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of our intellectual dispositions, according to the spot we chuse to inhabit, forms a link of the system of materialism, which Rousseau pretended to attack. The soul was reduced to the state of a plant, yielding to all the variations of the surrounding atmosphere, and pointing out its tranquillity or agitation, like a common barometer. And how was it possible for J. J. Rousseau to be sincere in what he wrote on the salutary influence of high places, when he dragged amidst the mountains of Switzerland, his boisterous passions and calamities?
In one case alone they can spread over our minds a calm oblivion of the troubles that attend our mortal existence; it is when we shrink from the world to consecrate our days to religion. An hermit, whose life is devoted to the service of humanity, who delights to meditate in silence on the greatness and power of his God, may find joy and peace amongst desert rocks; but it is not the tranquillity of the scenes around him which softens the turmoil of his heart; it is, on the contrary, the serenity of his soul, which extends a veil of calmness over the regions of storms.
BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF MOZART.
THESE Anecdotes may interest not only lovers of music, but also all those who study mankind, who follow the species in all its varieties, and who, above all, delight in consider ing it in that singular class of beings, whom nature, by bestowing on them that conformation of organs from which genius results, destines to something more than to eat, drink, sleep, kill time, bustle in pursuit of fortune, dignities, favour, and gross and vulgar pleasures.
The celebrated composer, Mozart, belongs to this privileged class He possessed its peculiar organization, its ardent and noble passions, its inventive mind, its simple manners, and its weaknesses
John Chrysostome Wolfgang Theophilus Mozart, was born at Saltzburg, on the 27th of January, 1756. His father, Leopold Mozart,
of worship; our hills were formerly crowned with monasteries and old abbeys; and from the bosom of a corrupted city, the being who hur ried away to commit a crime, or launch on the ocean of folly and dissipation, descried, as he lifted his eyes from the ground, the altars of his offended God, frowning at a distance revenge upon him, or inviting him to repentance. The cross displayed afar the standard of poverty to the eyes of the wealthy and luxurious, and inspired them with ideas of suffering and pity. The poets, who derided those abodes of piety, though often tainted by superstition, must have been possessed of a cold heart, and false judgment, unable to feel and distinguish what field they opened to the exertions of genius.
But this leads me to opinions and sentiments which are entirely foreign to the main question; after having so severely criticised mountains, it is but fair I should finish by saying what truth will allow me to do in their favour. I have already observed that they are necessary, to complete the beauty of a landscape, and that they ought to form a chain in the back ground of a picture. Their hoary heads, naked sides, and gigantic limbs, which appear hideous when viewed too near, become sublime, when in a misty horizon their shape is softened, and they are clothed in robes of golden light. We may add that they supply the springs of rivers, afford a safe asylum to liberty far from the grasp of oppression, and set boundaries to the overwhelming torrent of war and invasion.
son of a book-binder at Augsburg, was a musician and sub-director in the chapel of the Prince Archbishop of Saltzburg. He published, in 1756, an elementary work in German, on the most rational method of teaching the violin, which was reprinted in 1770. In the earliest childhood of his son, he perceived in him a decided propensity to music. At four years old the elements of that art became the chief amusement of his infancy; a year after, the little Mozart composed minuets and other light pieces of music, which he played, and which his father noted under his direction, in order to excite his emulation. In a short time he joined to this study others which appertain to a good education; he was particularly attached to that of calculation. These did not, however, impede his progress in music. His father surprised him
Returned to Saltzburg, after an absence of three years, young Mozart gave himself up with renewed ardour to the study of composition. la 1768, at Vienna, where his sister and he had performed before the Emperor Joseph II. he composed the music of the mass for the inauguration of the church of the Orphan-house, and although he was only twelve years old, directed that solemn music in presence of the Imperial court.
Towards the end of 1769, Mozart the father, set out for Italy, with only his son. He was there as much admired as in Germany and in France. He was not permitted to leave Milan till he had engaged to return thither, and compose the first opera for the carnival of the year
In 1762, the Mozart family went to Vienna; the young virtuoso was already so expert that his father was desirous of his being presented to the Emperor. He was so, with his sister, four years older, and who showed an early and prodigious talent on the harpsichord. They performed with unbounded applause before the Imperial family. The celebrated Wagenseil was then at that court. The infant Mozart, who already knew enough to prefer the approbation of a great master to every thing, asked the Emperor to permit him to attend: "He ought to come, he understands it."-Francis I. commanded Wagenseil's attendance, and he was seated near the harpsichord. The child, more animated than intimidated by his presence, played one of his concertos, and begged him to turn over the leaves. We are not to forget that this child was only six years old!
