to four hundred and contenteil hinself with the modest title of thousand souls. Manuel the Emperor of the Defender and Baron of the Holy Sepulchre Greeks was accused by his own subjects of giving (1099). Many of his companions returned to intelligence of the plans of the crusaders to the Europe; and his short reign, which continued | Turkish Sultan, and of providing them with treachonly one year, did not give himn time to establish erous guides. The conduct of the Christian leadhis new kingdom,
ers was dictated by no sound policy, or vigorous
co-operation; instead of endeavouring to crush Acre, and they had the joint honour of taking the common foe by a pre-concerted attack at the the place. A capitulation was granted, on consame time on different sides of his territories, || dition of a ransom of 200,000 pieces of gold, the Louis of France had scarcely passed the Bosphorus | deliverance of 100 nobles, and 1500 inferior capwhen he was met by the returning Emperor, who tives, and the restoration of the wood of the had lost the greatest part of his army in a battle | genuine cross of Christ. The delay in the execuon the banks of the Meander. The King of tion of the treaty, inflamed ihe rage of the conFrance advanced through the same country to a querors, and three thousand Turks are said to have similar fate, and was glad to shelter the relics of been beheaded, almost in the view of the Sultan, hisarımy in the sea port of Satalia. At Jerusalem by the orders of Richard. these unfortunate monarchs met to lament their Soon after the surrender of Acre, Phillip quite sad reverses of fortune. The slender remnants of ted Palestine, and Richard Cæur de Lion had the their army were joined to the Christian powers chief command, and added the cities of Cæsarea of Syria, and a fruitless siege of Damascus was the and Jaffa to the kingdom of Lusignan; he led the final effort of the second crusade.
main body of the Christian arıny at the batile of
Ascalon against Saladin and his numerous host. THE THIRD CRUSADE, A. 1). 1190.
The two wings were broken in the beginning of The great Saladin, Sultan of Egyptand Syria, | the fight, by the impetuous Sultan, but Richard encouraged by the inactivity or weakness of the renewed the attack with admirable intrepidity of Christian princes, re-conquered the kingdom of || conduct, and turned the fortune of the conquest Jerusalem, and after a seige of fourteen days took 10 a complete victory. He advanced within a day's the holy city itself, and planted upon its walls march of Jerusalem, and intercepted a caravan of the banners of Mahomet. He treated Sybilla seven thousand camels. Roused by a report that the Queen, a descendant of Count Baldwin, and Jaffa was surprised by Saladin, he sailed for the her consort, Guy of Lusignan, his captives, with place, and leaped first on the shore; the Saracens kindness, and allowed his Christian prisoners their and Turks fied before him in wild dismay. On liberty on condition of paying a moderate ransom. the following morning they returned, and found By the report of these disasters, the zealous prin-him carelessly encamped with only seventeen ces of Europe were again roused to arms, and knights and three hundered archers; regardless Frederic Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany, Rich. of their numbers, he sustained their charge, and ard Cæur de Lion, King of England, and Phillip grasping his lance rode along their front without Augustus, King of France, resolved to retrieve meeting a single adversary who dared to oppose the honour of the Christian arms. They were his career. reinforced not only by the fleets of Genoa, Pisa, In the course of this active campaign, some and Venice, but with the warriors of Flanders and circuinstances occurred to soften the rigour of hosDenmark, remarkable for their lofty stature, and tilities, eren presents were exchanged by the the use of the battle-axe. With Lusignan at courteous warriors; and snow and fruit, were their head they besieged the city of Acre, thirty | given by Saladin, and Norway hawks were exmiles to the south of Tyre, and about seventy | changed for Arabian horses. The health of both from Jerusalem.
