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would rise on the place where this instrument is fixed, provided there were no evaporation, and that none of the rain were absorbed by the earth. The simplest rain-gauge consists of a funnel twelve inches in diameter, and a tube connected with it, of which the diameter is four inches;quently when the index rises nine inches, it will
Now when this instrument is fixed where it finds no shelter from the winds, the fall of rain can be readily estimated, for when the index rises an inch, the depth of rain that has fallen in the area of the funnel is one-ninth of an inch; conse
show that the depth of rain fallen is one inch.
within the funnel and the tube there is an index which rises by the descent of rain, and floats.
LETTERS ON BOTANY,
FROM A YOUNG LADY TO HER FRIEND.
[Continued from Page 36.]
MY DEAR EUGENIA,
THE Common St. John's wort, or hipericum perforatum, is almost the only specimen our country offers of the polyadelphia, that is to say, stamina divided into several branches. The order of this class is the polyandria, on account of its stamina being extremely numerous.
The stem of the common St. John's wort, though round, is ligneous, and little ridges are felt when pressed by the fingers.
It is remarkable that these ridges are always found under two opposite branches that spring from the same stem. As the branches form a cross, the ridge from space to space changes its situation, so as to be always under them at each interval.
The leaves of the hipericum are extremely porous, which has given it the surname of perforatum, or porous plant. Its leaves are sessile, short, round, and narrow, without any notches; they are of a lively green; opposite, and from each of their arm-pits escapes a little peduncle, which carries, in the same manner as the branch, six very small and remarkably delicate leaves.
This structure must have informed you, my friend, that with very small leaves the hipericum || takes up a great deal of room.
Its branches, from the top of which spring forth the flowers, with the principal stem higher than the rest, has the appearance of a column surrounded by numerous flower pots.
Its flowers, as well as its stamina and anthers, are yellow, and are disposed in the shape of a corymb. The five petals, rolled into a cone, form the bud, open, flatten, and let out the ends of the stamina. The calyx has five deep divisions, each of which supports one of the petals.
I have distinguished three yellow pistils amidst the crowd of anthers, but fixed to a green ovary that rises with them like a pedestal. Oil is made of the hipericum.
The knowledge of the virtues of simples is not the less interesting part of the study; and it is no true study of them not to explore all their mysteries.
My heart feels at this moment a joy, a satis faction equal to that which spring would produce; it is caused by the appearance of nature beneath a serene sky, it is a moment when the soul delights to expand, and increases in vigour and sensibility. It has the same effect as the dew upon plants, it unfolds them, and renews their existence.
My dear friend, breathe the pure air of the country as much as you can; the society of the Naiades and nymphs of the woodsis not so dull as is imagined; you are worthy of listening to their voices.
MY DEAR EUGENIA,
flowers, the recollection of which, during our LET us occupy ourselves with our favourite separation, unites our minds.
I will to-day take the cock's comb, or rhinantus cristagalli. This little plant is found in abundance both in our grounds and meadows; the husbandman is a great enemy to it; it spreads excessively, and its hard and ligneous stem mixes with the pasture, and does not nourish the cattle, on the contrary, it gives thin hay a bad taste.
This little flower does not rise very high; its leaves are rather pointed, notched, and of a light green; they are single and opposite.
The flowers, supported on a very short petiole, are tightened towards the stem, and are placed regularly two of a breadth; towards the summit they are one above the other singly, and the stem is progressively narrower, because the upper flowers open last.
Each calyx is supported by a floral leaf of a light green, rather thin, notched, and resembling the letter V, the upper part of which supports the stem.
The calyx of the cristagalli is a species of bag composed of two concave pieces joined together except at the top; each of these pieces are tightened at their ends, and slit through the middle; it is this that gives four divisions to the calyx.This species of little bladder, supported on a short petiole, is rather swelled, and of a texture similar to the silk-worm's egg when the silk is taken from it; it is of a light green. On each of these divisions are found three principal veins, which have the appearance of little strings and run from the top to the petiole; these veins are so ramified in every way, that the texture of the calyx seems of the same hue as the floral leaves. It is clothed with very fine imperceptible
The little comb springs from the opening formed by the four divisions; it is a yellow labiate, but the under part is of a greenish white; the upper lip is raised like a helmet, on each side of which advance two little purple eye-flaps; the pistil, whose top is purple, and its imperceptible stigma of a greenish hue, escapes between the two eye-flaps, and completes the projection of the helmet.
