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would rise on the place where this instrument is Now when this instrument is fixed where it finds fixed, provided there were no evaporation, and no shelter from the winds, the fall of rain can be that none of the rain were absorbed by the earth. || readily estimated, for when the index rises an The simplest rain-gauge consists of a funnel || inch, the depth of rain that has fallen in the area twelve inches in diameter, and a tube connected of the funnel is one-ninth of an inch; consewith it, of wbich the diameter is four inches ; || quently when the index rises nine inches, it will within the funnel and the tube there is an index show that the depth of rain fallen is one inch. which rises by the descent of rain, and floats.
LETTERS ON BOTANY,
FROM A YOUNG LADY TO HER FRIEND.
(Continued from Page 36.]
I have distinguished three yellow pistils amidst
the crowd of authers, but fixed to a green ovary MY DEAR EUGENIA,
that rises with them like a pedestal. Oil is made The common St. John's wort, or hipericum | of the hipericum. perforatum, is almost the only specimen our The knowledge of the virtues of simples is not country offers of the polyadelphia, that is to say, | the less interesting part of the study; and it is stamina divided into several branches. The no true study of them not to explore all their order of this class is the polyandria, on account mysteries. of its stamina being extremely numerous.
My heart feels at this moment a joy, a satis The stem of the common St. John's wort, faction equal to that which spring would prothough round, is ligneous, and little ridges are duce; it is caused by the appearance of nature felt when pressed by the fingers.
beneath a serene sky, it is a moment when the It is remarkable that these ridges are always soul delights to expand, and increases in vigour found under two opposite branches that spring and sensibility. It has the same effect as the from the same stem. As the branches form a dew upon plants, it unfolds them, and renews cross, the ridge from space to space changes its their existence. situation, so as to be always under them at each My dear friend, breathe the pure air of the interval.
country as much as you can; the society of the The leaves of the hipericum are extremely | Naiades and nymphs of the woodsis not so dull porous, which has given it the surname of per. as is imagined; you are worthy of listening to foratum, or porous plant. Its leaves are sessile, their voices. short, round, and narrow, without any notches; they are of a lively green; opposite, and from each of their arm-pits escapes a little peduncle,
LETTER XX. which carries, in the same manner as the branch, six very small and remarkab!y delicate leaves. MY DEAR EUGENIA, This structure must have informed you, iny
Let us occupy ourselves with our favourite friend, that with very small leaves the hipericum | flowers, the recollection of which, during our takes up a great deal of room.
separation, unites our minds. Its branches, from the top of which spring I will to-day take the cock's comb, or Thinantus forth the lowers, with the principal stem higher cristagalli. This little plant is found in abunthan the rest, has the appearance of a column | dance both in our grounds and meadows; the surrounded by numerous flower pots.
husbandman is a great enemy to it; it spreads Its flowers, as well as its stamina and anthers, excessively, and its hard and ligneous stem mixes are yellow, and are disposed in the shape of a with the pasture, and does not nourish the cattle, corymb. The five petals, rolled into a cone, on the contrary, it gives thin hay a bad taste. form the bud, open, flatten, and let out the ends This little flower does not rise very high; its of the stamina. The calyx has five deep divi- | leaves are rather pointed, notched, and of a light sions, each of which supports one of the petals. green; they are single and opposite.
The flowers, supported on a very short petiole, || surround it, and monopolizes the heat of the are tightened towards the stem, and are placed regularly two of a breadth ; towards the summit Let us now examine a mure amiable object, they are one above the other singly, and the the coronilla, coronilla varia, a very pretty little siem is progressively narrower, because the upper papilionacea. flowers open last.
We know that this kind of Aower is generally Each calyx is supported by a floral leaf of a composed of three parts; the standard, which light green, rather thin, notched, and reseinbling serves as a mantle, tightened in the middle, raises the letter V, the upper part of which supports up its two sides; it is rose-coloured. The winys, the stem.
which meet like a bivalve shell, are white, tinged The calyx of the cristagalli is a species of bag with pink. Lastly, the carina, which is equally composed of two concave pieces joined together white. As the season 'advances its extremiiy except at the top; each of these pieces are tight-ll becomes darker, or rather seems so, in leaving ened at their ends, and slit through the middle; || the wings. it is this that gives four divisions to the calyx. The pretended calyx that supports this chefThis species of liitle bladder, supported on a short || d'oeuvre, has four little poin:s raiher than four petiole, is rather swelled, and of a texture similar | divisions; the peduncle is short and reddish. to the silk-worm's egg when the silk is taken This charıning flower rises in the shape of two from it; it is of a light green. On each of these little canopies, one above the other; at the exdivisions are found three principal veins, which tremity of the fluted branch, straight, thin, plain, hare the appearance of little strings and run rather long, and almost always in an horizontal from the top to the perinle; these veins are so direction, you may reckon fifteen, and sometimes ramified in every way, that the texture of the more, of these flowers, attached by their delicate calyx seems of the sanie hue as the Aoral || petiole, in circular forms, to the same point; leaves. It is clothed with very fine imperceptible they are placed so as to make the standard form down.
