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One half of Poland, the Crimea, the Kuban, hasten to inform your excellent excellence, that and a part of the frontiers of Turkey, had yielded the excellent troops of the excellent court have to the arms or the intrigues of Catherine; but I given the French an excellent drubbing." She for the usurpation of another rich and populous amused herself with rallying and laughing at her country she had no need of batiles; for the con. grand-ecuyer and first buffuon; but retired soine. quest of Courland and Semigallia her intrigues | what earlier than usual, assigning as a reason, proved sufficient. The nobles were gained over that too much laughing had given her slight by her emissaries; the people, to elude her op- || symptoms of the colic.

She arose the next pressions, with which they were wearied out, morning at her accustomed hour, and transacred accepted her protection. The acquisition of business with her secretaries; on dismissing the Courland proved, from its corn and timber, and last, she told him to wait in the antichamber, its ports on the Baltic, a valuable prize to Russia. whence she would presently recall him.

The Unsatiated with empire, per petual measures secretary, having wiited for some time, and hear. were taken by Catherine for the annexing to ing no noise in the apartment, begin to grow her dominions new kingdoms and states, whose uneasy. He al last opened the door, and beheld, miserable inhabitants were, on resistance, de

to his surprise and terror, The Empress stretched spoiled of the heritage of their fathers, and driven on the foor, between the iwo doors leading from from their native soil.

the alcove to her closet. She was already with.. Her grandson, Alexander, having been mar out sense or motion. The secretary, on this ried by Catherine to the Princess Louisa of Baden | spectacle, ran to the favourite, whose apartment Durlach, she became also desirous of choosing a was above : phesicians were sent for, and an wife for Constantine. With this view the three universal consternation prevailed. A matress daughters of the Prince of Saxe Coburg were in was spread near the window, on which Catherine vited to her court, and the youngest selected for

was laid; bleeding, bathing, and every means the consort of the Prince.

usually resorted to on such occasions, were emBut in quiet usurpations, in treaties, and alli- | ployed, by which some effect seemed to be proances, her restless mind remained unsatisfied. duced. She was still alive, but without any Thirsting for conquest, and inured to the din of other perceptible motion or sign than the beating war, she turned her arms against Persia. At the of her heart. Every one was eager to dispatch a head of a numerous force, the brother of the messenger to Paul; the brother of the favourite favourite, Zubuff, penetrated into Daghestan, was the person employed in this service. The and laid siege to Derbent; the keys of which situation of the Empress was, till eleven o'clock, were delivered to him by the commandant, a her accustomed hour of seeing her family, kept venerable old man, 120 years of age, the same secret from the Grand-Dukes and from the house who, at the commencement of the century, had hold; every one feared to mention bis appresurrendered Derbent to Peter I. This triumph | hensions; hier death was considered as the epoch received some alloy in a subsequent defeat by the of some extraordinary revolution; the court first, Persian army. But Catherine, not discouraged, and presently the city, were in a state of the most gave orders for the reinforcement of the troops, | alarming agitation. not doubting of their ultimate success.

The Grand-Duke was absent on the arrival of The hope of obtaining a greater triumph also the messenger; six couriers met in the same Mattered her pride: the new treaty concluded instant: Paul was, with his court, gone a few with Austria and Great Britain, secured to her miles to inspect a mill constructed by his orders. the assistance of these powers against Turkey : | On receiving the intelligence, he appeared to be elated with this idea, the period seemed approach- affected; asked a thousand questions, gave instant ing for the accomplishment of her darling plan, orders for his journey, and proceeded rapidly to that of driving the Ottomans out of Europe, and Petersburg; where, arriving with his consort at reigning in Constantinople. Already, in idea, || eight in the evening, he found the palace in conarrived at the summit of her ainbition, her visions || fusion. The courtiers crowded around him ; the of greatness experienced a sudden check. The || favourite, a prey to grief and terror, had relin. magnificent Catharine was not immortal.

