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of our intellectual dispositions, according to the of worship; our hills were formerly crowned spot we chuse to inhabit, forms a link of the sys. with monasteries and old abbeys; and from the tem of materialism, which Rousseau pretended | bosom of a corrupted city, the being who hure to attack. The soul was reduced to the state ried away to commit a crime, or launch on the of a plant, yielding to all the variations of the ocean of folly and dissipation, descried, as he surrounding atmosphere, and pointing out its lifted his eyes from the ground, the altars of his tranquillity or agitation, like a common baro- !| offended God, frowning at a distance revenge meter. And how was it possible for J.J. Rous- upon him, or inviting him to repentance. The seau to be sincere in what he wrote on the salu. cross displayed afar the standard of poverty to the tary influence of high places, when he dragged || eyes of the wealthy and luxurious, and inspirert amidst the mountains of Switzerland, his bois. them with ideas of suffering and pity. The terous passions and calamities?
poets, who derided those abodes of piety, In one case alone they can spread over our though often tainted by superstition, must have minds a calm oblivion of the troubles that attend been possessed of a cold heart, and false judgour mortal existence; it is when we shrink from ment, unable to feel and di: tinguish what field the world to consecrate our days to religion. An they opened to the exertions of genius. hermit, whose life is devoted to the service of But this leads me to opinions and sentiments humanity, who delights to meditate in silence on which are entirely foreign to the main question ; the greatness and power of his God, may find joy | after having so severely criticised mountains, it is and peace amongst desert rocks; but it is not but fair I should finish by saying what truth will the tranquillity of the scenes around him which allow me to do in their favour. I have already softens the turmoil of his heart; it is, on the con observed that they are necessary, to complete the trary, the serenity of his soul, which extends a beauty of a landscape, and that they ought to veil of calmness over the regions of storms. form a chain in the back ground of a picture.
A sort of natural instinct has always led men Their hoary heads, naked sides, and gigantic to send forth their prayers to the Almighty from limbs, which appear hideous when viewed too elevated spots; when nearer the sky it seems as near, become sublime, when in a misty horizon though our supplications winged their Aight their shape is softened, and they are clothed in more rapidly, and through a lesser space, to the robes of golden light. We may add that they throne of God. The ancient patriarchs offered supply the springs of rivers, afford a safe asylum their sacrifices on mountains, and, as though they to liberty far from the grasp of oppression, and set had derived one of the attributes of the Divinity boundaries to the overwhelming torrent of war from the altars on which they presented their and invasion. gifts, they called the Lord, the Most High..
E. R. Christianity retained a few traces of this manner
BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF MOZART.
These Anecdotes may interest not only son of a book-binder at Augsburg, was a musician lovers of music, but also all those who study and sub-director in the chapel of the Prince mankind, who follow the species in all its va Archbishop of Saltzburg, He published, in rieties, and who, above all, delight in consider 1756, an elementary work in German, on the ing it in that singular class of beings, whom na most rational method of teaching the violin, ture, by bestowing on them that conformation which was reprinted in 1770. In the earliest of organs from which genius results, destines childhood of his son, he perceived in him a de to something more than to eat, drink, sleep, | cided propensity to music. At four years old kill time, bustle in pursuit of fortune, dignities, || the elements of that art became the chief amusefavour, and gross and vulgar pleasures.
ment of his infancy; a year after, the little MoThe celebrated composer, Mozart, belongs to zart composed minuets and other light pieces of this privileged class He possessed its peculiar | music, which he played, and which his father organization, its arrlent and noble passions, its noted under his direction, in order to excite his inventive mind, its simple manners, and its emulation. In a short time he joined to this weaknesses.