the upper part. The little comb springs from the opening
The stein of the coronilla is thin and green, it formed by the four divisions; it is a yellow la is however square and futed; opposite eachi biate, but the under part is of a greenish white; | branch of flowers a little one of leaves springs the upper lip is raised like a helmet, on each side forth. One foliole terminates the branch on of which advance two little purple eye-haps; l which all the other folioles are opposed; each of the pistil, whose top is purple, and its imper- them are very green, and extremely delicate. ceptible stigma of a greenish hue, escapes be
Almost all these little branches that bear tween the two eye-flaps, and completes the pro
flowers shoot out from the same side of the jection of the helmet.
stem; and the round bunches they form, disposed The luwer lip, straight, and pointed in the thus by stages, have the appearance of being middle, in approaching the other mouth conceals raised on two parallel vertical lines, very close to its immense size; two little divisions appear on each other; the powers at the top are placed at each side, and form at their base a small plait; a much greater distance. The coronilla is ex. these shade the iwo openings as if by a piece of tremely pretty. This charming production conta pestry spotted with purple.
tains two branches of thin stamina, with little It is delightful to observe all these little mi- l yellow anthers round the pistil. These stamina nutiæ.
consist of about ten, and gives us a sample of the The anthers of the four stamina are each vi- diadelphia decandria. sibly separated, and edged with a white dust. I This little colony is well enveloped in a triple can only compare them to the particles which tent, and the ovary lengthened by the pistil beare sometimes seen in flour. The ovary of the comes, in the shape of a head of garlic, the depot pistil becomes a thick and solid envelope, and of the seeds; this heall becomes very long, and finishes by fulfilling the office of the calyx; this rises in the shape of a curved line. characteristic makes me range my didynamian The coronilla is not a creeping plant, but it plant in the angyospermia order.
willingly attaches itself to any object which raises I should add, that our husbandmen look on it, and lends it strength and grace. It likes a the rhinantus in the fields as an earthly usurper; support, but does not absolutely need one. they say it burns the herbs and plants wbich
(To be continued.)
ON THE ART OF DRAWING.
[Continued from Page 94.]
The beauties of landscape, widely different Garrick who had listened atten:ively, and from those of either portrait or history, are yet viewed the picture with acute penetration, more obvious and engaging to the generality of l, begged leave to offer something in support of spectators; few are insensible to the effect of a
the lady's opinion, which he hoped would conromantic scene agreeably represented, while the vince the company was not altogether erroneous : million are not struck with that confined and de the lady had remarked that there was something licate expression of sentiment, emotion, or pas wanting in the General's countenance; of that sion, which constitutes the superior excellency something he would endeavour to supply an of the epic picture. Every one intuitively per idea. He then placed himself in the attitude so ceives the emotions and intentions of the soul judiciously chosen by the painter, supported by when they agitate the countenance, but, in ge two gentlemen of the company, and displayed Keral, without at:ending to the signs which de. in his own face the exact countenance depicted note the passions sufficiently to know when they by the artist. He then assumed the animated are justly depicted on the canvas. As a proof of expression of that transient rapture which histhis we shall here mention a most interesting | tory records the dying hero felt at the joyaneclote of Mr. Garrick; it places in a strong ful words they run”-“ who runs"-" the point of view liis intimate acquaintance with the French."-He maintained the representation a most secret workings of the human heart, and sufficient length of time for every one present to his complete command of the external signs by compare and feel the astonishing effect of his which the internal emotions and passions of the inimitable performance. A burst of applause soul are expres ed. Mr. West's justly admired followed, which he politely declared was justly picture, the Death of General Wolfe, at once due to the discernment of the lady, who had raised the painter to a summit of reputation un I suggested perhaps the only improvement that altained before, and, affording an ample subject masterly work was susceptible. for the talents of Woollett, laid that foundation A faithful representation of natural objects is of an English school of engraving which brought universally obvious, and never fails to interest the art to its present perfection in this country. and delight, whenever striking and agreeable sub