quished the reins of empire. On the fourth day of November, 1796, the Paul, accompanied by his family, repaired to Empress displayed in what was called her little the chamber of his mother; who, without shew. hermitage (a small party), uncommon cheerful. ing any consciousness, still existed. The young ness and vivacity. By a vessel froin Lubeck shell princes and princesses, dissolved in tears, formed had received news of the French, under Moreau, l around their grandmother an affecting groupe. having been obliged to repass the Rhine. She | The Grand-Duchesses, the gentlemen and ladies wrote on this occasion the following hunoursus of the court, remained through the night wailing agte to Cobenzel, the Austrian ininister:"I the last sigh of the Empress; the following day

passed in the saine anxious solicitude. Ca hell justice, order, and law, were sometimes violated, rine, still breathing, reinained in a kind of le and the most odious tyranny practised with inthargy; she even moved one of her feet, and punity. Her situation in the empire, Helicate pressed the hand of one of her women. About and often cri'ical, restrained her judgment; it ten in the evening she appeared suddenly to was by suffering her power to be abused hat she revive; a terrible rattling was heard in her throat; was enabled to preserve it; she knew how to the family crowded around her; when, uttering | reward, but dared not always punish. a piercing shriek, she expired, thirty-seven hours For her licentiousness as a woman, no excuse after her first seizure. She karayed no symptomi can be offered; as a sover ign, she must be alof pain till the moment before her decease: a lowed the title of great. If her love of glory too prosperous life was terminated by a happy death. often assuined the features of a des ructive am

The young Grand-Duchesses bewailed in their bition, the praise of an enlightened and magnagrandmother the source whence all their pleasure nimous mind cannot be denied to her. flowed; the ladies and courtiers who had enjoyed It has been well observed, that the splendour her private society, and experienced the captiva- | of her reign, the magnificence of her court, ker tion of her manners, paid a tribute of tears to her institutions, her monuments, and her victories, loss; the happy evenings of the hermitage, the

were to Russia what the age of Louis XIV. had freedom and pleasure which Catherine so well been to Europe; as an individual, the character knew how to ditfuse, were contrasted by them of Catherine had a beiter title to great. The with the military constraint and formal etiquette French formed the glory of Louis, Catherine that which were likely to succeed. The domestics of of the Russians; she reigned not like him over the Empress sincerely mourned a good and gene a polished people, nor had she his advantages. rous mistress, whose mild and equal temper, She had a nation to form, and her measures were superior to petty caprices or sudden gusts of pas her own; however deceived or seduced, she sufsion, whose noble and dignified character, had

fereil not herself to be governed. Humane and rendered their services equally easy and pleasant. i generous, cheerful and amiable, she constituted

Catharine stili retained, though seventy years the happiness of those who surrounded her. Her of age, the vestiges of beauty. She was of the active and regular life, her firmness, courage, and middle stature, and, carrying her head high, ap- sobriety, were moral qualities of no mean value; peared tall; her hair was auburn, her eye-brows i corrupted by prosperity, and intoxicated with dark, and her eyes blue; her countenance, success, her crimes of a darker hue were those of though not deficient in expression, never betrayed her station rather than those of her heart. The what passed in her mind; a mistress of dissimu

barbarous country over which she reigned, the lation, she knew how to command her features.

grossness of its manners, and the difficulties with She became corpulent as she advanced in years, which she had to struggle, must not be forgolien yet her carriage was graceful and dignified. In

in forming an estimate of her character. Whatprivate she inspired, by her conciliatory man.

ever may have been her faulls, and doubtless they ners, confidence and good humour; youth, play

were great, her genius, her talents, her courage, fulness, and gaiety appeared to surround her; but

and her success, must ever entitle her to a high in public, and on proper occasions, she knew how

rank among those women whose qualities and to assume the Empress, to appear the 'Semiramis

attainments have thrown a lustre on their sex. of ihe North,' and to awe by her frowns. She

She aspired to the character of an author, to usually dressed in the Russian mode; she wore which, by her celebrated “Instructions for a Cole a green gown or vest, with close sleeves reaching

of Laws," her dramatic pieces and proverbs, her to the wrist; her hair lightly powdered, and tales and allegories for the improvement of her Howing upon her shoulders, was crowned wi'h a grandchildren, she is justly entitled. Among small cap covered with diamonds; in the latter

the productions of her pen, her Letters to Vol. periods of her life she put on a great quantity of taire are accounted the most interesting. She rouge. In her habits and diet she was strictly composed also for the Imperial family a plan of temperate; she took a ligh: breakfast, ate a mo

education, compiled principally from the writings deraie dinner, and had no supper.