Saladin and Richard began to decline, and each The siege, which continued for two years, was wished to return to his own dominions. remarkable for nine battles fought by the united Richard especially, was eager to depart for Moslems of Egypt, Syria, and Arabia, and the Europe, as the perfidious Phillip, in violation of Christians in the neighbourhoud of Mount Car- | his solemn oath, had taken advantage of his ab. mel. The camp of the Christians was wasted by sence to invade Normandy, then a province of famine, and Saladin heard with joy that the Em. || England. A treaty was concluded, on condition peror of Germany had died on his march. The
that Jerusalem, and the holy sepulchre, should be English fleet, assailed by a violent storm, was open without tribute, or molestation to the Latin driven on the coast of Cyprus. Isaac Comnenus, pilgrims, that the Christians should possess the the despot of the place, pillaged the stranded sea coast from Jaffa to Tyre, and that for three ships, and threw the sailors into prison; but the years and three months, all hostilities should cease. gallant Richard took ample vengance for this act The English monarch informed Saladin that of inhumanity, he attacked the plunderer, who he might depend on his return to the Holy Land opposed his landing, took him prisoner, and load to try his fortune once more. The Sultan, with ed himn with chains, he entered Lomisso his capital a degree of courtesy which would have done by storm, and conferred the command of the island honour to the most refined age, replied, that if upon Guy of Lusignan, the expelled King of it must be his misfortune to lose that part of his Jerusalem. At length, however, the fleets of dominions, he would rather lose it to the King Richard and of Phillip, cast anclior in the bay of || of England than to any other monarch in the
world. The death of Saladin, not long after, in. The exploits of the crusaders, and especially spired the Christians with no small exultation, as of Richard Cæur de Lion, may be thought to he had obstructed the career of their conquests resemble the marvellous stories of romantic times, more than any General that had opposed them. yet, what has happened in our own days, and He was exemplary for his piety and his temper even upon the spot where Richard displayed his ance; his drink was water only, and he wore a valour as a warrior of the Cross, may be adduced coarse woollen garment; during his last illness he as a strong proof of their truth. Before the ordered a shroud to be carried through the city, I walls of Acre, the Turks have again witnessed while a cryer went before the procession, and the persevering intrepidity of Britons; for there proclaimed with a loud voice,“ This is all that “ the dauntless seaman,” with his brave assoremains to the mighty Saladin, Sultan of the East." ciates in danger and glory, stopped the progress
As Richard Cour de Lion was on his return of a French army, and compelled their leader, home, he was shipwrecked near Aquileia. He | baffled, and astonished at courage, not surpassed travelled in the habit of a pilgrim, but the libe even by the crusaders of Britain, to desist from rality of his expences betrayed him, and he was his darling enterprize, and abandon the conquest thrown into prison by Leopold Duke of Austria, of Syria. whom he had offended at the siege of Acre. Thus sordid prince sold him to the Emperor
THE FOURTH CRUSADE, 1202. Henry the Sixth, who had taken offence at Rich The French, commanded by Baldwin, Count ard's alliance with the King of Sicily. The of Flanders, in alliance wish the Venetians, emplace of his captivity was carefully concealed by || barked in the fourth crusade: they espoused the bis enemies, but it was discovered by Blondel, a cause of the young Alexius, the son of the de. provincial bard and minstrel, who had 'shared his | posed Emperor Isaac. Constantinople was taken friendship and his bounty; having travelled over by the inferior army of the crusaders; and the many parts of Europe to learn the fate of his be
timid usurper, basely deserting his fair daughter, loved master, the active Blondel at length gained | Irene, and his subjects, carrying away much intelligence, that in a certain castle in Germany, treasure, privately retreated through the Bosa noble prisoner was confined, and closely guard. || phorus. The old Emperor was restored to his ed. Tlie gates of the castle were barred against throne, only to be again loaded with chains by him, but he was determined to try an expedient | Alexius Ducas, a relation, who put him and his for making the desired discovery : he chaunted, son to death, and assumed the Imperial purple. with a loud voice, some verses of a song which With the consent of the tumultuous populace, had been composed, partly by Richard, and the Latins, to revenge these atrocities, again partly by himself; and, to his unspeakable joy, | attacked the city; and such was the terror of the when he paused, the second part was continued | Greeks, on their approach, that Nicetas, one of by the royal captive. This discovery is said to their historians, relates, that the thousands of have led to his release. Vain were the remon troops, who guarded the Emperor's person, fed strances of the bishops of Normandy to the Pope | at the approach of a single French hero. The in his behalf, exhorting him to draw the sword conquerors, unmoved by the solemn procession of St. Peter against the Emperor, for doing vio- | and abject supplications of the Greek priests, inlence against one of the soldiers of the church. | dulged in the licence allowed to those who take And as ineffectual, for some time, were the spi a city by storm, except the effusion of blood, rited letters of Eleonora, the mother of Richard, They divided from a common stock the gold, to the Pope.
silver, silks, velvet, furs, gems, and spices, and The mercenary Emperor at last, not influ other treasures of the most splendid city in the enced by the Pope's threats of excommunication, world (1204). They profaned the sacred vesbut by the offer of a large ransom, restored sels and ornaments of the churches by common Richard to liberty A. D. 1194, after a captivity use, melted down the beautiful antique statues of a year. Pierced by an arrow at the siege of of brass into money for the payment of the the castle of Calais, his death happened about troops; and, in the irue' spirit of the age, refive years after, A. D. 1199. His formidable i served the heads, bones, crosses, and images of name is said to have been continued in prover-their saints, as the most precious trophies of their bial sayings in the East. It was used for sixty conquest. The Greek provinces were divided years after by the Syrian mother, to silence her among the victorious crusaders of Venice, child; and the rider was wont to exclaim to his France, and Lombardy. Dandole, the Doge of starting horse, “ Dost thou think King Richard Venice, who had taken a most active part in the is in that bush?"-The Arabian historians have enterprize, wes proclaimed Governor of Romania, added to his fame; and mention him as one of and ended at Constantinople his glorious life. the bravest champions of the Cross,
Fire Latin Emperors, of the houses of Flanders