The anthers of the four stamina are each visibly separated, and edged with a white dust. I can only compare them to the particles which are sometimes seen in flour. The ovary of the pistil becomes a thick and solid envelope, and finishes by fulfilling the office of the calyx; this characteristic makes me range my didynamian plant in the angyospermia order.
I should add, that our husbandmen look on the rhinantus in the fields as an earthly usurper; they say it burns the herbs and plants which
The stem of the coronilla is thin and green, it is however square and fluted; opposite each branch of flowers a little one of leaves springs forth. One foliole terminates the branch on which all the other folioles are opposed; each of them are very green, and extremely delicate.
The lower lip, straight, and pointed in the middle, in approaching the other mouth conceals its immense size; two little divisions appear on each side, and form at their base a small plait ; these shade the two openings as if by a piece of tapestry spotted with purple.
Almost all these little branches that bear flowers shoot out from the same side of the stem; and the round bunches they form, disposed thus by stages, have the appearance of being raised on two parallel vertical lines, very close to each other; the flowers at the top are placed at a much greater distance. The coronilla is extremely pretty. This charming production contains two branches of thin stamina, with little
It is delightful to observe all these little mi- yellow anthers round the pistil. These stamina consist of about ten, and gives us a sample of the diadelphia decandria.
This little colony is well enveloped in a triple tent, and the ovary lengthened by the pistil becomes, in the shape of a head of garlic, the depot of the seeds; this head becomes very long, and rises in the shape of a curved line.
The pretended calyx that supports this chefd'oeuvre, has four little points rather than four divisions; the peduncle is short and reddish.
This charming flower rises in the shape of two little canopies, one above the other; at the extremity of the fluted branch, straight, thin, plain, rather long, and almost always in an horizontal direction, you may reckon fifteen, and sometimes more, of these flowers, attached by their delicate petiole, in circular forms, to the same point; they are placed so as to make the standard form the upper part.
The coronilla is not a creeping plant, but it willingly attaches itself to any object which raises it, and lends it strength and grace. It likes a support, but does not absolutely need one.
[To be continued.]
ON THE ART OF DRAWING.
[Continued from Page 94 ]
Garrick who had listened attentively, and viewed the picture with acute penetration, begged leave to offer something in support of the lady's opinion, which he hoped would convince the company was not altogether erroneous: the lady had remarked that there was something wanting in the General's countenance; of that something he would endeavour to supply an idea. He then placed himself in the attitude so judiciously chosen by the painter, supported by two gentlemen of the company, and displayed in his own face the exact countenance depicted by the artist. He then assumed the animated expression of that transient rapture which history records the dying hero felt at the joyful words "they run"-" who runs"-" the French."-He maintained the representation a sufficient length of time for every one present to compare and feel the astonishing effect of his inimitable performance. A burst of applause followed, which he politely declared was justly due to the discernment of the lady, who had suggested perhaps the only improvement that masterly work was susceptible.
THE beauties of landscape, widely different from those of either portrait or history, are yet more obvious and engaging to the generality of spectators; few are insensible to the effect of a romantic scene agreeably represented, while the million are not struck with that confined and delicate expression of sentiment, emotion, or passion, which constitutes the superior excellency of the epic picture. Every one intuitively perceives the emotions and intentions of the soul when they agitate the countenance, but, in general, without attending to the signs which denote the passions sufficiently to know when they are justly depicted on the canvas. As a proof of this we shall here mention a most interesting anecdote of Mr. Garrick; it places in a strong point of view his intimate acquaintance with the most secret workings of the human heart, and his complete command of the external signs by which the internal emotions and passions of the soul are expressed. Mr. West's justly admired picture, the Death of General Wolfe, at once raised the painter to a summit of reputation unattained before, and, affording an ample subject for the talents of Woollett, laid that foundation of an English school of engraving which brought the art to its present perfection in this country.