of Locke and Rousseau, which reflects infinite The estimate of her character must be formed

credit on her liberality and discernment. from her actions; her reign was perhaps for her

There are few reigns more interesting than that people rai her brilliant than happy. Within the

of Catherine, more strictly biographical; few that circle of her influence, her governinent was ino involve more important principles, that afford a derale and benign; at a distance, terrible and

wider scope, or that more forcibly tend to awaken despotic; under the protection of her favourites, reflection,





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SHAH GEDAL was (we know not wherefore) no other purpose than to disseminate a spirit of 60 well salisfied with the narrative of the philo- | effeminacy throughout the world, deterring the sopher Danishmende, particularly with the con members of the community froin all laborious clusion of it, that he immediately ordered him exertion and arduous enterprise, and hy exciting to be paid five hundred baham-d'ors from his the general desire to become as happy as these treasury. Whenever the place of superintendant imaginary darlings of nature, whose voluptuous of the dervises and bonzes, added he, shall be- || morality is given us for wisdom, to bring matters come vacant, Danishmende shall have it.

to such a pass that nobody will any longer be : It was not by chance, but because the Sultan || willing to cultivate the ground, to execute labo. of Nurmahal had been previously informed that rious works, and to venture his life at sea, or the dervises were displeased with the conclusion against the enemies of the country. In general, of the doctor's story, that the principal iman of to the perfecting of any branch of the political the court received a command to attend upon welfare, it is necessary to have people who are the Sultan that night at bed time. His majesty not averse to labour, and who vie with each other was not a little delighted in the embarrassment in such obstinate patient industry as no effemi. which he conceived the iman must feel at the nate character is capable of, * for bringing sonie - metamorphosis of the emir into a dervise. But particular useful occupation to perfection. Is it probably because the iman, without being there ever to be expected that a voluptuous merchant fore more cunning than others, could not fail uf can become rich, a voluptuous artist expert, or perceiving why he had the honour of being there, à voluptuouis scholar famous ? Will not this kept so strict a guard over himself that not the remark infallibly hold good, at least, in general ? least sign of uneasiness escaped him. · However, or shall we imagine that a voluptuous judge he could not refrain from niaking the remark- will execute his function the more punctiliously that even if there were, which he might reason. and conscientiously, or an effeminate commander ably doubt, such a tribe in the world as these conduct himself more gallantly for coming from pretended children of nature, yet he thought it the lap of luxury, better sustain the hardships of would be much better, either entirely to sup a campaign, and more quickly and surely lay press the account of it, or at least not let it get the enemies of the Sultan, our master, prostrate abroad among the people.

at his feet? You see, Mr. Danishmende, that And for what reasons, if we may be so bold I can have recourse to the weapons which my with your reverence ? asked the Sultan.

peculiar station furnishes ine with against you. I extend this my opinion, returned the iman, While the iman was making this fine speech, to all those accounts of I know not what ideal | The Sultan, with half shut eyes, and in a languid beings, who are reigned to lead, under the pre tone, amused himself with singing Ln faridontended sceptre of nature, an unsolicitous life, laine la faridondon, dondaine dondon dondaine, consisting of one continued tissue of voluptuousness and agreeable sensations. The more inno Although it is not to be denied that the cent and amiable their manners are represented iman here produces some truths, yet we cannot to be, the more mischievous is the impression forbear to observe, that this last position is false; such figments will make upon the great nulii- || Solon, Pisistratus, Alcibiades, Demetriu: Poliora tude. To speak honestly (continued he, in a cetes, Julius Cæsar, Anthony, and ten thousand soft insinuating tone, expressly adapted to his

other instances have in all ages shewn the concourteous looks), I cannot see what utility can trary. But, indeed, this iman might not have be expected to result from them, or how we can travelled much in history.-Note of the Latin conceal it from ourselves that they can tend to Translator,