study others which appertain to a good educa. John Chrysostome Wolfgang Theophilus tion; he was particularly attached to that of Mozart, was born at Saltzburg, on the 27th of calculation. These did not, however, impede January, 1756. His father, Leopold Mozart, II his progress in music. His father surprised him
one day, composing a concerto for the harpsi Returned to Saltzburg, after an absence of three chord; he examined it, and found it according years, young Mozart gave himself up with reto the rules, but so difficult that nobody could newed ardour to the study of composition. In
1768, at Vienna, where his sister and he had In 1762, the Mozart family went to Vienna; performed before the Emperor Joseph II. he the young virtuoso was already so expert that composed the music of the mass for the inauguhis father was desirous of his being presented to ration of the church of the Orphan-house, and the Emperor. He was so, with his sister, four, although he was only twelve years old, diyears older, and who showed an early and pro rected that solemn music in presence of the digious talent on the harpsichord. They per. | Imperial court. formed with unbounded applause befine the Towards the end of 1769, Mozart the father, Imperial family. The celebrated Wagenseil was set out for Italy, with only his son. He was then at that court. The infant Mozart, who there as inuch admired as in Germany and in already knew enough to prefer the approbation France. He was not permitted to leave Milan of a great master to every thing, asked the Em- till he had engaged to return thither, and comperor to permit him to attend : “ He ought to pose the first opera for the carnival of the year come, he understands it."--Francis J. command. 1771. ed Wagenseil's attendance, and he was seated At Bologna, the famous Father Martini la. near the harpsichord. The child, more anima vished on him the most flattering testimonies of ted than intimidated by his presence, played one esteem and even of admiration. He gave him of his concertos, and begged him to turn over the most difficult subjects for Fugues, and this the leaves. We are not to forget that this child child of fourteen years old, developed them with was only six years old !
so much art, and executed them with such preAt this age he began to study the violin; in cision, that the learned master, and the able a short time he was as expert at this instrument professors who were assembled to hear him, were as he was at the harpsichord.
struck with astonishinent, and transported with In the following year (1763) the family made | pleasure. a more extensive excursion; he was equally ad After having caused the same sensation in Flomired at all the electoral courts, and afterwards rence, he arrived at Kome on that day in the hoat Paris, where he played concertos on both the ly week when in the Sixtine Chapel the famous fore-mentioned instruments. He played on the Aliserere was performing, which it was prohibited organ, in the king's chapel at Versailles. He, under pain of excommunication to copy, or to and his sister, were heard at Paris with enthusi- || suffer to be copied. Aware of this prohibition, astic rapture. The portrait of the father and of he went with his father to the chapel, where he his two children were engraven. Mozart, aged listened with such attention, that on his return seven years, there composed and published his home, he writ out the whole piece. On the foltwo first works, one dedicated to Madame Vic- lowing Friday, it was performed a second time; toire, and the other to the Countess De Tesse during the performance he held his manuscript
In 1764 they arrived in England, where they in his hat, which was sufficient for him to make had an equal success. These two children then some corrections. This anecdote made much began to play on two harpsichords dialogued noise at Rome. He sung this Miserere in a conconcertos; they were admired by the greatest cert, accompanying himself on the harpsichord; masters, among others by the celebrated Bach. and the principal singer who had sung in the Mozart, in the same year, composed and pub. chapel acknowledged it to be faithful and comlished in London six sonatas, which he dedicaled plete. to the Queen.
He went to Naples, and after some stay he reThey returned to France in 1765, and then turned 10 Rome, when the Pope, who wished to went to Holland, where they were equally well see him, created him a knight of the golden mi. received by the Stadtholder and by the public. Ilitia (auratæ militiæ). On going back to Bologna, In 1766, Mozart composed at the Hague a sym he received a more flattering distinction. After phony for a grand orchestra, on the installation of the proofs required, which he satisfied with an the Stadtholder Prince of Orange, who was then, | amazing promptitude, he was shut up alone, and at eighteen, become of age.