A faithful representation of natural objects is universally obvious, and never fails to interest and delight, whenever striking and agreeable sub
This affecting picture was exhibited at thejects are selected. Rural scenes at once inteRoyal Academy. Mr. Garrick went there one morning early, that he might review the Exhibition uninterrupted by the crowd which constantly attended at the fashionable hours. A considerable party was in the room, drawn there at that hour by the same motive; of this number was a young lady, whose personal beauty appeared not her only accomplishment. The remarks she made on many of the pictures shewed a delicate taste, and considerable knowledge of the arts; they were attended to with pleasure by her friends, and Mr. Garrick, then unknown to most of the company, paid some handsome compliments to her judgment. The Death of Wolfe drew the highest encomiums from every spectator; the young lady was particular in her commendation, but thought the expression not absolutely perfect, there was a something wanting in the General's countenance which she could not describe, there was in that countenance a languor too happily expressed. The company were dissatisfied with this opinion, and her friends appeared concerned on her account.
resting and delightful, present themselves in most extensive variety. Unlimited is the grand theatre of nature-boundless the scope for imitation-inexhaustible the stores of rich perfection she profusely displays. Behold the source which has afforded, throughout ages past, satisfaction the most pure and unfailing to those who happily contemplated, admired, and imitated her productions; the fountain which will supply the most copious and delicate draughts of pleasure to every ingenious mind till time shall be no
But to relish the pleasure which a picturesque view of nature's works can infinitely bestow, the eye must be educated; the untaught sight sees not every beauty unfolded before us; unless the passions are set in motion, attention is not fixed. Attention is not only necessary to the improvement of var perspective, but is essential to the operation of all our intellectual faculties. Let it however be remembered, that the human mind delights in the exercise of its own powers; perpetually active the mind must be, and what
Hence, when the mind has early been drawn towards, and has fixed itself in the contemplation or pursuit of any object, the satisfaction felt, if uninfluenced by prior direction of its powers, will stimulate the utmost exertion; it will grasp with eagerness whatever tends to gratify its boundless desires.
ever it can exercise the faculties of thought upon,|| gage the attention, the result is pleasure, un affords a most sensible gratification. alloyed, unembittered; and such are the pursuits to which the field of nature invites us. The youthful mind cannot be too early induced to take delight in considering and examining her beauties, which are capable of producing the most rational entertainment, and which are useful and important, as they affect the convenience, comfort, or happiness of mankind. [To be continued.]
When innocent and laudable pursuits thus en
(CONTINUED FROM VOL. I. P. 602.)
In the above place it has been shewn how important the knowledge of thorough-bass is, not only for the purpose of learning composition, but also to every person who wishes to become a proficient in playing; and how all the former difficulties in teaching and learning it are removed by a new system of harmony proposed by Mr. Kollmann, in a treatise entitled, “A New Theory of Musical Harmony," published last summer.by a great number of other writers, but never
The second chapter then treats of the fundamen tal concord or common chord. It begins with an explanation of Mr. K.'s doctrine of chords, in general, and briefly states that all modern harmony is reducible to two fundamental chords, the concord and the discord. This having been allowed
been accomplished by any of them without hundreds of arbitrary laws, and an equally great number of rules for exceptions, it will be important to understand the simple and natural manner in which it can really be done, according to the work before us.
The first of those fundamental chords is that generally called the common chord. It consists
But as that work contains a complete doctrine of harmony, and consequently many explanations which concern a profound theorist more than those who study music only as a branch of polite education, we confined our former remarks only to the outlines of the said new system, and reserved a more particular description of it to the present opportunity, of announcing a more brief and familiar work by the same author, which of a bass, with its third and fifth; and consewas then in the press, and is now published, en-quently but of three essential notes or parts, as titled, "A second practical Guide to Thorough-thus, C, E, G. The gravest of these notes is Bass" This work, being entirely calculated for called the fundamental one, because it is the the use of ladies and amateurs (that part of the foundation to the others, or the generator of public to which this Magazine is particularly them, as has been proved in Mr. K.'s new theory. addressed), we flatter ourselves that the following From the said chord arise two others, by inexamination of it will not be found uninterest-verting its three notes, so that another note being to our readers. comes the bass, and the fundamental one becomes an upper part, as thus, E, G, C, and G, C, E. The former is called a chord of the sixth, (or of the third and sixth,) and the latter a chord of the fourth and sixth. But our ear proves, that these chords are of the same consonant or satisfactory nature, as the fundamental chord from which they arise, only in a lesser degree, in a similar manner as they consist of the same notes, only in another order. This is shewn the third chapter of the work.
But in regard to the second and third chapter in connection, it must still be observed, that the common chord and its inversions are allowed on every degree of the diatonic scale; and that this U
In a well written Preface, Mr. K. shews the nature of his new system, and the particulars in which it deviates from all the former systems. This having been explained in our article before quoted, we need not repeat it here.
