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seuing the imagination in play by the urgency of great monkey, that we should build pagods to our wanis, and the passions by the imagination, her! produces that increased sociability, that more The beautiful Lili skipped along the flowery refined sensibility, that elevation of the feelings path in which a voluptuous passion led her, reand active energies, whereby the circle of our gardless of the menaces of the one, or the cautions pleasures is enlarged, and our capacity for re of the other. She enjoyed the satisfaction of be. joicing in existence, is at once increased with ing the object of the love and adoration of the our desires ? Let us therefore follow Nature, a whole nation. Fanned by winged loves and joys, conductress who cannot lead us wrong. It is not she shed around her, as far as her view could she, but our impatience, our greediness of enjoy-reach, transports and bliss, and sweet oblivion ment, our inattention to her warnings, that lead of every care. In this she seemed to find her us astray. Every higher step to which mankind | own full pleasure. But her bounty extended advance, requires another method of life ; and only to the present moment. Her dissolution therefore because the great mass of mortals are imperceptibly became that of the whole nation, to be regarded as infants, who know not how to which the more easily happened, as no other is govern themselves, this office must be consigned || more natural to man. Life was enjoyed, and to a legislative power, capable of surveying the no one bestowed a thought on the future. whole, and prescribing rules of conduct adapted I love this Lili, exclaimed the Sultan, in a tone to every remarkable alteration in their circum- of vivacity that had not been observed in him for stances. Long live the beautiful Lili! She has a long time past. I must be better acquainted acquired a claim to our gratitude ; for she has with her. Good night, Mirza and Danishmende, done us good. But if she now should please to Nurmahal shall stay to give me the picture of give us as complete a police, as is necessary for the beautiful Lili. preserving her gifts from being pernicious, then
[To be continued.] she certainly deserves, at least as much as the
ON THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE;
RULES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF EPISTOLARY COMPOSITION.
Society being dependent on an interchange || writers, through inattention to their phraseology, of ideas, it is of the utmost importance that we have committed. should cultivate the art of unfolding them with A knowledge of the due import of words, is accuracy. If we attain not this art, we store our one of the first steps towards the attainment of minds with valuable knowledge to little purpose; perspicuity, accuracy, and elegance in epistolary for one of the greatest pleasures and the principal composition. There are in the English, as in advan'ages of society, arises from the cominuni- every other language, a number of words, termed cation of what we have acquired by it. It is synonymes, which have some resemblance to each not always suficient that we have a clear con other, and agree in expressing a leading idea, ception of what we would make others under- but express it under some diversity of circumstand; to succeed in transfusing our ideas into stances which render an indiscriminate applicathe mind of another, we must know how to ex tion of them very improper. Every word in our press them by appropriate words, and by such an language has a limited and determined significaarrangement as renders it impossible for them to tion, and whenever it is used to express more or be mistaken.
less than this sense, or to express an idea that It is a common error to believe that every thing differs from it, precision is violated. essential to a correct phraseology is comprised Words may be ill chosen from three causes. in the rules of grammar; but style may be regu. They may not express the idea we wish to conlated by the purest grammatical rules, and yet bevey, they may express it, but not in its fullest so loose and ill connected, so obscure, embar-extent, and they may express all that we mean, rassed, and inelegant, as to offend against the and something more than we mean. An example fundamental laws of composition. This will be will make this understood. made apparent by the following remarks and They may not express the idea we wish to illustration, the later of which exhibit some convey.-When an author speaks of his hero's great inaccuracies that certain distinguished courage in the day of battle, the expression is pro
cise, and we understand it fully: but if, from a disdain, on the low opinion which we have of desire of multiplying words, he should praise his others. courage and fortitude; at the moment he joins Durable, constant. That which is durable does these words rogether, our ideas begin to wiver. not cease; that which is constant does not He means to express one quality more strongly, change The friendship of a virtuous man is but he is in truth expressing two : courage re durable, and he is constant in giving proofs of sists danger : fortitude supports pain. The oc. it. casion of exerting each of these qualities is dif Wisdom, prudence. Wisdom leads us to speak ferent ; and being led to think of both together, and act what is most proper; prudence prevents when only one of them sh uld be considered, our our speaking or acting improperly. view is rendered unsteady, and our conception of Entire, complete. A thing is entire by want. the object indistinct.
ing none of its parts; complete, by wanting none To be precise, signifies that we fully express of its appendages. the idea we wish to convey and nothing more. To imitate, to counterfeit. We imitate from To wish or to speak, therefore, with precision, admiration; we counterfeit for amusement.we must pay a strict attention to the specific | We imitate a particular style of painting, and meaning of the words. The following instances may improve upon it; we counterfeit the voice, show a difference in the import of many words or the manners of another, and to succeed we that are synonymous.