a subject for four voices was given to him, of a He returned to Germany, and the Elector of difficulty proportionate to the idea which was enMunich proposed a musical theme to him, to be tertained of his talents; this he completed in half resolved on the spot. He performed this in an hour; lie was in consequence unanimously presence of the Elector, without violin or harp- l chosen a member of the philharmonic society. sichord, played it, and struck the whole court His engagements recalled him to Milan. On with astonishment and almiration,
the 26th of December, 1770, two months after
his arrival, and under fifteen years of age, he l of a respectable family, by whom he had iwo gavę bis Mithridates, which was performed fifteen children. following nights. In order to form a judginent After having filled Germany, and in some of his success, it may be sufficient to be informed measure Europe, with the productions of bis gethat the manager immediately entered into a vius, he died in 1792, hardly turned of thirty-six. written agreement with him, that he should com His most noted operas are: The Rape of the Sepose the first opera for the year 1773. This was raglio; The Alarriage of Figaro; Don Juan; All Lucius Sylla, which had no less a run than Mi do thus; (cosi fan tutte) The inchanted Flute; thridates, and was represented during six and
The Director of Shows; The Philosopher's Stone; twenty consecutive nights. In the interval of The Clemency of Titus; and Idomeneus. time between these two compositions, he wrote
His instrumental music, as well for the piano ia 1771 at Milan, Ascanio in Alba, for the mar forte as for other instruments, and his symphoriage-festival of the Archduke Ferdinand; and in nies and concertos for grand orchestras, are well 1772, at Saltzburg, among other works, he com known. The chapels in Germany are enriched posed La finta Giardiniera, (the sham female with a great number of his compositions. His gardener) an opera buffa; two grand masses for Requiem, which was composed during the anthe chapel of the Elector of Bavaria; and on the guish and pangs of the disorder which caused his arrival of the archduke Maximilian at Saltzburg, death, and which is regarded as his master-piece, a cantata, or serenade, entitled, Il re pastore (the is preserved with a kind of religious veneration. shepherd king.)
This was the brilliant career of Mozart as an In 1775, he had attained to the highest degree artist. We shall add a few interesting details of of his art; his glory was spread throughout Eu- i his character and private life: striking, from that rope, and he was only nineteen. In 1777, he | species of originality which pleases so inuch in made a second trip to Paris with his mother. He celebrated men, or engaging, from the simplithere had her loss to bewail, which made his city, the goodness, and the ingenuousness which longer stay in that capital insupportable: besides
occasion them. which, the then state of vocal music ouly per
Mozart felt for Haydn a respect and admiramitted him to compose for instruments. After
tion which he lost no opportunity of testifying. having given a symphony at the Concert Spirituel, | Haydn, on his part, always spoke of him with and a few other pieces, he returned to his father || esteem, and with that kind of interest which in 1779.
great talents joined to youth inspire. There In the following year he fixed his residence at was once a dispute before Haydn about the Don Vienna, where he entered into the service of the || Juan of Mozart: endless dissertations were made emperor. He remained always attached to that on its beauties and faults, without the disputants court, notwithstanding he had no reason to be il understanding much of the matter. Haydn said satisfied with its generosity, and in spite of the nothing: at last his opinion was asked. “ All I advantageous proposals which were made to bim | know," answered he, “is, that Mozart is the first by other courts, especially that of Berlin.
composer which the world possesses at present." He married Constance Weber, a young woman
[To he continucıl.]
FAMILIAR LECTURES ON USEFUL SCIENCES.
[Continued from Page 206 ]
Profusion, extravagance. He is profuse who || implies successful application.
We study to pours forth his whole supply; he is extravagant, || learn, we learn hy dint of study. There are who wanders from his right direction. The pro many things which we learn without study, and fuse man errs by the quantity, the extravagant others which we study without learning. They man by the quality of his expenditure. He who are not the wisest who have studied the most ; praises excessively, is profuse; he who praises but they who have learned inuch, inay be counted inappropriately, is extravagant in his fattery. wise.