At Bologna, the famous Father Martini lavished on him the most flattering testimonies of esteem and even of admiration. He gave him the most difficult subjects for Fugues, and this child of fourteen years old, developed them with so much art, and executed them with such precision, that the learned master, and the able professors who were assembled to hear him, were struck with astonishment, and transported with pleasure.
At this age he began to study the violin; in a short time he was as expert at this instrument as he was at the harpsichord.
In the following year (1763) the family made a more extensive excursion; he was equally admired at all the electoral courts, and afterwards at Paris, where he played concertos on both the fore-mentioned instruments. He played on the organ, in the king's chapel at Versailles. He, and his sister, were heard at Paris with enthusiastic rapture. The portrait of the father and of his two children were engraven. Mozart, aged seven years, there composed and published his two first works, one dedicated to Madame Vic-lowing Friday, it was performed a second time; toire, and the other to the Countess De Tessé
After having caused the same sensation in Florence, he arrived at Rome on that day in the holy week when in the Sixtine Chapel the famous Miserere was performing, which it was prohibited under pain of excommunication to copy, or to suffer to be copied. Aware of this prohibition, he went with his father to the chapel, where he listened with such attention, that on his return home, he writ out the whole piece. On the fol
In 1764 they arrived in England, where they had an equal success. These two children then began to play on two harpsichords dialogued concertos; they were admired by the greatest masters, among others by the celebrated Bach. Mozart, in the same year, composed and pub-chapel acknowledged it to be faithful and com lished in London six sonatas, which he dedicated to the Queen.
during the performance he held his manuscript in his hat, which was sufficient for him to make some corrections. This anecdote made much noise at Rome. He sung this Miserere in a concert, accompanying himself on the harpsichord; and the principal singer who had sung in the
They returned to France in 1765, and then went to Holland, where they were equally well received by the Stadtholder and by the public.-| In 1766, Mozart composed at the Hague a symphony for a grand orchestra, on the installation of the Stadtholder Prince of Orange, who was then, at eighteen, become of age.
He returned to Germany, and the Elector of Munich proposed a musical theme to him, to be resolved on the spot. He performed this in presence of the Elector, without violin or harpsichord, played it, and struck the whole court with astonishment and admiration.
He went to Naples, and after some stay he returned to Rome, when the Pope, who wished to see him, created him a knight of the golden militia (auratæ militiæ). On going back to Bologna, he received a more flattering distinction. After the proofs required, which he satisfied with an amazing promptitude, he was shut up alone, and a subject for four voices was given to him, of a difficulty proportionate to the idea which was entertained of his talents; this he completed in half an hour; he was in consequence unanimously chosen a member of the philharmonic society.
His engagements recalled him to Milan. On the 26th of December, 1770, two months after
his arrival, and under fifteen years of age, he || of a respectable family, by whom he had two gave his Mithridates, which was performed fifteen following nights. In order to form a judgment of his success, it may be sufficient to be informed that the manager immediately entered into a written agreement with him, that he should compose the first opera for the year 1773. This was Lucius Sylla, which had no less a run than Mithridates, and was represented during six and twenty consecutive nights. In the interval of time between these two compositions, he wrote in 1771 at Milan, Ascanio in Alba, for the marriage-festival of the Archduke Ferdinand; and in 1772, at Saltzburg, among other works, he composed La finta Giardiniera, (the sham female gardener) an opera buffa; two grand masses for the chapel of the Elector of Bavaria; and on the arrival of the archduke Maximilian at Saltzburg, a cantata, or serenade, entitled, Il re pastore (the shepherd king.)
In 1775, he had attained to the highest degree of his art; his glory was spread throughout Europe, and he was only nineteen. In 1777, he made a second trip to Paris with his mother. He there had her loss to bewail, which made his longer stay in that capital insupportable: besides which, the then state of vocal music only permitted him to compose for instruments. After having given a symphony at the Concert Spirituel, and a few other pieces, he returned to his father in 1779.
In the following year he fixed his residence at Vienna, where he entered into the service of the emperor. He remained always attached to that court, notwithstanding he had no reason to be satisfied with its generosity, and in spite of the advantageous proposals which were made to him by other courts, especially that of Berlin.
He married Constance Weber, a young woman
After having filled Germany, and in some measure Europe, with the productions of his genius, he died in 1792, hardly turned of thirty-six.
His most noted operas are: The Rape of the Seraglio; The Alarriage of Figaro; Don Juan; All do thus; (cosi fan tutte) The inchanted Flute; The Director of Shows; The Philosopher's Stone; The Clemency of Titus; and Idomeneus.
His instrumental music, as well for the piano forte as for other instruments, and his symphonies and concertos for grand orchestras, are well known. The chapels in Germany are enriched with a great number of his compositions. His Requiem, which was composed during the anguish and pangs of the disorder which caused his death, and which is regarded as his master-piece, is preserved with a kind of religious veneration.