This affecting picture was exhibited at the ljects are selected. Rural scenes at once inte. Royal Academy. Mr. Garrick went there one resting and delightful, present themselves in morning early, that he might review the Exhibi most extensive variety. Unlimited is the grand tion uninterrupted by the crowd wbich constantly theatre of nature-boundless the scope for imiattended at the fashionable hours. A consider tation-inexhaustible the stores of rich perfection able party was in the room, drawn there at that she profusely displays. Behold the source which hour by the same motive; of this number was a has afforded, throughout ages past, satisfaction young lady, whose personal beauty appeared not the most pure and unfailing to those who happily her only accomplishment. The remarks she contemplated, admired, and imita:ed her promade on many of the pictures shewed a delicate ductions; the fountain which will supply the taste, anil con-iderable knowledge of the arts; most copious and delicate draughts of pleasure they were attended to with pleasure by her to every ingenios mud ull time shall be no friends, and Mr. Garrick, then unknown to most of the company, paid some handsome compli But to relish the pleasure which a picturesque monts to her judgment. The Death of Wolfe view of nature's works can infinitely bestow, the drew the high-st encomiums from every spec eye must be educated ; the untaught sight sees tator; the young lady was particular in her com not every beauty unfolded before us ; unless the mendation, but thought the expression not ab passions are set in motion, attention is not fix. solutely perfect, there was a something wanting ed. Attention is not only necessary to the imin the General's countenance which she could provement of var perspective, but is essential not describe, there was in that countenance a to the operation of all our intellectual faculties. languor too happily expressed. The company Let it however be reinembered, that the human were dissatisfied with this opinion, and her friends mind delights in the exercise of its own powers; appeared concerned on her account.
perpetually active the mind must be, and wliai
ev'r it can exercise the faculties of thought upon, / gage the attention, the result is pleasure, un. affords a most sensible gratification.
alloyed, unembittered; and such are the purHence, when the mind has early been drawn suits to which the field of nature invites us. The towards, and has fixed itself in the contempla- you:hful mind cannot be too early induced to tion or pursuit of any object, the satisfaction felt, take delight in considering and examining her if uninfluenced by prior direction of its powers, || beauties, which are capable of producing the will stimulate the utmost exertion; it will grasp most rational entertainment, and which are usewith eagerness whatever tends to gratify its ful and important, as they affect the convenience, boundles: desires.
comfort, or happiness of mankind. When innocent and laudable pursuits thus en
[To be continued.)
The first chapter contains introductory ex. (CONTINUED FROM VOL. I. P. 602.)
planations of a Thorough-bass in general, of the In the above place it has been shewn how musical scale, and of intervals with their proper important the knowledge of thorough-bass is, classifications. not only for the purpose of learning composition, The second chapter then treats of the fundamen. but also to every person who wishes to become a tal concord or common chord. It begins with an proficient in playing; and how all the former dif-explanation of Mr. K.'s doctrine of chords, in geficulties in teaching and learning it are removed neral, and briefly states that all modern harmony is by a new system of harmony proposed by Mr. reducible to two fundamental chords, the conKollmann, in a treatise entitled, “ A New Theory || cord and the discord. This having been allowed of Musical Harmony,” published last summer. | by a great number of other writers, but never But as that work contains a complete doctrine of been accomplished by any of them without harmony, and consequently many explanations hundreds of arbitrary laws, and an equally great which concern a profound theorist more than | number of rules for exceptions, it will be imthose who study music only as a branch of polite portant to understand the simple and natural education, we confined our former remarks only manner in which it can really be done, according to the outlines of the said new system, and re
to the work before us. served a more particular description of it to the The first of those fundamental chords is that present opportunity, of announcing a more brief generally called the common chord. It consists and familiar work by the same author, which of a bass, with its third and fifth; and consewas then in the press, and is now published, en- quently but of three essential notes or parts, as titled, “ A second practical Guide to Thorough- thus, C, E, G. The gravest of these noies is Bass” This work, being entirely calculated for called the fundamental one, because it is the the use of ladies and amateurs (that part of the foundation to the others, or the generator of public to which this Magazine is particularly them, as has been proved in Mr. K.'s new theory. addressed), we Aatter ourselves that the following
From the said chord arise iwo others, by in. examination of it will not be found uninterest- verting its three notes, so that another note being to our readers.
comes the bass, and the fundamental one becomes In a well written Preface, Mr. K. shews the an upper part, as thus, E, G, C, and G, C, E. nature of his new system, and the particulars in The former is called a chord of the sixth, (or of which it deviates from all the former systems. the third and sixth,) and the latter a chord of the This having been explained in our article before fourth and sixth. But our ear proves, that these quoterl, we need not repeat it here.