A concise list of contents then exhibits the whole work in an epitome, which we think very useful; for it shews not only where every particular doctrine may be found, but also enables a student to form a more distinct general idea of the whole, and of the connection between the different chapters than it is easy to form from the work at large, which is divided into ten chapters.
No. XV. Vol. II.
The first chapter contains introductory ex planations of a Thorough-bass in general, of the musical scale, and of intervals with their proper classifications.
produces what are called their natural species, || Theory, page 55, but which has never been alviz. a perfect major common chord, as C, E, G;|| lowed before, by any other theorist.
a perfect minor one, as A, C, E; and an imperfect minor (or diminished) one, as B, D, F, natural, with their inversions. And though the last species, or the imperfect common chord, is disputed by a certain author, Mr. Kollmann, has sufficiently established it in his new theory, as we shall be ready to shew on a future occasion, if required.
The fourth and fifth chapter then explains the second fundamental chord, being the fundamental discord, or chord of the seventh, and its three inversions, with their different natural species, in a similar manner as the fundamental concord and its inversions have been explained. And thus the doctrine of all the essential chords of modern harmony is completed.
The sixth chapter treats of accidental chords, comprehending that vast number of combinations, which other authors explain as chords by supposition, by addition, by substitution, by suspension, by anticipation, by transition, by licence, by exception, and so forth. All those chords Mr. Kollmann brings under the two very natural denominations of mere accidental forenotes, and after-notes, in the essential chords, and explains them in so very clear and simple a manner, that any attentive person may in one lesson comprehend all that belongs to them; though a familiar acquaintance with them also requires a little practice, in a similar manner as it is with learning any simple part of an art or science.
Under the denomination of accidental chords, also appear the chromatic species of essential chords, which are shewn to be nothing more than sharp or flat extremities of the chords explained before; and that they make no other alteration in the natural progression of a chord, than that of filling up the progression of a whole tone, by the intermediate chromatic semi tone, which may be taken either between the two essential notes, or instead of the first of them. The truth and natural simplicity of this doctrine becomes particularly striking in that equi-vocal combination called the chord of the diminished seventh, which consists of a minor third, minor fifth, and diminished seventh. For when the seventh of that chord is naturally minor, its bass pay take the progressions of a perfect and of an interrupted cadence. And the same progressions it may take when the seventh is diminished a semi-tone, because that accidental semi-tone only anticipates part of the progression which is respective note must take when natural. From this simple explanation it follows, that the chord in question may take eight different fundamental progressions, as Mr. K. has shewn in his New
The doctrine of chords being thus reduced to an astonishing simplicity, and yet explained completely in the strictest sense, it must still be added concerning the described six chapters of the work, that practices of every sort of chords are so judiciously intermixed with the explanations of them, as to render it almost impossible to temain unacquainted with the simple theory of them when they are practised, or with the practical use of every doctrine when examples are immediately annexed to them.
The four remaining chapters of the work shew the use of chords in what is called thorough-bass, as follows:
The seventh chapter treats of the signatures of chords, or how they can be most simply and distinctly expressed by figures and other characters over the bass. This is done, first, according to Mr. Kollmann's own system; and then rules are added, according to which the signatures of other authors may also be understood. The work therefore teaches thorough-bass, not merely ac cording to the author's own system, like inest or perhaps all the other treatises,but in such a manner that a person may not be deprived of the use of all those figured basses, which are expressed in another manner than he proposes.
In the eighth chapter the progression of chords is explained, which serves not only to elucidate more completely what has been taught towards the end of the preceding chapter, but also assists a person in figuring a bass, and in playing extempore preludes, or short fantasies of his own. This chapter therefore shows what may be called the rudiments of modulation, and is particularly remarkable for containing the author's more distinct and more rational explanation of a natural accompaniment of the bass scale, than is to be found in any former treatise on this subject.
In the ninth chapter other particulars are explained which ought to be attended to in thorough bass, viz. the number of parts required in every bar; how high and how low the chords may be laid; and how a recitative ought to be accompanied. The utility of this chapter also is evident.
The tenth chapter concludes the work with practices of the thorough-bass according to all preceding doctrines, and they are preceded by a page of introductory remarks and explanations. These practices consist in six thorough-bass lessons, each of two movements, in the form of short sonatas, being figured basses, with a solo part for a violin. In whatever point of view these lessons are to be taken, they are beautiful and do the same credit to their author as a pra tical harmonist and composer, which all his treatises do