This was the brilliant career of Mozart as an artist. We shall add a few interesting details of his character and private life: striking, from that species of originality which pleases so much in celebrated men, or engaging, from the simplicity, the goodness, and the ingenuousness which
Profusion, extravagance-He is profuse who pours forth his whole supply; he is extravagant, who wanders from his right direction. The profuse man errs by the quantity, the extravagant man by the quality of his expenditure. He who praises excessively, is profuse; he who praises inappropriately, is extravagant in his flattery.
To study, to learn.-To study, implies uniform application in the pursuit of knowledge; to learn,
Mozart felt for Haydn a respect and admiration which he lost no opportunity of testifying. Haydn, on his part, always spoke of him with esteem, and with that kind of interest which great talents joined to youth inspire. There was once a dispute before Haydn about the Don Juan of Mozart: endless dissertations were made on its beauties and faults, without the disputants understanding much of the matter. Haydn said nothing: at last his opinion was asked. "All I know," answered he, "is, that Mozart is the first composer which the world possesses at present." [To be continued.]
FAMILIAR LECTURES ON USEFUL SCIENCES.
implies successful application. We study to learn, we learn by dint of study. There are many things which we learn without study, and others which we study without learning. They are not the wisest who have studied the most; but they who have learned much, may be counted wise.
Amiable, charming, fascinating-A woman is rendered amiable by her virtues, charming by her
accomplishments, and fascinating by her manners and conversation.
Election, choice.-Election signifies a determination less governed by inclination than by circumstances. It results from a sentiment less lively, less natural, but more prudent than that which prompts choice. Authority or interest may bias an election, or indifference may render it a matter of chance: but choice is an impulse of the heart, and marks an action uninfluenced by external things.
Crime, sin-A crime is a transgression against human laws; a sin is an offence against those which are divine. Treason is a crime, and impiety a sin of deep dye.
Dumb, silent, mule.—A person is dumb from an incapacity to be otherwise, silent or mute from disinclination to speak. He may be called a silent man who speaks but little; he is a mute one, who does not speak at all.
Entire, complete -A thing entire when it wants none of its parts, and complete when it wants none of its appendages. A man may have an entire house, but it is not complete till it is furnished.
mines his own fortune, by improving or neglect. ing the advantages which are thrown in his way; but neither art nor address, nor negligence, can have the smallest effect on chance. Chance has often produced situations which address and subtlety have converted into the means of elevation to the highest temporal dignities; and thus men have established their own fortune.
Dictionary, vocabulary, glossary —The first signifies a great number of words arranged in alphabetical order, and of which the import is attached to each word. The words in a vocabulary do not take this order, nor are they explained in the same way. A glossary is a collection of such words as are rude, barbarous, and but little known, with the signification of each annexed.
Familiar, intimate.-We are familiar with our acquaintance, intimate with our friends. We converse with those with whom we are familiar, we confide in those with whom we are intimate. An exemption from vice is all that we need require in the first; the possession of virtue is requisite in the last.
Clearness, perspicuity-Ce que l'on conçoit bien, says Boileau, s'enonce clairement. To write or speak with clearness, one must have a thorough comprehension of the ideas one endeavours to express. To write with perspicuity, one must unfold these ideas in precise language; in words that are neither deficient in purity or intelligibi lity; that are neither superfluous or ill adapted to the subject, and that follow such an order of arrangement as bring out the sentiment with accuracy, strength, and unity.
Promptitude, celerity, diligence.-Promptitude is displayed in immediately commencing what we are required to perform; celerity, in bringing it to as speedy a termination as possible; and diligence, in adopting the readiest means of doing so. Promptitude admits of no delay, celerity of no interruption, and diligence suffers nothing to escape which it can turn to a good account.We oblige by promptitude, we profit by celerity, we improve by diligence. We should perform good offices with promptitude, transact business with celerity, and advance ourselves in knowledge with diligence.
Lamentations, complaints.-We lament our misfortunes, we complain of our grievances. We lament, and obtain pity; we complain, and obtain redress.
Realise, effect, execute.-Of the hopes that we conceive, few are realised. Of the engagements which we make, not many are effected. Of the designs that we form, the major part can never be
Fable, fiction, allegory.-Both a fable and an allegory are a fiction, because the word imports any thing that is the offspring of the imagination, Thus the fables of Esop and La Fontaine, and the beautiful allegories of the Visions of Mirza and the Mount of Misery, found in the Spectator, are all fictions. A fable and an allegory differ, however, in this, that the former gives speech and reason to brutes, the latter to qualities; and that the first contains some useful moral or satire, and the last some powerful truth.