To study, to learn. To study, inplies uniform Amiable, charming, fascinating --A woman is application in the pursuit of knowledge; to learn, ll rendered amiable by her virtues, charming by lico
accomplishments, and fascinating by her manners mines his own fortune, by improving or neglect. and conversation.
ing the advantages which are thrown in his way; Election, choice.-Election signifies a determi but neither art nor address, nor negligence, can nation less governed by inclination than by cir have the smallest effect on chance. Chance has cumstances. It results from a sentiment less often produced situations which address and sublively, less natural, but more prudent than that | tlety have converted into the means of elevation which prompts choice. Authority or interest to the highest temporal dignities; and thus men may bias an election, or indifference may render | have established their own fortune. it a matter of chance: but choice is an impulse Dictionary, vocabulary, glossary -The first sig. of the heart, and marks an action uninfluenced nifies a great number of words arranged in alphaby external things.
betical order, and of which the import is attached Crime, sin.-A crime is a transgression against
to each word. The words in a vocabulary do not human laws; a sin is an offence against those take this order, nor are they explained in the which are divine. Treason is a crime, and im same way. A glossary is a collection of such piety a sin of deep dye.
words as are rude, barbarous, and but little Dumb, silent, mule.- A person is dumb from known, with the signification of each annexed. an incapacity to be otherwise, silent or mute
Familiar, intimate.-We are familiar with our from disinclination to speak. He may be called | acquaintance, intimate with our friends. We a silent m:n who speaks but little; he is a mute converse with those with whom we are familiar, one, who does not speak at all.
we confide in those with whom we are intimate. Entire, complete. -A thing is entire when it An exemption from vice is all that we need rewants none of its parts, and complete when it quire in the first; the possession of virtue is rewants none of its appendages. A man may have quisite in the last. an entire house, but it is not complete till it is Clearness, perspicuity--Ce que l'on conçoit furnished.
bien, says Boileau, s'enonce clairement. To write Lamentalions, complaints.-We lament our or speak with clearness, one must have a thomisfortunes, we complain of our grievances. We rough comprehension of the ideas one endeavours lament, and obtain pity; we complain, and ob to express. To write with perspicuity, one must tain redress.
unfold these ideas in precise language; in words Realise, effect, erecute. Of the hopes that we that are neither deficient in purity or intelligibi. conceive, few are realised. Of the engagements lity; that are neither superfluous or ill adapted which we inake, not many are effected. Of the to the subject, and that follow such an order of designs that we form, the major part can never be arrangement as bring out the sentiment with acexecuted.
curacy, strengih, and uniiy. Fable, fiction, allegory.--Both a fable and an Promptitude, celerity, diligence.- Promptitude allegory are a fiction, because the word imports || is displayed in immediately commencing what any thing that is the offspring of the imagination, we are required to perform; celerity, in bringing Thus the fables of Æsop and La Fontaine, and it to as speedy a termination as possible; and dithe beautiful allegories of the Visions of Mirz ligence, in adopting the readiest means of doing and the Mount of Misery, found in the Spectator, so. Promptitude admits of no delay, celerity of are all fictions. A fable and an allegory differ, nu interruption, and diligence suffers nothing to however, in this, that the former gives speech escape which it can turn to a good account.and reason to brutes, the latter to qualities; and We oblige by promptitude, we profit by celerity, that the first contains some useful moral or satire, we improve by diligence. We should perform and the last some powerful truth.
good offices with promptitude, transact business Letters, epistles -An epistle conveys an idea with celerity, and advance ourselves in knowledge of something composed with more care than a with diligence. letter. Thus the person to whom a work is de Sentiment, sensation, perception.-Sentiment dicated, is addressed in an epistle dedicatory.- originates in the heart, and may be good or bad, But the word epistle is applied with most pro lively or languid, low or elevated - Sensation pri ty to the letters of the ancients, written in the arises from something acting upon the senses, dead languages, as the epistles of Cicero, of Se and may be painful or pleasing, prolonged or neca, of Pliny, and of the Apostles.
contracted, acute or blunt. Perception is a term, however, which usage justifies the appli power of the mind, and extends to every thing cation of to some modern compositions, such as capable of awakening an image in the soul. imitations of the Letters of Horace, in verse : Frivolous, futile. That which is frivolous thus it is proper to say, the epistles of Despréaux, wants solidity, and that which is futile wants or of Rousseau.