must be exact. Το arow, to acknowledge, 10 confess. The The foregoing instances show the utility of synonomy of these words consist in their agree-i paying attention to the distinct import of words. ing to express some truth; the distinction be- | The next thing to be considered is the arrangetween them is marked by he difference of the ment of them. As the grammar of our language circumstances under which the declaration is is comparatively not extensive, there may be an made. We avow what we are not unwilling | obscure order of words, where there is no transshould be known, we acknowledge an error, and i gression of any grammatical rule. The relation e confess a crime.
of words, or members of a sentence, are, with us, Surprized, astonished, amazed, confounded. We ascertained only by the position in which they are surprized with what is new and unexpected; stand. Hence a capital rule in the structure of we are astonished at what is vast or great; we language is, that the words, or members most are amazed at what is incomprehensible; we are clearly related, should be placed in the sentence confounded by what is shocking or terrible. as near to each other as possible, so as to make
Custom, habit. Custom respects the action; their mutual relation clearly appear. The im. habit the actor. By custom, we mean the fre-l portance of this rule will appear from the followquent reperition of the same act; by habit, the ing instances of faulty arringement; but in order effect which that repetition produces on the more clearly to determine the proper application mind or body. By the custom of walking often of it, what is meant by a member of a sentence in the streets we acquire a habit of idleness. must be explained. A sentence, or period, is
Difference, inequality, disparity. Difference | what extends from one full stop to another; a marks a distinction in kind; thus we say dif
member is what runs from one rest, or pause, to ferent animals, different plants. Inequality re
another. lates to number, and disparity to qualities. There is a great difference between men and brutes; a great inequality in the population of different places; and a great disparity in the cha “ By greatness,” says Mr. Addison, “ I do not racter and talents of the human race.
only mean the bulk of any single object, but the Only, alone. Only, imports that there is no largeness of a whole view.” From the improper other of the same kind; alone, imports being place in which the adverb only stands in this accompanied by no other. An only child, is sentence, the question may be put-what does one that has neither brother nor sister ; a child he mean more? The arrangement would have alone, is one who is left by itself There is a il been equally faulty is the adverb had followed difference, therefore, in precise language, be the word bulk, as, “ I do not mean the bulk tween these two phrases, “ virtue only makes us only;" for it might then have been inferred that happy,” and “ virtue alone makes us nappy;" he meant iis shape also, or its colour, or some the first phrase imports that nothing but virile other property which is possessed. As the word can make us happy; the last, that virtue itself object is what the adverb relates to, this last is happiness.
should have stood thus:-" By greatness I do Haugh'iness, disdain. Haughtiness is founded not mean the bulk of any single object only;" on the high opinion we entertain of ourselves; for then if we ask, “what else does he mean?
EXAMPLES OF ILL ARRANGED WORDS AND
the answer comes out as the author intended, different senses, according as the emphasis in the largeness of a whole view."
reading them, is laid upon liberty, or upon at least “Theism can only be opposed to polytheism, The words should have been thus arranged :or atheism.” Is it meant that theism capable “ The Romans understood liberty as well, at of nothing else besides being opposed to poly- least, as we;" for as the adverb stands in the theism, or atheism? This is what the words first sentence, we may suppose, either that if the literally import, through the wrong placing of Romans understood nothing else as well as us, the adverb only. It should have been, “Theism || they understood liberty as well, if not better; or can be opposed only to polytheism or alheism.” simply, that their knowledge of liberty was
“ The Romans understood liberty, at least, as equal, or superior to ours. well as we.” These words are capable of two
[To be continued.]
THE LADIES' TOILETTE; or ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BEAUTY,
(Continued from Vol. I. Page 383.]
OTREBLY and quadruply cursed be the un- | wind that blows nobody profit;" and here this lucky Spaniard who, walking abroad one fine proverb may be very happily applied. Were morning in Jucutan, * discovered that famous snuff productive of no other advantage than that plant froin which was made the black and filthy of having excited, at its origin, a long civil war powder which came and widened the noses of among physicians, this service ought to come our belles, sullied the purity of their breath, and pensate, in some measure, for the disagreeable added to the disgusting tax of a frequent emunc- sensations it has since occasioned. tion.