Letters, epistles-An epistle conveys an idea of something composed with more care than a letter. Thus the person to whom a work is dedicated, is addressed in an epistle dedicatory. But the word epistle is applied with most propriety to the letters of the ancients, written in the dead languages, as the epistles of Cicero, of SeIt is a neca, of Pliny, and of the Apostles. term, however, which usage justifies the application of to some modern compositions, such as imitations of the Letters of Horace, in verse: thus it is proper to say, the epistles of Despréaux,
or of Rousseau.
Fortune, chance.-A man sometimes deter
Sentiment, sensation, perception.-Sentiment originates in the heart, and may be good or bad, lively or languid, low or elevated Sensation arises from something acting upon the senses, and may be painful or pleasing, prolonged or contracted, acute or blunt. Perception is a power of the mind, and extends to every thing capable of awakening an image in the soul.
Frivolous, futile.-That which is frivolous wants solidity, and that which is futile wants consistency. The one is trifling, the other changeable. Thus we say of a pursuit which has no
object, or, at least, none of any importance, that it is frivolous; and of a determination influenced by whim, passion, or opinion, that it is futile.
To guide, to conduct. We guide, by pointing out the path to be pursued; we conduct, by inducing a disposition to pursue it. The preceptor guides his pupil by teaching him to think justly; the parent conducts his child by influencing him to act wisely. The compass guides the mariner, the pilot conducts the ship.
Care, anxiety, solicitude.-Care fetters the mind; it occupies. Anxiety interrupts its tranquillity; it agitates. Solicitude destroys its repose; it absorbs. Care relates to the ordinary objects of life, anxiety to some important event which is pending, and solicitude to something which is continually the object of our desire. A man in business has his cares, a speculator his anxieties, a parent her solicitude.
Fasting, abstinence.-Fasting, is abstaining from food; abstinence, from whatever can gratify the senses. We sometimes fast from choice, we are never abstinent but from principle.
Reformation, reform.-Reformation is always in a state of progression; reform is reformation completed. The reformation of a man has commenced when he has abandoned any of his
vices; but he is not reformed till he has abandoned the whole of them.
Sound of the voice, tone of the voice. We readily know persons or instruments from the sound of their voices. The voice may be soft or harsh, strong or weak, agreeable or disagreeable, but it is always the same, we cannot alter it.The tones of a voice are capable of great variety; they may be high or low, lively or serious, imperious or submissive, as we choose to make them. The sound of the voice does not affect us, but its tones can produce great emotion.
Beatification, canonization.—Both these terms imply the creation of a saint, but with a considerable diversity in the circumstance. In the first, the Pope exercises his authority no farther than by granting to a certain religious order or community, permission to render a particular worship to the person beatified. A canonization is attended with many ceremonies which do not distinguish a beatification, and is solemnized by the Pope himself, who determines the nature of the worship that shall be paid to the saint. This worship is not like that paid to the beatified, confined to a particular order of ecclesiastics, it extends to all who possess the Catholic faith,
[To be continued.]
ON THE CULTURE OF THE SUN-FLOWER, AND ITS ADVANTAGES.
THE Sun-flower of which we intend to treat, is the annual species, Helianthus annuus, Linn. tournesol, or soleil. It was brought from Peru, and first cultivated in England in 1596.
The perennial species, Helianthus multiflorus, was introduced in this country in 1698, and only serves to ornament gardens, but the annual is interesting in itself and of great use in agriculture.
The seeds of this plant are either white, gray, or blackish. These differences in colour do not indicate any in species or varieties. From black seeds, plants are produced which bear white ones, and reciprocally. There are however two varieties of annual sun-flowers which remain constantly the same; that with single stalks, and that, less common, with branching stalks.
distant, and in these rows shallow holes are to be made at a foot distance from each other, in which two seeds must be dropt, and if they both succeed, the most feeble ought to be taken away, and either transplanted or destroyed. The plants, which must be carefully weeded, will grow to the height of six or even nine feet; the stalks are f om six to eight inches in circumference near the ground. It flowers towards the end of August, and the seeds are ripe in the autumn, along with the maize or Indian wheat. Rainy seasons are noxious to these plants; the bottom of the stalk rots in the earth, the leaves dry all at once, the stalk breaks even with the soil, and the plant dies: a few sunshining days stop or retard the progress of this evil.
In the spring, when there is no longer reason to fear any frost, which would kill the young plants, in the first and second week of May, or even later, the seeds are to be sown in a rich and welldunged soil; if many acres are to be sown, the seeds may be scattered at random, and the plants afterwards thinned; but the best way is to set them in regular rows, which should be two feet
The leaves of the sun-flower are an agreeable and abundant aliment for cattle; they may be stripped from the plant successively withou! detriment. After this crop of excellent fodder, follows the plentiful one of the seeds; of which some plants will yield above ten thousand.
The best method of gathering these, is to cut off the pedicle, or foot-stalk, and as the calix is