No. XVIII. Vol. II.


dondainè dondaine dondon,- for he was well versed by beautiful and charming objects, the arguments in the tags of old ballads. Now, doctor, ex of the iman prove too much; for the most charmclaimed he, let us hear what arguments thou hast ing descriptions cannot possibly have half the to bring against this.

effect upon us that the objects themselves would I shall, with your majesty's permission, re have. Has nature, on the other hand, benevoturned Danishmende, do nothing more than | lent views, which are only defeated by the genebriefly shew, that the arguments of the iman, in rality, by thoughtlessness, false taste, or corrupt the first place, prove too much ; secondly, too | principles; it is then both honourable and uselittle; and thirdly, nothing at all. Too much- || ful, by such descriptions as those which have the since all his objections apply as forcibly against || misfortune to displease the iman, to lead them nature herself, as to the accounts or figments, back to the path of nature, and to invite them to which to him appear so dangerous; the maxims a wise enjoyment of her bounties. of the wise Psammis, the general observations Secondly, his arguments prove too little; for, and experiments on which his morality is built, if even the whole world were filled with pictures are no fictions. If the state in which his plan of of fortunale islands and happy persons, yet we legislation places the inhabitants of the blissful might bet ten to one, that the passions, which vallies, is the properest possible for humanity, if have in all ages been the movers of the moral it be that wherein mankind suffer the least, !| world, would nevertheless continue their play. which occasions the least evil, least allows them The desire of leading an easy life, in every go. to abuse the bounties of nature, and at the end vernment which is founded on the inequality of of their course least causes them to regret that conditions, will produce the desire of riches, and they have lived, who can, or who has any right to riches the desire of authority, grandeur, and arbi. object to it? Are the agreeable sensations offered trary power. These passions will bring to light us on all hands by nature only like the confec a multitude of talents, as they are more or less tioner's devices for gamishing our table? Are encouraged by the political constitution, or the they merely temptations, intended to discipline accidental nature of the administration; and the us in a meritorious abstinence? If this has been avidity for the most agreeable enjoyment of life, her view, it must be owned that nature has sure from which the iman dreads a general inactivity, prising whims. Can it be taken amiss if we are will have a directly opposite effect; it will suprather inclined to regard them as whimsical ply us with industrious people, inventors, impeople, who would make her such a fool? Or provers, virtuosos, and heros, as many, and per. what blame shall we incur if we look upon these haps more, than we have need of. The ideal curious mortals, who in sober sadness take plea- | delineations of the voluptuousness of the senses, sure for a snare to their virtue, as victims of their of the imagination, and of the heart, will theretormenting effort to destroy the half of their ex fore, from the nature of the case, powerfully istence? Would they with their splenetic hu- | assist in promoting the grand object which his mour, with their melancholy, with their anxious reverence has so much at heart. I have not the dread of every moment making a false step, in least doubt, that as long as we are delighted with short, with all the spectres that haunt their these paintings, we shall wish ourselves to be in morbid fancy, be most qualified to promote their those fortunate islands, those Elysian scenes, or own perfection and the true interests of society ? || however else you choose to call them, where the Your reverence, who are so highly honoured as most agreeable life costs so little; we should, to be admitted 10 the table of the Sultan of India, || however, soon be weary of wishing, and without to have the superintendance of the private con- l expecting suddenly to find a beautiful scollopcerns of five or six of the most beautiful ladies shell car, with six winged unicorns standing in Delhi, and every month slip a hundred baham- ready equipped at our gate, to convey the wisher d'ors into your purse, to provide which a hundred | into the ideal worlds, we should condescend to poor peasants must work and famish themselves apply ourselves to those methods for procuring 10 skin and bone, --imagine, perhaps, the con a happy life which lie within our power, and are dition of a poor fellow who lives upon stale crusts || included in the constitution of that world in which and tank water, and that the delicacy of his senses we are placed. The arguments of the iman may not be seduced, has burnt out his eyes in the therefore prove too little and too much, and cone sun, is not quite so disagreeable, as I will be sequently-nothing at all, which was the third sworn for it, it must be

proposition I promised to evince. However, we Bravo, Danishmende, said the Sultan, in an will suppose the worst instance that can be conunder voice, and an encouraging nod, that did ceived to result from the fictions or descriptions not escape the iman.