When the use of snuff began to gain ground, Cursed be the ambassador, Jean Nicut, who all the physicians declared either for or against gave his name to tobacco, and who imagined that this new sternutátory, and more than a hundred he was making a valuable present to a powerful volumes were written by both sides on this subqueen, by sending her his adopted daughter, the ilject. The sage doctors forgot even their favourite youag Nicotana, who, proud of having raised facianus experimentum, and were wholly intent herself to the nasal ,ducts of Catharine de Mc-on supporting to the last drop of their ink, the dicis, and of having irritated the pituitary mein- i opinion they had thought fit to adopt in this brane of a royal nose, then assumed the pompous celebrated dispute. How many patients were appellation of the Queen Plant. +
indebted for their recovery 10 this lucky armia Cursed be also that grand-prior of France, and tice! At length the contest ended; the medical those two cardinals who contested the ridiculous men were tired of waging war with each other, honour of perpetuating their memory by giving they returned to their functions, and fell to work their name to this royal powder.
again upon their patients. Snuff came off vico Of all the fashions invented by caprice, none torious, and it was soon in general use. is more ignoble than that of taking snuff, which I shall not here pursue the history of snuff, was so universally practised.
which would, however, be a curious subject ; We must not, however, deprive snuff of an I must say, to the honour of our ladies, that for honour to which it is justly entitled ; let us be some years they have almost relinquished the impartial, and acknowledge that there is nothing || practice of taking it. As every thing, however, but what is productive of some little benefit. depends on fashion, should it please that omniThe wisdom of nations has said, "r 'Tis an ill potent deity to revive this disgusting custom, we
should soon again see it becoine general. Nay, A province of Terra Firma. This was about it is ever said that we are threatened with sucii the year 1520.
a circumstance; the women have lately begun + Catharine of Medicis was desirous of giving to carry very small boxes which they denominate ber name to tobacco, and that it should be called | demi-journées. Dledicea; but she could not accomplish her
Must then the most ridiculous abuses be rewish.
.newed at certain periods? Have we not heard Na. XIII. Vol. II.
declamations enough against the use of snuff! of every age, by the testimony of all nations If the ancients held in such abhorrence women thal the luxury of women destroys population, who used a handkerchief in their presence, what private happiness, and the harmony of families ; would they have said of those that took snuff, that it undermines public morals, nay, even had the practice then existed ? Is it still neces overturns the fundamental constitutions of emsary at the present day to employ the weapons pires, and at length effects their total subversion. of ridicule against this filthy preparation ? This truth must justify the conclusion, that
supposing general luxury ought to be encou
raged, the luxury of women ought to be rigidly CHAP. VIII.
resirained by the laws.
My conclusion will appear extremely severe ; Of the Lurury of Women.
it is but just if the proposition from which I de
duce it be true. Let us exainine whether this is " Le superliu, chose si necessaire,
the cae. A reuni l'un et l'autre hemisphère."
Luxury is inimical to the real destination of This humorous idea of Voltaire is certainly women; the exorbitant expence required by the fully justined by modern manners. Luxury has | refined elegancies of the toilette deters men, and become so general that we may assert, without especially such as have any prudence, from fear of being thought paradoxical, that super. || thinking of a serious establishment, which most fluity is now an object of the first necessity. Are frequently presents to their view no other prowe on this account the more happy? How spect than the shameful waste of their fortune. unany actually stint themselves of real necessaries The young man, then, who is about to try the in order to display in appearance a small portion uncertain chance of a legal union, seeks a wise of this so necessary superfluity!
whose fortune may, in some measure, indemnify When I observed in a former chapter, that a
him before hand for future expence. Money, taste for dress is natural and commendable in the therefore, becomes the only merit; money coinsex, every reader must be aware, that I was not pensates for figure, talents, and loveliness. alluding to luxury in dress. As natural as taste Beauty, adieu! adieu, ye native graces! adieu, and the coquetry of dress are in the sex whose ye mild and amiable virtues ! ye are now but an principal destination is to please, so widely dif- empty name! adieu, ye endearments of love! ferent is luxury from the object which nature no longer are ye the bond of union between two has proposed to herself.
youthful hearts! Love! what do I say? The It is luxury that awakens in the bosom of the brisk coquette who reads this word, shrugs her youthful fernale new desires, wants that are not shoulders with contempt, and laughs at the arowed by nature. It is luxury that banishes Gothic author who would thus couple love and from her mind the image of the man she loves, matrimony. “ As if love,” she will exclaim, in favour of another for whom she feels none of “had any thing to do with the choice of a husthose tender sentiments that would constitute his band! for my part, if I ever marry, give me a happiness : the former, it is true, has given the man with ple of money; I will always be power of language to her heart; the latter has fond enough of him if he complies with all my done more, he has imposed silence on her virtue, fancies. What a charming thing it is 10 have and gold has obtained what she could have re elegant apartments, a fashionable chariot, and fuse to love. Luxury is therefore the first seed rich jewel.; to display continual variety in dress, of corruption, especially in the lower and most to humble allone's rivals by superior splendor and numerous class of society. This truth is so evi- | magnificence!" Which of us has not repeatedly dent that I have no occasion to enlarge farther heard this kind of language! Such is the way
of thinking of the sex in the ages of luxury. Much has been written both for and against Accordingly, it is in the ages of luxury that luxury, but the reader must not expect me marriage sinks into contempt; that the conto repeat here the different arguments ad- jugal union becomes more rare; nay, even that vanced by its enemies or by its partizans. I shall the man who has entered into this contract dreads adopt, with respect to luxury, the system that is the fruit it may produce, and that what ought to approved by each; I will not side either with its
be its highest pleasure is converted into a deenemies or with its partizans. I am, therefore, precated scourge. Thus luxury is the bane of ready to admit with the latter, is they please, that posterity. luxury is essential to the prosperity of great states, In proportion as marriage becomes more rare, though in my own inind I am not convinced of
we witness the multiplication of that class of the truth of the position. But I shall state one useless females who take not even the trouble grand truth, a truth confirmed by the experience to throw the veil of illusion over the false de.