chords are of the same consonant or satisfactory A concise list of contents then exhibits the nature, as the fundamental chord from which whole work in an epitome, which we think very they arise, only in a lesser degree, in a similar useful; for it shews not only where every par-manner as they consist of the same notes, only ticular doctrine may be found, but also enables in another order. This is shewn in the third 2 siudeut to form a more distinct general idea of chap?er of the work. the whole, and of the connection between the But in regard to the second and third chapter different chapters than it is easy to form from in connection, it must still be observed, that the the work at large, which is divided into ten common chord and its inversions are allowed on chapters.
every degree of the diatonic scale; and that this No. XV. Vol. II.
produces what are called their natural species, | Theory, page 55, but which has never been alviz. a perfect major common chord, as C, E, G; lowed before, by any other theorist. a perfect minor one, as A, C, E; and an imper The doctrine of chords being thus reduced to fect minor (or diminished) one, as B, D, F, na an astonishing simplicity, and yet explainer comtural, with their inversions. And though the pletely in the strictest sense, it must still be addlast species, or the imperfect common chord, is ed concerning the described six chapters of the disputed by a certain author, Mr. Kollmann, has work, that practices of every sort of chords are sufficiently established it in his new theory, as we so judiciously intermixed with the explanations shall be ready to shew on a future occasion, if of them, as lo render it almost impossible to rerequired.
main unacquainted with the simple theory of The fourth and fifth chapter then explains the them when they are practised, or with the s.cond fundamental chord, being the fundamen- practical use of every decurine when examples tal discord, or chord of the seventh, and its three are immediately annexed to them. inversions, with their different natural species, The four remaining chapters of the work shew in a similar manner as the fundamental concord the use of chords in what is called thorough-bass, and its inversions have been explained. And thus as follows: the doctrine of all the essential chords of modern The seventh chapter treats of the signatures of harmony is completed.
chords, or how they can be most simply and The sixth chapter treats of accidental chords, distinctly expressed by figures and other characcomprehending that vast number of combina. ters over the bass. This is done, first, according tions, which other authors explain as chords by to Mr. Kollmann's own system ; and then rules supposition, by addition, by substitution, by are added, according to which the signatures of suspension, by anticipation, by transition, by other authors may also be understood. The work licence, by exception, and so forth. All those therefore teaches thorough-bass, not merely acchords Mr. Kollmann bring; under the two very cording to the author's own system, like inėse or natural denominations of mere accidental fore-l perlaps all the other treatises, but in such a manner notes, and after-notes, in the essen: ial chords, that a person may not be deprived of the use of and explains thein in so very clear and simple a all those figured basses, which are expressed in manner, that any attentive person may in one another manner than he proposes. lesson comprehend all t!iat belongs to them; In the eighth chapter the progression of chords though a familiar acquaintance with them also is explained, which serves not only to elucidate requires a little practice, in a similar manncr as it more completely what has been taught towards is with learning any simple part of an art or the end of the preceding chapter, but also assists science.
a person in figuring a bass, and in playing exUnder the denomination of accidental chords, I tempore preludes, or short fantasies of his own. also appear the chromatic species of essential This chapter therefore shows what may be called chords, which are shewn to be nothing more the rudiments of modulation, and is particularly chan sharp or Aat extremities of the chords ex remarkable for containing the author's more displained before; and that they make no other tinct and more rational explanation of a natural alteration in the natural progression of a chord, || accompaniment of the bass scale, than is to be than that of filling up the progression of a whole | found in any former treatise on this subject. tone, by the intermediate chromatic semi cone, In the ninth chapter other particulars are exwhich may be taken either berween the two plained which ought to be at:ended to in thorough essential noies, or instead of the first of them. I bass, viz. the number of parts required in every The truth and natural simplicity of this doctrine bar; how high and how low the chords may be becomes particularly striking in that equi-vocal laid; and how a recitative ought to be accom. combination called the chord of the diminished panied. The utility of this chapter also is eviseventh, which consists of a minor third, minor dent. fiftli, and diminished seventh. For when the The tenth chapter concludes the work with Seventh of that chord is naturally minor, its bass practices of the thorough.bass according to all preinay take the progressions of a perfect and of an ceding doctrines, and they are preceded by a page interrupted cadence. And the same progressions of introductory reinarki anal explanations. These it may lake when the seventh is diminished a practices consist in six thorough-bass lessons, seini-tone, because that accidentalsemi-tone only each of two movements, in the form of short anticipates part of the progression which is re sonatas, being figured bassas, with a solo part for spective note must take when natural. From a violin. In whutever point of view these lessons this sinple explanation it follows, that the chord are to be taken, they are beautiful and do the in question may take eight different fundamental same credit to their author as a pra 'tical har. progressions, as Mr. K, has shewn in his New
monist and composer, which all his treatises de