in question ; suppose they should have the effect I say, therefore, continued the doctor, unless | of bringing all the nations that dwell between the the design of nature was to decoy us into snares Ganges and the Indus to adopt the resolution of

abdicating their former habits of life (although it their lawgiver were the angel Jesrad himself, is much rather to be feared that my emir-dervise would not be able to subsist ten years without a would convert all Indostan to his fanatical mo Sultan and without an iman. rality, than that Psammis would persuade the I hope so, returned the Sultan. In the mean most inconsiderable province of it to take up his); } time I abide by what I promised thee, Danishwe will nevertheless suppose that might be the mende. Here, iman, your reverence sees the case, what mighty harm, does your reverence appointed successor to the superintendant of the think, would ensue? Psammis would then have dervises. effected what the sages of all countries have been The choice dues honour to your majesty's labouring at for some thousands of years with wisdom, replied the iman, with a look that plainly very moderate success, or do these gentlemen aim spoke the contrary. at something else than to render more happy the It ill becomes a slave to have any wish but condition of mankind ?

the will of his lord, said Danishmende; but, if I In fact, said the Sultan smiling, I myself, and might presume to beg of your majesty some other the iman with his brethren, would have the most trilling lose on such a transformation.

Not a word more, said Shah Gebal; DanishThe danger seems greater than it is, said Nur-mende is the man,--and good night! mahal; sixty millions of people, even though

[To be continued.]

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A MERCHANT whose affairs called him I do not care to trust my slaves, and I wish to abroad, entrusted a purse of a thousand sequins place my treasure in the hands of a man who to a Dervise, whom he looked upon as his friend, enjoys, like you, the most unblemished reputaand begged him to take care of it till his return. tion. If you can take charge of it without in.

At the expiration of a year the merchantre convenience to yourself, I shall to-morrow night turned, and demanded his money; but the send you my most precious effects; but as this Dervise denied ever having received any. The business must be conducted with secrecy, 1 sball merchant, enraged at this perfily, complained to order my confidential slaves to deliver them to the Cadi. “You have trusted him imprudently,” you as if they were a present from me.” answered the judge; you should not have A gracious smile appeared on the face of the placed so much confidence in a man whose fide- | Dervise; he made numberless bows to the Cadi, Jity you had never experienced. It will be dif- thanked him for his confidence, swore he would ficult to compel this knave to restore a deposit keep the treasure as carefully as the apple of his which he received without witnesses ; but I will eye; and retired as contented as if he had see what I can do for you. Return to him, I already cheated the judge. speak to him amicably, but do not let him know The next day the merchant went again to the that I am acquainted with this affair, and call Cadi, and inforined him of the ubstinacy of the here to.morrow at the same hour.”

Dervise. “ Return to him," said the judge, The merchant obeyed, but instead of recover “and if he persists in his refusal, threaten him ing his money, he was grossly abused. During that you will complain to me; I think you will the altercation a slave of the Cadi caine and gave have no occasion to repeat the menace.” the Dervise an invitation from his master.

The merchant immediately went to his debtor; The Dervise attended, was introduced into he no suoner pronounced the Cadi's name, than the principal apartment, received in a friendly the Dervise, who was afraid of losing the treasure manner, and treated with the consideration which which was to be entrusted to him, returned his is usually shewn to persons of distinguished rank. || purse, and laughingly said, “My dear friend, The Cadi discoursed on different subjects, and, why should you have recourse to the Cadi? your as opportunity offered, mingled in the conversa money was safe in my house; my refusal was tion encomiums on the learning and wisdom of only for the joke's sake, to see how you would the Dervise. After gaining his confidence by | take it." such flattering discourse, he added :-" I sent for The merchant was wise enough not to credit you to give you a proof of my confidence and this joke; and returned to the Cadi to thank esteem; an affair of the greatest importance him for his generous succour. obliges me to be away from home some months ; In the mean time the night approached, and

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