consistency. Theone is trifling, the other changeForlune, chance.--A man sometimes deter- | able. Thus we say of a pursuit which has no
It is a
object, or, at least, none of any importance, vices; but he is not reformel lill he has aban. that it is frivolous; and of a determination in doned the whole of them. fluenced by whim, passion, or opinion, that it is Sound of the voice, tone of the voice.We futile.
readily know persons or instruments from the To guide, to conduct.-We guide, by pointing sound of their voices. The voice may be soft or out the path to be pursued; we conduct, by in- || harsh, strong or weak, agreeable or disagreeable, ducing a disposition to pursue it. The preceptor but it is always the same, we cannot alter it. guides his pupil by teaching him to think justly ; || The tones of a voice are capable of great variety; the parent conducis his child by influencing him they may be high or low, lively or serious, imto act wisely. The compass guides the mariner, || perious or submissive, as we choose to make the pilot conducts the ship.
them. The sound of the voice does not affect Care, anxiety, solicitude.-Cure fetters the us, but its tones can produce great emotion. mind; it occupies. Anxiety interrupts its tran Beatification, canonization. Both these terms quillity ; it agitates. Solicitude destroys its re imply the creation of a saint, but with a consipose; it absorbs. Care relates to the ordinary derable diversity in the circumstance. In the objects of life, anxiety to some important event first, the Pope exercises his authority no farther which is pending, and solicitude to something than by granting to a certain religious order or which is continually the object of our desire. A community, perinission to render a particular man in business has his cares, a speculator his worship to the person beatised. A canonization anxieties, a parent her solicitude.
is atiended with many ceremonies which do not Fasting, ubstinence.-Fasting, is abstaining | distinguish a beatification, and is solemnized by from food; abstinence, from whatever can gra the Pope himself, who determines the nature of tify the senses. We sometimes fast from choice, the worship that shall be paid to the saint. This We are never abstinent but from principle. worship is not like that paid to the beatified, con
Reformation, reform.-Reformation is always find 10 a particular order of ecclesiastics, it exin a state of progression; reform is reformation tends to all who possess the Catholic faith. completed. The reforination of a man has commenced when he has abandoned any of his
[To be continued.]
ON THE CULTURE OF THE SUN-FLOWER, AND ITS ADVANTAGES.
The sun-flower of which we intend to treat, Il distant, and in these rows shallow holes are to be is the annual species, Helianthus annuus, Linn. made at a foot distance from each other, in which tournesol, or soleil. It was brought from Peru, (wo seeds must be dropt, and if they both sucand first cultivated in England in 1596.
ceed, the most feeble ought to be taken away, The perennial species, Helianthus multiflorus, and either transplanted or destroyed. The plants, was introduced in this country in 1698, arid only which must be carefully weeded, will grow to the serves to ornament gardens, but the annual is height of six or even nine feet; the stalks are interesting in itself and of great use in agriculture. for six to eight inches in circumference near
The seeds of this plant are either white, gray, the ground. It flowers towards the end of Auor blackish. These differences in colour do not gust, and the seeds are ripe in the autumn, along indicate any in species or varieties. From black with the maize or Indian wheat. Rainy seasons seeds, plants are produced which bear white ones, are noxious to these plants; the bottom of the and reciprocally. There are however two va stalk rots in the earth, the leaves dry all at once, rieties of annual sun-flowers which remain con the stalk breaks even with the soil, and the plant stantly the same; that with single stalks, and dies: a few sunshining days stop or retard the that, less common, with branching stalks.
progress of this evil. In the spring, when there is no longer reason to The leaves of the sun-flower are an agreeable fear any frost, which would kill the young plants, and abundant aliment for cattle; they may be in the first and second week of May, or even stripped from the plant successively withou: detrilater, the seeds are to be sown in a rich and well ment. After this crop of excellent fodder, follows dunged soil ; if many acres are to be sown, the the plentiful one of the seeds; of which some seeds may be scattered at random, and the planı plants will yield above ten thousand. afterwards thinned; but the best way is :o set The best method of gainering these, is to cut them in regular rows, which should be two feetll off the pedicle, or foot-stalk, and as the calix is