lighits which we seek to enjoy in their company. were the luxury of women rigidly restrained by Sterile priestesses of love; each of their sacrifices the laws. to Venus is a robbery commi'ted on population. But, it may be asked, why should luxury in Thus the indolent fis, without benefit to herself, the fair sex alone be the object of such pointed plunders the calix of the flower of that precious censure? Why, because among them it makes dust with which the industrious bee would have
such rapid progress, which nothing is able w produced honey.
check, as the history of the luxury of the Roman But if the fortune of the husband is inade- || ladies evinces; because in women, no consideraquate to the devouring luxury of his beloved
linn whatever can stem the de:tructive torrent of half, need I describe the irregularities, the in- | their desires; because women who have once trigues, the corruption that ensues; need I paint | launched out into the career of pleasure, never the honor of the wife eclipsed by insatiable ava set bounds to it; ever running into extrenies, rice, the departure of happiness, the introduction they would consume in an instant the fortune of of misunderstanding and discord, with all the ten families, witness Cleopatra. evils that accompany them, into the bosom of Why, because women are never satisfied, and the family? Let us draw the curtain over this because the pleasures of luxury, like all others, picture, unfortunately too faithful, of female | fatigue without satiating them. luxury.
Why, because the luxury with which they But this is not all. Women are seducing, are environed, gives them an influence too they are ariful; we are weak, we love them in powerful, an infuence invariably pernicious to spite of their faults. When lore is extinguished all that surround them. in the bosom of man, self-love still survives; he But how is luxury to he repressed? By sumpis desirous of having a handsome wife not always tuary laws which should permit the higher classes because he loves her, but because she is hand alone to make use of the most costly substances? some. Such is the empire which woman exer By no means; the great number of laws which cises over our sex. With many men the pos
have been made to that effect are sufficient evi. session of a beautiful woman is a glory even after dence of their inutility. To allow articles of it has ceased to be a pleasure. Thus they still luxury to the great, to confer a merit on such continue to pay the same tribute of homage to objects, and to double their value in the eyes of their charms, only under another name. But in the multitude. It was not by such a measure an age when women are spendthrifts, what must that Zaleucus checked the inordinate luxury of that man do who is solicitous to captivate them? | the Locrians, but by prohibiting superfluities The answer is easy,-he must spend immense among the most distinguished persons in the sums of money. Thus man himself will be led state. By his laws no woman of rank could be to sacrifice every thing to the thirst of gold, since attended by more than one slave, unless she was gold alone can procure him all the objects of his intoxicated; he allowed ornaments of gold and desires.
embroidery to be worn only by courtezans, and Hence springs that avidity for wealth, so fatal rings by men notorious for depravity. These to every other species of merit; hence the credit, laws produced all the effect that could be wished, the honours, the consideration, and even the whereas the numerous statutes of our kings on esteem so prodigally bestowed upon riches; this subject have tended only to excite the cupibence the bad faith of the merchant, the dupli- || dity and desire of possessing the brilliant vanities city of the statesman, the partiality of the judge, if that they designed to prohibit. I could enlarge the intrigues of the fictious, the hardilood of still more on this subject, but I dare not. It is the conspirator ; hence all the abuses, all the not always adviseable to cry out against abuses. crimes that desolate society, disturb order, and How many are there who subsist by them! and corrupt the whole mass of the nation. It is the with such the feelings of private interest are always thirst of gold, very often combined with the de too powerful for that of public benefit. I shall sire of presenting it to an ambitious and intriguing therefore leave all those gentlemen at rest, and woman, that gives action to the arm of the that I may not disturb their repose, I shall traitor, that whets tlie dagger of the assassin quietly terminate this chapter. How many crimes would never le coinmitted
(To be continucil.)